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1.
J Hosp Med ; 17(3): 186-191, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504577

RESUMO

This survey study aimed to provide a contemporary appraisal of advanced practice provider (APP) practice and to summarize perceptions of the benefits and challenges of integrating APPs into adult academic hospital medicine (HM) groups. We surveyed leaders of academic HM groups. We received responses from 43 of 86 groups (50%) surveyed. Thirty-four (79%) reported that they employed APPs. In most groups (85%), APPs were reported to perform daily tasks of patient care, including rounding and documentation. Less than half of the groups reported that APPs had completed HM-specific postgraduate training. The reported benefits of APPs included improved perceived quality of care and greater volume of patients that could be seen. Reported challenges included training requirements and support for new hires. Further investigation is needed to determine which APP team structures deliver the highest quality care. There may be a role for expanding standardized competency-based postgraduate training for APPs planning to practice HM.


Assuntos
Medicina Hospitalar , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Adulto , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Front Psychol ; 13: 687849, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529565

RESUMO

Objective: Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are eating disorders (EDs) characterized by recurrent binge eating (BE) episodes. Overlap exists between ED diagnostic groups, with BE episodes presenting one clinical feature that occurs transdiagnostically. Neuroimaging of the responses of those with BN and BED to disorder-specific stimuli, such as food, is not extensively investigated. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there have been no previous published studies examining the neural response of individuals currently experiencing binge eating, to low energy foods. Our objective was to examine the neural responses to both low energy and high energy food images in three emotive categories (disgust; fear; and happy) in BN and BED participants. Methods: Nineteen females with BN (n = 14) or BED (n = 5), comprising the binge eating group (BEG; N = 19), and 19 age-matched healthy control (HC)'s completed thorough clinical assessment prior to functional MRI (fMRI). Neural response to low energy and high energy foods and non-food images was compared between groups using whole-brain exploratory analyses, from which six regions of interest (ROI) were then selected: frontal, occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes; insula and cingulate. Results: In response to low energy food images, the BEG demonstrated differential neural responses to all three low energy foods categories (disgust; fear; and happy) compared to HCs. Correlational analyses found a significant association between frequency of binge episodes and diminished temporal lobe and greater occipital lobe response. In response to high energy food images, compared to HC's, the BEG demonstrated significantly decreased neural activity in response to all high energy food images. The HC's had significantly greater neural activity in the limbic system, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, frontal lobe, and limbic system in response to high energy food images. Conclusion: Results in the low energy food condition indicate that binge frequency may be related to increased aberrant neural responding. Furthermore, differences were found between groups in all ROI's except the insula. The neural response seen in the BEG to disgust food images may indicate disengagement with this particular stimuli. In the high energy food condition, results demonstrate that neural activity in BN and BED patients may decrease in response to high energy foods, suggesting disengagement with foods that may be more consistent with those consumed during a binge eating episode.

4.
Br J Sociol ; 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35451499

RESUMO

Sociologists have long been interested in the meaning workers derive from their jobs. The issue has garnered increasing academic and policy attention in recent years with the concept of "meaningful work," yet little is known about how social stratification relates to access to it. This paper addresses this issue by exploring how the meaningfulness of jobs-as rated by their incumbents-is stratified across classes and occupations in a national survey of 14,000 working adults in the United Kingdom. It finds modest differentials between classes, with those in routine and manual occupations reporting the lowest levels of meaningfulness and those in managerial and professional occupations and small employers and own account workers reporting the highest levels. Detailed job attributes (e.g., job complexity and development opportunities) explain much of the differences in meaningfulness between classes and occupations, and much of the overall variance in meaningfulness. The main exception is the specific case of how useful workers perceive their jobs to be for society: A handful of occupations relating to health, social care, and protective services which cut across classes stand out from all other occupations. The paper concludes that the modest stratification between classes and occupations in meaningful work is largely due to disparities in underlying job complexity and development opportunities. The extent to which these aspects of work can be improved, and so meaningfulness, especially in routine and manual occupations, is an open, yet urgent, question.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267322, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476717

