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2.
J Nucl Med ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893193

RESUMO

Coronary 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) angiography-based quantitative plaque analysis have shown promise in refining risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. We combined both of these novel imaging approaches to develop an optimal machine-learning model for the future risk of myocardial infarction in patients with stable coronary disease. Methods: Patients with known coronary artery disease underwent coronary 18F-NaF PET and CT angiography on a hybrid PET/CT scanner. Machine-learning by extreme gradient boosting was trained using clinical data, CT quantitative plaque analysis measures and 18F-NaF PET, and it was tested using repeated 10-fold hold-out testing. Results: Among 293 study participants (65±9 years; 84% male), 22 subjects experienced a myocardial infarction over the 53 [40-59] months of follow-up. On univariable receiver-operator-curve analysis, only 18F-NaF coronary uptake emerged as a predictor of myocardial infarction (c-statistic 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-0.83). When incorporated into machine-learning models, clinical characteristics showed limited predictive performance (c-statistic 0.64, 95% CI 0.53-0.76;) and were outperformed by a quantitative plaque analysis-based machine-learning model (c-statistic 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.84). After inclusion of all available data (clinical, quantitative plaque and 18F-NaF PET), we achieved a substantial improvement (P = 0.008 versus 18F-NaF PET alone) in the model performance (c-statistic 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91). Conclusion: Both 18F-NaF uptake and quantitative plaque analysis measures are additive and strong predictors of outcome in patients with established coronary artery disease. Optimal risk stratification can be achieved by combining clinical data with these approaches in a machine-learning model.

3.
Circulation ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913339

RESUMO

Background: Valvular calcification is central to the pathogenesis and progression of aortic stenosis, with pre-clinical and observational studies suggesting that bone turnover and osteoblastic differentiation of valvular interstitial cells are important contributory mechanisms. We aimed to establish whether inhibition of these pathways with denosumab or alendronic acid could reduce disease progression in aortic stenosis. Methods: In a single-centre parallel group double-blind randomized controlled trial, patients over 50 years of age with calcific aortic stenosis (peak aortic jet velocity >2.5 m/s) were randomized 2:1:2:1 to denosumab (60 mg every 6 months), placebo injection, alendronic acid (70 mg once weekly) or placebo capsule. Participants underwent serial assessments with Doppler echocardiography, computed tomography aortic valve calcium scoring and 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography and computed tomography. The primary endpoint was the calculated 24-month change in aortic valve calcium score. Results: One-hundred and fifty patients (mean age 72±8 years; 21% female) with calcific aortic stenosis (peak aortic jet velocity 3.36 [2.93 to 3.82] m/s; aortic valve calcium score 1152 [655 to 2065] Agatston Units) were randomized and received the allocated trial intervention: denosumab (n=49), alendronic acid (n=51) and placebo (injection n=25, capsule n=25; pooled for analysis). Serum C-terminal telopeptide, a measure of bone turnover, halved from baseline to 6 months with denosumab (0.23 [0.18 to 0.33] to 0.11 [0.08 to 0.17] µg/L) and alendronic acid (0.20 [0.14 to 0.28] to 0.09 [0.08 to 0.13] µg/L) but was unchanged with placebo (0.23 [0.17 to 0.30] to 0.26 [0.16 to 0.31] µg/L). There were no differences in 24-month change in aortic valve calcium score between denosumab and placebo (343 [198 to 804] AU versus 354 [76 to 675] AU, p=0.41), or alendronic acid and placebo (326 [138 to 813] AU versus 354 [76 to 675] AU, p=0.49). Similarly, there were no differences in change in peak aortic jet velocity or 18F-sodium fluoride aortic valve uptake. Conclusions: Neither denosumab nor alendronic acid affected progression of aortic valve calcification in patients with calcific aortic stenosis. Alternative pathways and mechanisms need to be explored to identify disease-modifying therapies for the growing population of patients with this potentially fatal condition. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02132026.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate whether coronary computed tomography angiography assessments of coronary plaque might explain differences in the prognosis of men and women presenting with chest pain. BACKGROUND: Important sex differences exist in coronary artery disease. Women presenting with chest pain have different risk factors, symptoms, prevalence of coronary artery disease and prognosis compared to men. METHODS: Within a multicenter randomized controlled trial, we explored sex differences in stenosis, adverse plaque characteristics (positive remodeling, low-attenuation plaque, spotty calcification, or napkin ring sign) and quantitative assessment of total, calcified, noncalcified and low-attenuation plaque burden. RESULTS: Of the 1,769 participants who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography, 772 (43%) were female. Women were more likely to have normal coronary arteries and less likely to have adverse plaque characteristics (p < 0.001 for all). They had lower total, calcified, noncalcified, and low-attenuation plaque burdens (p < 0.001 for all) and were less likely to have a low-attenuation plaque burden >4% (41% vs. 59%; p < 0.001). Over a median follow-up of 4.7 years, myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in 11 women (1.4%) and 30 men (3%). In those who had MI, women had similar total, noncalcified, and low-attenuation plaque burdens as men, but men had higher calcified plaque burden. Low-attenuation plaque burden predicted MI (hazard ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 2.34; p = 0.015), independent of calcium score, obstructive disease, cardiovascular risk score, and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Women presenting with stable chest pain have less atherosclerotic plaque of all subtypes compared to men and a lower risk of subsequent MI. However, quantitative low-attenuation plaque is as strong a predictor of subsequent MI in women as in men. (Scottish Computed Tomography of the HEART Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864509