RESUMO

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the proportion of Arkansas residents who were infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus between May and December 2020 and to assess the determinants of infection. To estimate seroprevalence, a state-wide population-based random-digit dial sample of non-institutionalized adults in Arkansas was surveyed. Exposures were age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, occupation, contact with infected persons, comorbidities, height, and weight. The outcome was past COVID-19 infection measured by serum antibody test. We found a prevalence of 15.1% (95% CI: 11.1%, 20.2%) by December 2020. Seropositivity was significantly elevated among participants who were non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic (prevalence ratio [PRs]:1.4 [95% CI: 0.8, 2.4] and 2.3 [95% CI: 1.3, 4.0], respectively), worked in high-demand essential services (PR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.5, 4.1]), did not have a college degree (PR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.0, 2.4]), had an infected household or extra-household contact (PRs: 4.7 [95% CI: 2.1, 10.1] and 2.6 [95% CI: 1.2, 5.7], respectively), and were contacted in November or December (PR: 3.6 [95% CI: 1.9, 6.9]). Our results indicate that by December 2020, one out six persons in Arkansas had a past SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391714

RESUMO

Early in the COVID-19 vaccine rollout, Black adults consistently reported more hesitancy than White adults, but few studies have examined variation in hesitancy among Black adults or its associations with racial discrimination. Data were collected from Black Arkansas residents age 18 and older (n = 350) between July 12th and July 30th, 2021, as part of a larger survey of Arkansans (N = 1500). Participants were recruited through random digit dialing of both landline and cell phones, with oversampling of Black and Hispanic residents. Respondents reported COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, sociodemographic information, influenza vaccination history, pandemic-related experiences, and experiences of racial discrimination. Almost half (48.9%) of Black adults in Arkansas were not hesitant towards COVID-19 vaccines, while the remainder reported some level of hesitancy. Nearly a quarter were very hesitant (22.4%), while fewer reported being somewhat (14.0%) and a little (14.7%) hesitant. Using an ordered logistic regression with partial proportional odds, we find odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy decreased as age and influenza vaccination increased. Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were 1.70 times greater for Black adults who experienced the death of a close friend/family member due to COVID-19 and 2.61 times greater for individuals reporting discrimination with police or in the courts. Within-group analysis revealed nearly half of Black adults did not report any COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and heterogeneity among those who were hesitant. Findings suggest there may be an important link between racial discrimination in the criminal justice system and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among Black adults.

7.
Biophys J ; 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470110

RESUMO

Small-molecule DNA-binding drugs have shown promising results in clinical use against many types of cancer. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of DNA binding for such small molecules can be critical in advancing future drug designs. We have been exploring the interactions of ruthenium-based small molecules and their DNA-binding properties that are highly relevant in the development of novel metal-based drugs. Previously we have studied the effects of the right-handed binuclear ruthenium threading intercalator ΔΔ-[µ-bidppz(phen)4Ru2]4+, or ΔΔ-P for short, which showed extremely slow kinetics and high-affinity binding to DNA. Here we investigate the left-handed enantiomer ΛΛ-[µ-bidppz(phen)4Ru2]4+, or ΛΛ-P for short, to study the effects of chirality on DNA threading intercalation. We employ single-molecule optical trapping experiments to understand the molecular mechanisms and nanoscale structural changes that occur during DNA binding and unbinding as well as the association and disassociation rates. Despite the similar threading intercalation binding mode of the two enantiomers, our data show that the left-handed ΛΛ-P complex requires increased lengthening of the DNA to thread, and it extends the DNA more than double the length at equilibrium compared with the right-handed ΔΔ-P. We also observed that the left-handed ΛΛ-P complex unthreads three times faster than ΔΔ-P. These results, along with a weaker binding affinity estimated for ΛΛ-P, suggest a preference in DNA binding to the chiral enantiomer having the same right-handed chirality as the DNA molecule, regardless of their common intercalating moiety. This comparison provides a better understanding of how chirality affects binding to DNA and may contribute to the development of enhanced potential cancer treatment drug designs.

8.
Healthc (Amst) ; 10(2): 100626, 2022 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Responding to the shift toward value-based care, hospitals engaged in widespread experimentation of implementing transitional care (TC) strategies to improve patient experience and reduce unnecessary readmissions. However, which groups of these strategies are most strongly associated with better outcomes remains unknown. METHODS: Using a retrospective longitudinal design, we collected hospitals' TC strategy implementation data for 370 U S. hospitals and obtained claims data for 2.4 million Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries hospitalized at them from 2009 to 2014. We applied estimated mixed-effects regression models controlling for patient, hospital, and community covariates to assess relationships between TC strategy groups and trends in hospitals' 30-day hospital readmissions, with observation stay and mortality rates as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Hospitals' adoption of TC groups was associated with higher readmission rates at baseline and larger readmission rate reductions compared to not adopting any of 5 TC groups. The TC group including timely information exchange across care settings, engaging patients and caregivers in education, and/or identifying and addressing patients' transition needs was associated with the largest reductions. Hospitals not implementing any of the 5 TC groups had higher mortality rates and lower observation stay rates throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that timely information sharing among providers across the care continuum and engaging patients in discharge planning and education may correspond with reduced readmissions. IMPLICATIONS: Our research suggests that hospitals responded to shifts in policy by implementing a diversity of TC strategy combinations; it also provides guidance regarding which combinations of TC strategies corresponded with larger readmission reductions.

9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5328, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351947

RESUMO

While the prevalence of breast cancer metastasis in the brain is significantly higher in triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), there is a lack of novel and/or improved therapies for these patients. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a hydrolase involved in lipid metabolism that catalyzes the degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) linked to generation of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules. Here, we targeted MAGL in TNBCs, using a potent carbamate-based inhibitor AM9928 (hMAGL IC50 = 9 nM) with prolonged pharmacodynamic effects (46 h of target residence time). AM9928 blocked TNBC cell adhesion and transmigration across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in 3D co-cultures. In addition, AM9928 inhibited the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF-A from TNBC cells. TNBC-derived exosomes activated HBMECs resulting in secretion of elevated levels of IL-8 and VEGF, which were inhibited by AM9928. Using in vivo studies of syngeneic GFP-4T1-BrM5 mammary tumor cells, AM9928 inhibited tumor growth in the mammary fat pads and attenuated blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability changes, resulting in reduced TNBC colonization in brain. Together, these results support the potential clinical application of MAGL inhibitors as novel treatments for TNBC.


Assuntos
Monoacilglicerol Lipases , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
10.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 832529, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250580

RESUMO

The sweet taste receptor is rather unique, recognizing a diverse repertoire of natural or synthetic ligands, with a surprisingly large structural diversity, and with potencies stretching over more than six orders of magnitude. Yet, it is not clear if different cell-based assays can faithfully report the relative potencies and efficacies of these molecules. Indeed, up to now, sweet taste receptor agonists have been almost exclusively characterized using cell-based assays developed with overexpressed and promiscuous G proteins. This non-physiological coupling has allowed the quantification of receptor activity via phospholipase C activation and calcium mobilization measurements in heterologous cells on a FLIPR system, for example. Here, we developed a novel assay for the human sweet taste receptor where endogenous G proteins and signaling pathways are recruited by the activated receptor. The effects of several sweet taste receptor agonists and other types of modulators were recorded by measuring changes in dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) using an Epic® reader. Potency and efficacy values obtained in the DMR assay were compared to those results obtained with the classical FLIPR assay. Results demonstrate that for some ligands, the two assay systems provide similar information. However, a clear bias for the FLIPR assay was observed for one third of the agonists evaluated, suggesting that the use of non-physiological coupling may influence the potency and efficacy of sweet taste receptor ligands. Replacing the promiscuous G protein with a chimeric G protein containing the C-terminal tail 25 residues of the physiologically relevant G protein subunit Gαgustducin reduced or abrogated bias.