RESUMO

In daily clinical practice, clinicians integrate available data to ascertain the diagnostic and prognostic probability of a disease or clinical outcome for their patients. For patients with suspected or known cardiovascular disease, several anatomical and functional imaging techniques are commonly performed to aid this endeavor, including coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and nuclear cardiology imaging. Continuous improvement in positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and CT hardware and software has resulted in improved diagnostic performance and wide implementation of these imaging techniques in daily clinical practice. However, the human ability to interpret, quantify, and integrate these data sets is limited. The identification of novel markers and application of machine learning (ML) algorithms, including deep learning (DL) to cardiovascular imaging techniques will further improve diagnosis and prognostication for patients with cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this position paper of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) is to provide an overview of the general concepts behind modern machine learning-based artificial intelligence, highlights currently prefered methods, practices, and computational models, and proposes new strategies to support the clinical application of ML in the field of cardiovascular imaging using nuclear cardiology (hybrid) and CT techniques.

6.
Rofo ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The capabilities of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) have advanced significantly in the past decade. Its capacity to detect stenotic coronary arteries safely and consistently has led to a marked decline in invasive diagnostic angiography. However, CCTA can do much more than identify coronary artery stenoses. METHOD: This review discusses applications of CCTA beyond coronary stenosis assessment, focusing in particular on the visual and quantitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaque. RESULTS: Established signs of visually assessed high-risk plaque on CT include positive remodeling, low-attenuation plaque, spotty calcification, and the napkin-ring sign, which correlate with the histological thin-cap fibroatheroma. Recently, quantification of plaque subtypes has further improved the assessment of coronary plaque on CT. Quantitatively assessed low-attenuation plaque, which correlates with the necrotic core of the thin-cap fibroatheroma, has demonstrated superiority over stenosis severity and coronary calcium score in predicting subsequent myocardial infarction. Current research aims to use radiomic and machine learning methods to further improve our understanding of high-risk atherosclerotic plaque subtypes identified on CCTA. CONCLUSION: Despite rapid technological advances in the field of coronary computed tomography angiography, there remains a significant lag in routine clinical practice where use is often limited to lumenography. We summarize some of the most promising techniques that significantly improve the diagnostic and prognostic potential of CCTA. KEY POINTS: · In addition to its ability to determine severity of luminal stenoses, CCTA provides important prognostic information by evaluating atherosclerotic plaque.. · Simple scoring systems such as the segment involved score or the CT-adapted Leaman score can provide more prognostic information on major adverse coronary events compared to traditional risk factors such as presence of hypertension or diabetes.. · CT signs of high-risk plaque, including positive remodeling, low-attenuation plaque, spotty calcification, and the napkin-ring sign, are significantly more likely to predict acute coronary syndromes.. · Quantitative plaque assessment can provide precise description of volume and burden of plaque subtypes and have been found to predict subsequent myocardial infarction better than cardiovascular risk scores, calcium scoring and severity of coronary artery stenoses.. · Machine learning techniques have the potential to automate risk stratification and enhance health economy, even though present clinical applications are limited. In this era of "big data" they are an exciting avenue for future research.. CITATION FORMAT: · Meah MN, Williams MC. Clinical Relevance of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Beyond Coronary Artery Stenosis. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2021; DOI: 10.1055/a-1395-7905.

7.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 15(2): 180-189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685845