11.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260961

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Minority-serving hospitals (MSHs) need evidence-based strategies tailored to the populations they serve to improve patient-centered outcomes after hospitalization. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic randomized clinical trial (RCT) from October 2014 to January 2017 at a MSH comparing the effectiveness of a stakeholder-supported Navigator intervention vs. Usual care on post-hospital patient experience, outcomes, and healthcare utilization. Community health workers and peer coaches delivered the intervention which included (1) in-hospital visits to assess barriers to health/healthcare and to develop a personalized Discharge Patient Education Tool (DPET); (2) a home visit to review the DPET; and (3) telephone-based peer coaching. The co-primary outcomes were between-group comparisons of 30-day changes in Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures of anxiety and informational support (minimum important difference is 2 to 5 units change); a p-value <0.025 was considered significant using intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary outcomes included death, ED visits, or readmissions and measures of emotional, social, and physical health at 30 and 60 days. RESULTS: We enrolled 1029 adults hospitalized with heart failure (28%), pneumonia (22%), MI (10%), COPD (11%), or sickle cell disease (29%). Over 80% were non-Hispanic Black. Overall, there were no significant between-group differences in the 30-day change in anxiety (adjusted difference: -1.6, 97.5% CI -3.3 to 0.1, p=0.03), informational support (adjusted difference: -0.01, 97.5% CI -2.0 to 1.9, p=0.99), or any secondary outcomes. Exploratory analyses suggested the Navigator intervention improved anxiety among participants with COPD, a primary care provider, a hospitalization in the past 12 months, or higher baseline anxiety; among participants without health insurance, the intervention improved informational support (all p-values <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this pragmatic RCT at a MSH, the Navigator intervention did not improve post-hospital anxiety, informational support, or other outcomes compared to Usual care. Benefits observed in participant subgroups should be confirmed in future studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02114515.

12.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 46, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An understudied psychological response to HIV-related stressors among people living with HIV is hopelessness. Hopelessness is the expectation that things will not improve and feeling helpless to change one's current situation. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and levels of hopelessness and its direct and indirect contributors in people living with HIV in Sweden. METHODS: Participants included 967 women and men from the "Living with HIV in Sweden" cross-sectional study with available data regarding hopelessness measured by the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine direct and indirect factors that may contribute to feelings of hopelessness. Path analyses were used to assess the underlying structure of hopelessness. All analyses were conducted by gender. RESULTS: Almost half the participants reported moderate to severe hopelessness. There were no differences in frequency of feeling hopeless or level of hopelessness by gender or sexual orientation. Dissatisfaction with finances, dissatisfaction with physical health, and low HIV-related emotional support were found to be directly associated with hopelessness for both women and men. Although having some indirect factors in common, unemployment and HIV stigmatization, women and men had different underlying structures of hopelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are important to HIV clinicians in identifying those at risk of hopelessness from a gender perspective in order to reduce preventable psychological distress among people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Angústia Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(10): 384-389, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271560

RESUMO

Masks are effective at limiting transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1), but the impact of policies requiring masks in school settings has not been widely evaluated (2-4). During fall 2021, some school districts in Arkansas implemented policies requiring masks for students in kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12). To identify any association between mask policies and COVID-19 incidence, weekly school-associated COVID-19 incidence in school districts with full or partial mask requirements was compared with incidence in districts without mask requirements during August 23-October 16, 2021. Three analyses were performed: 1) incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated comparing districts with full mask requirements (universal mask requirement for all students and staff members) or partial mask requirements (e.g., masks required in certain settings, among certain populations, or if specific criteria could not be met) with school districts with no mask requirement; 2) ratios of observed-to-expected numbers of cases, by district were calculated; and 3) incidence in districts that switched from no mask requirement to any mask requirement were compared before and after implementation of the mask policy. Mean weekly district-level attack rates were 92-359 per 100,000 persons in the community* and 137-745 per 100,000 among students and staff members; mean student and staff member vaccination coverage ranged from 13.5% to 18.6%. Multivariable adjusted IRRs, which included adjustment for vaccination coverage, indicated that districts with full mask requirements had 23% lower COVID-19 incidence among students and staff members compared with school districts with no mask requirements. Observed-to-expected ratios for full and partial mask policies were lower than ratios for districts with no mask policy but were slightly higher for districts with partial policies than for those with full mask policies. Among districts that switched from no mask requirement to any mask requirement (full or partial), incidence among students and staff members decreased by 479.7 per 100,000 (p<0.01) upon implementation of the mask policy. In areas with high COVID-19 community levels, masks are an important part of a multicomponent prevention strategy in K-12 settings (5).