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to highlight the most impactful, educational, and frequently downloaded articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (JCCT) for the year 2020. The JCCT reached new records in 2020 for the number of research submissions, published manuscripts, article downloads and social media impressions. The articles in this review were selected by the Editorial Board of the JCCT and are comprised predominately of original research publications in the following categories: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), coronary artery disease, coronary physiology, structural heart disease, and technical advances. The Editorial Board would like to thank each of the authors, peer-reviewers and the readers of JCCT for making 2020 one of the most successful years in its history, despite the challenging circumstances of the global COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Cardiopatias/virologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , /patogenicidade , /complicações , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/virologia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(2): 173-185, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has adversely affected diagnosis and treatment of noncommunicable diseases. Its effects on delivery of diagnostic care for cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of death worldwide, have not been quantified. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to assess COVID-19's impact on global cardiovascular diagnostic procedural volumes and safety practices. METHODS: The International Atomic Energy Agency conducted a worldwide survey assessing alterations in cardiovascular procedure volumes and safety practices resulting from COVID-19. Noninvasive and invasive cardiac testing volumes were obtained from participating sites for March and April 2020 and compared with those from March 2019. Availability of personal protective equipment and pandemic-related testing practice changes were ascertained. RESULTS: Surveys were submitted from 909 inpatient and outpatient centers performing cardiac diagnostic procedures, in 108 countries. Procedure volumes decreased 42% from March 2019 to March 2020, and 64% from March 2019 to April 2020. Transthoracic echocardiography decreased by 59%, transesophageal echocardiography 76%, and stress tests 78%, which varied between stress modalities. Coronary angiography (invasive or computed tomography) decreased 55% (p < 0.001 for each procedure). In multivariable regression, significantly greater reduction in procedures occurred for centers in countries with lower gross domestic product. Location in a low-income and lower-middle-income country was associated with an additional 22% reduction in cardiac procedures and less availability of personal protective equipment and telehealth. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was associated with a significant and abrupt reduction in cardiovascular diagnostic testing across the globe, especially affecting the world's economically challenged. Further study of cardiovascular outcomes and COVID-19-related changes in care delivery is warranted.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Agências Internacionais
11.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(12): e011438, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297761

RESUMO

Background Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-fluoride) to detect microcalcification may provide insight into disease activity in coronary atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between 18F-fluoride uptake and progression of coronary calcification in patients with clinically stable coronary artery disease. Methods Patients with established multivessel coronary atherosclerosis underwent 18F-fluoride PET-computed tomography angiography and computed tomography calcium scoring, with repeat computed tomography angiography and calcium scoring at one year. Coronary PET uptake was analyzed qualitatively and semiquantitatively in diseased vessels by measuring maximum tissue-to-background ratio. Coronary calcification was quantified by measuring calcium score, mass, and volume. Results In a total of 183 participants (median age 66 years, 80% male), 116 (63%) patients had increased 18F-fluoride uptake in at least one vessel. Individuals with increased 18F-fluoride uptake demonstrated more rapid progression of calcification compared with those without uptake (change in calcium score, 97 [39-166] versus 35 [7-93] AU; P<0.0001). Indeed, the calcium score only increased in coronary segments with 18F-fluoride uptake (from 95 [30-209] to 148 [61-289] AU; P<0.001) and remained unchanged in segments without 18F-fluoride uptake (from 46 [16-113] to 49 [20-115] AU; P=0.329). Baseline coronary 18F-fluoride maximum tissue-to-background ratio correlated with 1-year change in calcium score, calcium volume, and calcium mass (Spearman ρ=0.37, 0.38, and 0.46, respectively; P<0.0001 for all). At the segmental level, baseline 18F-fluoride activity was an independent predictor of calcium score at 12 months (P<0.001). However, at the patient level, this was not independent of age, sex, and baseline calcium score (P=0.50). Conclusions Coronary 18F-fluoride uptake identifies both patients and individual coronary segments with more rapid progression of coronary calcification, providing important insights into disease activity within the coronary circulation. At the individual patient level, total calcium score remains an important marker of disease burden and progression. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02110303.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306104

RESUMO

AIMS: Valvular heart disease can be identified by calcification on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. We assessed aortic and mitral valve calcification in patients presenting with stable chest pain and their association with cardiovascular risk factors, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1769 patients (58 ± 9 years, 56% male) undergoing CCTA for stable chest pain, aortic and mitral valve calcification were quantified using Agatston score. Aortic valve calcification was present in 241 (14%) and mitral calcification in 64 (4%). Independent predictors of aortic valve calcification were age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular disease, whereas the only predictor of mitral valve calcification was age. Patients with aortic and mitral valve calcification had higher coronary artery calcium scores and more obstructive coronary artery disease. The composite endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke was higher in those with aortic [hazard ratio (HR) 2.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-5.17; P < 0.001] or mitral (HR 3.50; 95% CI 1.47-8.07; P = 0.004) valve calcification, but this was not independent of coronary artery calcification or obstructive coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: Aortic and mitral valve calcification occurs in one in six patients with stable chest pain undergoing CCTA and is associated with concomitant coronary atherosclerosis. Whilst valvular calcification is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, this was not independent of the burden of coronary artery disease.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303383