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Máscaras , Instituições Acadêmicas , Arkansas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 34(5): 748-765, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104323

RESUMO

Losing a point in tennis could result from poor shot selection or faulty stroke execution. To explore how the brain responds to these different types of errors, we examined feedback-locked EEG activity while participants completed a modified version of a standard three-armed bandit probabilistic reward task. Our task framed unrewarded outcomes as the result of either errors of selection or errors of execution. We examined whether amplitude of a medial frontal negativity (the feedback-related negativity [FRN]) was sensitive to the different forms of error attribution. Consistent with previous reports, selection errors elicited a large FRN relative to rewards, and amplitude of this signal correlated with behavioral adjustment after these errors. A different pattern was observed in response to execution errors. These outcomes produced a larger FRN, a frontocentral attenuation in activity preceding this component, and a subsequent enhanced error positivity in parietal sites. Notably, the only correlations with behavioral adjustment were with the early frontocentral attenuation and amplitude of the parietal signal; FRN differences between execution errors and rewarded trials did not correlate with subsequent changes in behavior. Our findings highlight distinct neural correlates of selection and execution error processing, providing insight into how the brain responds to the different classes of error that determine future action.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Recompensa , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
J Forensic Sci ; 67(3): 1258-1266, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35118663

RESUMO

This case study reports the advantages of micro-CT to aid the investigative process in a complex dismemberment case. Micro-CT was successfully implemented to scan all skeletal remains of a dismembered female. The digital models were utilized to (i) screen for any further injuries not related to the dismemberment, (ii) provide measurements from false starts non-destructively, and (iii) visually represent the evidence in a structured format in court to improve the understanding of the forensic evidence by the jury. Acquiring high-resolution scans in this manner improved the efficiency of the forensic investigation by screening the remains and provided complementary toolmark evidence to the investigating team and forensic pathologist. A total of 14 false starts were identified along with the directionality of each dismemberment cut. Furthermore, the visual 3D representation of the remains in court provided a powerful tool to communicate this important evidence to the jury and form a prosecution narrative. As a forensic radiological method, micro-CT provided valuable information both in the investigation and the court presentation.


Assuntos
Desmembramento de Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 795296, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35185651

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic quickly exposed the need for efficient and widespread implementation of telehealth services. Additionally, it further unveiled the impact of social and environmental barriers to healthcare in underserved, rural populations. This in-practice pilot study tested the utility of a geographically centralized social worker providing services between a patient and a primary care provider via telecommunication at two high volume rural outpatient family practice clinics. Outcome measures included patient and provider satisfaction. Twenty-two telehealth social work encounters occurred spanning both adult and pediatric patients. Data collected from patients, primary care providers, and social work staff revealed positive feedback. The data from our small pilot study demonstrated that social work triage delivered via a tablet was an acceptable and valued resource in busy primary care practices.

17.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(1): 193-200, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139217

RESUMO

Organic control measures in muskmelon and squash production are part of an integrated pest management approach that can include using floating row covers, generalist predators, and ground cover. These are used in Kentucky, allowing for a reduction in insecticide use and diminished virus incidence while increasing yield. Commonly used row covers are made from spunbonded fabric that retains heat and must be removed at anthesis and kept off until the end of the season. Thus, a new farming regime containing breathable mesh covers which can be replaced after anthesis was tested for longer season insect exclusion across two growing seasons. Additionally, ground cover treatments, consisting of mulch or bare ground were tested for their effect on pest insect abundance and fruit yield. Pest insect numbers were usually lower in plots with mesh row covers and in some cases, mulch ground cover also contributed to lower pest numbers. A stronger impact on pest numbers was observed in melon than squash. Melon yield was always significantly higher in plots with mesh row covers and mulch ground cover. This trend was not observed with squash in 2014 but was true in 2015. In 2015, most plants under the fabric row covers died because of high temperatures immediately after transplanting highlighting the need for breathable mesh row covers.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Inseticidas , Agricultura , Animais , Insetos , Estações do Ano
18.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215829

RESUMO

The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a multi-functional protein necessary for viral replication. Recent studies have demonstrated reverse transcription occurs inside the fully intact viral capsid and that the timing of reverse transcription and uncoating are correlated. How a nearly 10 kbp viral DNA genome is stably contained within a narrow capsid with diameter similar to the persistence length of double-stranded (ds) DNA, and the role of NC in this process, are not well understood. In this study, we use optical tweezers, fluorescence imaging, and atomic force microscopy to observe NC binding a single long DNA substrate in multiple modes. We find that NC binds and saturates the DNA substrate in a non-specific binding mode that triggers uniform DNA self-attraction, condensing the DNA into a tight globule at a constant force up to 10 pN. When NC is removed from solution, the globule dissipates over time, but specifically-bound NC maintains long-range DNA looping that is less compact but highly stable. Both binding modes are additionally observed using AFM imaging. These results suggest multiple binding modes of NC compact DNA into a conformation compatible with reverse transcription, regulating the genomic pressure on the capsid and preventing premature uncoating.


Assuntos
DNA/metabolismo , HIV-1/fisiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Desenvelopamento do Vírus , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , DNA/química , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ligação Proteica , Transcrição Reversa , Replicação Viral
19.
J Neurophysiol ; 127(4): 1026-1039, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196148

RESUMO

We previously linked interceptive timing performance to mathematics attainment in 5- to 11-yr-old children, which we attributed to the neural overlap between spatiotemporal and numerical operations. This explanation implies that the relationship should persist through the teenage years. Here, we replicated this finding in adolescents (n = 200, 11-15 yr). However, an alternative explanation is that sensorimotor proficiency and academic attainment are both consequences of executive function. To assess this competing hypothesis, we developed a measure of a core executive function, inhibitory control, from the kinematic data. We combined our new adolescent data with the original children's data (total n = 568), performing a novel analysis controlling for our marker of executive function. We found that the relationship between mathematics and interceptive timing persisted at all ages. These results suggest a distinct functional link between interceptive timing and mathematics that operates independently of our measure of executive function.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previous research downplays the role of sensorimotor skills in the development of higher-order cognitive domains such as mathematics: using inadequate sensorimotor measures, differences in "executive function" account for any shared variance. Utilizing a high-resolution, kinematic measure of a sensorimotor skill previously linked to mathematics attainment, we show that inhibitory control alone cannot account for this relationship. The practical implication is that the development of children's sensorimotor skills must be considered in their intellectual development.


Assuntos
Logro , Função Executiva , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Matemática
20.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044269

RESUMO

Despite the increasing availability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), Latinx men who have sex with men (LMSM) are not receiving PrEP-related information. To understand the influence of LMSM sexual networks on PrEP-related conversations and encouragement to use PrEP, this cross-sectional egocentric network study characterized the PrEP-related communication of 130 LMSM egos with 507 sexual partners (alters). Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling methods from a Miami-Dade County community-health organization. Egocentric-level data were collected from 2018-2019 and analyzed using multilevel modeling. Of egos, 30% reported using PrEP. Closeness between participants and sexual partners played a role in PrEP conversation and encouragement. Participants believed they would have less success convincing sexual partners to use PrEP if partners were older. Participants perceived higher likelihood to talk about PrEP or success in encouraging alters to use PrEP if, relative to meeting sexual partners on Grindr, they met at a friend's party, gay-centric community event, or school/work. Given that increased closeness and in-person sexual partner meeting venues are associated with PrEP information dissemination and encouragement, social network-based interventions can capitalize on PrEP navigators who run network visualizations, and with this information develop a longitudinal plan to increase PrEP conversation and encouragement as needed for each network.

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