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) provides a wealth of clinically meaningful information beyond anatomic stenosis alone, including the presence or absence of nonobstructive atherosclerosis and high-risk plaque features as precursors for incident coronary events. There is, however, no uniform agreement on how to identify and quantify these features or their use in evidence-based clinical decision-making. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography and North American Society of Cardiovascular Imaging addresses this gap and provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence on imaging of coronary atherosclerosis. In this statement, we provide standardized definitions for high-risk plaque (HRP) features and distill the evidence on the effectiveness of risk stratification into usable practice points. This statement outlines how this information should be communicated to referring physicians and patients by identifying critical elements to include in a structured CCTA report - the presence and severity of atherosclerotic plaque (descriptive statements, CAD-RADS™ categories), the segment involvement score, HRP features (e.g., low attenuation plaque, positive remodeling), and the coronary artery calcium score (when performed). Rigorous documentation of atherosclerosis on CCTA provides a vital opportunity to make recommendations for preventive care and to initiate and guide an effective care strategy for at-risk patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165600

RESUMO

AIMS: The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Scientific Initiatives Committee performed a global survey to evaluate current practice for the assessment and management of patients with suspected and confirmed chronic coronary syndromes. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred and ten imaging centres from 37 countries across the world responded to the survey. Most non-invasive investigations for coronary artery disease were widely available, except cardiovascular magnetic resonance (available 40% centres). Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and nuclear scans were reported by a multi-disciplinary team in only a quarter of centres. In the initial assessment of patients presenting with chest pain, only 32% of respondents indicated that they rely on pre-test probability for selecting the optimal imaging test while 31% proceed directly to CCTA. In patients with established coronary artery disease and recurrent chest pain, respondents opted for stress echocardiography (27%) and nuclear stress perfusion scans (26%). In asymptomatic patients with coronary artery disease and an obstructive (>70%) right coronary artery stenosis, 58% of respondents were happy to pursue medical therapy without further testing or intervention. This proportion fell to 29% with left anterior descending artery stenosis and 1% with left main stem obstruction. In asymptomatic patients with evidence of moderate-to-severe myocardial ischaemia (15%), only 18% of respondents would continue medical therapy without further investigation. CONCLUSION: Despite guidelines recommendations pre-test probability is used to assess patients with suspected coronary artery in a minority of centres, one-third of centres moving directly to CCTA. Clinicians remain reticent to pursue a strategy of optimal medical therapy without further investigation or intervention in patients with controlled symptoms but obstructive coronary artery stenoses or myocardial ischaemia.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168479

RESUMO

Cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) is a well-validated non-invasive imaging tool with an ever-expanding array of applications beyond the assessment of coronary artery disease. These include the evaluation of structural heart diseases, congenital heart diseases, peri-procedural electrophysiology applications, and the functional evaluation of ischemia. This breadth requires a robust and diverse training curriculum to ensure graduates of CCT training programs meet minimum competency standards for independent CCT interpretation. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography aims to supplement existing societal training guidelines by providing a curriculum and competency framework to inform the development of a comprehensive, integrated training experience for cardiology and radiology trainees in CCT.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20172, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214599

RESUMO

Early microcalcification is a feature of coronary plaques with an increased propensity to rupture and to cause acute coronary syndromes. In this ex vivo imaging study of coronary artery specimens, the non-invasive imaging radiotracer, 18F-fluoride, was highly selective for hydroxyapatite deposition in atherosclerotic coronary plaque. Specifically, coronary 18F-fluoride uptake had a high signal to noise ratio compared with surrounding myocardium that makes it feasible to identify coronary mineralisation activity. Areas of 18F-fluoride uptake are associated with osteopontin, an inflammation-associated glycophosphoprotein that mediates tissue mineralisation, and Runt-related transcription factor 2, a nuclear protein involved in osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that 18F-fluoride is a non-invasive imaging biomarker of active coronary atherosclerotic mineralisation.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032977

RESUMO

Cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) is a well-validated non-invasive imaging tool with an ever-expanding array of applications beyond the assessment of coronary artery disease. These include the evaluation of structural heart diseases, congenital heart diseases, peri-procedural electrophysiology applications, and the functional evaluation of ischemia. This breadth requires a robust and diverse training curriculum to ensure graduates of CCT training programs meet minimum competency standards for independent CCT interpretation. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography aims to supplement existing societal training guidelines by providing a curriculum and competency framework to inform the development of a comprehensive, integrated training experience for cardiology and radiology trainees in CCT.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(10): 1226-1243, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883417

RESUMO

Evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has seen a paradigm shift in the last decade. Evidence increasingly supports the clinical utility of CCTA across various stages of CAD, from the detection of early subclinical disease to the assessment of acute chest pain. Additionally, CCTA can be used to noninvasively quantify plaque burden and identify high-risk plaque, aiding in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. This is especially important in the evaluation of CAD in immune-driven conditions with increased cardiovascular disease prevalence. Emerging applications of CCTA based on hemodynamic indices and plaque characterization may provide personalized risk assessment, affect disease detection, and further guide therapy. This review provides an update on the evidence, clinical applications, and emerging technologies surrounding CCTA as highlighted at the 2019 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute CCTA Summit.

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