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3.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 33(6): 1022-1024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219084

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dermoscopy is a noninvasive, in vivo imaging technique that allows for the visualization of subsurface skin structures. In recent years, several education interventions have incorporated dermoscopy in the primary care setting to improve skin cancer detection. We aim to describe the perspectives, attitudes, and interest of primary care physicians (PCPs) regarding dermoscopy. METHODS: PCPs associated with academic institutions completed an anonymous survey emailed to faculty and resident listservs. The survey consisted of 23 questions related to dermoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 156 PCPs completed the questionnaire. Few PCPs reported having access to a dermatoscope (16%), using it regularly (9%), or having received training (15%). The most common reasons for not using a dermatoscope were the lack of access to the device (85%), followed by the lack of training (76%). However, the majority view dermoscopy as a valuable tool in primary care and are interested in receiving training (87%), particularly with a hands-on approach. CONCLUSION: Our sample of PCPs in the United States showed that although few use dermoscopy, most perceive it as a useful tool, particularly family medicine physicians. The main reported barriers preventing its use included the lack of training and poor access to dermatoscopes. The vast majority of PCPs in our sample want to be trained in dermoscopy, thereby providing an opportunity for educational initiatives that take into account the barriers and preferred learning strategies.

5.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894455

RESUMO

Hormones play a significant role in normal skin physiology and many dermatologic conditions. As contraceptives and hormonal therapies continue to advance and increase in popularity, it is important for dermatologists to understand their mechanisms and dermatologic effects given the intricate interplay between hormones and the skin. This article reviews the dermatologic effects, both adverse and beneficial, of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs), implants, injections, and vaginal rings. Overall, the literature suggests that progesterone-only methods, such as implants and hormonal IUDs, tend to trigger or worsen many conditions, including acne, hirsutism, alopecia, and even rosacea. Therefore, it is worthwhile to obtain detailed medication and contraceptive histories on patients with these conditions. There is sufficient evidence that hormonal contraceptives, particularly COCs and vaginal rings, may effectively treat acne and hirsutism. While there are less data to support the role of hormonal contraceptives in other dermatologic disorders, they demonstrate potential in improving androgenetic alopecia and hidradenitis suppurativa.

6.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970197

RESUMO

Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare, inflammatory granulomatous skin disorder involving collagen degeneration. In recent years, several light and laser therapies have been proposed and used in the treatment of NL with variable outcomes. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of lasers and light therapies for the treatment of NL. A review of PubMed was conducted to search for studies using laser and light therapies for the treatment of NL. Articles that employed a combination of treatment modalities were excluded. Twenty-four studies were reviewed. Light and laser therapies used in these studies included CO2 laser, pulsed dye laser, methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-photodynamic therapy (PDT), aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT, ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) phototherapy, and psoralen plus ultraviolet-A (PUVA). PUVA was identified as the modality with the most available evidence (7 studies), followed by MAL-PDT and ALA-PDT (5 studies each), pulsed dye laser and UVA1 (3 studies each), and lastly CO2 laser (2 studies). Most modalities demonstrated variable efficacies and side effects with the exception of PDL, which consistently showed successful outcomes. Multiple dermatologic light and laser therapies have been investigated for the treatment of NL, including PUVA, ALA-PDT, MAL-PDT, pulsed dye laser, UVA1, and CO2 laser. However, a clear consensus on the preferred treatment is yet to be addressed. Each treatment option demonstrates both advantages and disadvantages that should be discussed with patients when selecting the treatment modality.

9.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839837

RESUMO

Nevus of Ota is cosmetically burdensome and often prompts patients to seek treatment. Lasers are commonly used in removing these lesions; however, no systemic analysis has been conducted to support a gold standard laser. To conduct a meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers (QSNL), Q-switched ruby lasers (QSRL), Q-switched alexandrite lasers (QSAL), and picosecond alexandrite lasers (PSAL) in removing nevus of Ota. Inclusion criteria were nevus of Ota patients treated with QSNL, QSRL, QSAL, or PSAL and documentation of percent clearance and the rate of at least one adverse event. Articles in English, Chinese, or Japanese were included. The prespecified outcome measures were efficacy (percent clearance) and safety (rates of hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, scarring, and recurrence). The review included 57 studies and 13,417 patients. The pooled success rate was 64% for QSNL (95% CI 52-76%), 54% for QSRL (95% CI 39-69%), 58% for QSAL (95% CI 44-72%), and 100% for PSAL (95% CI 98-102%). The pooled adverse event rate was 5% for QSNL (95% CI 4-6%), 14% for QSRL (95% CI 9-19%), 9% for QSAL (95% CI 6-12%), and 44% (95% CI 31-57%) for PSAL. QSNL has the most evidence for effectively and safely treating nevus of Ota. PSAL potentially has a superior efficacy; however, further studies are needed to elucidate its side effect profile when treating nevus of Ota.

10.
Int J Dermatol ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808287

RESUMO

Nevus of Ota, also known as oculodermal melanocytosis or nevus fuscoceruleus ophthalmomaxillaris, is a benign dermal melanocytic nevus that most commonly affects Asian women. While the lesion is largely a cosmetic concern, it has the potential to undergo malignant transformation to melanoma. Patients with nevus of Ota often present to a dermatologist at some point for examination or removal with laser therapy. Therefore, it is important for dermatologists to understand the cutaneous and extracutaneous risks these lesions carry and how they may present to further optimize management and appropriate referrals. This review describes the demographic, clinical, and prognostic features of melanoma in the setting of nevus of Ota, divided by the nature of the primary melanoma: cutaneous, orbital, intracranial.

11.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 33(6): 806-813, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757474

RESUMO

Antihypertensive medications are commonly prescribed and well-studied. Given the widespread use and potential side effects, various theories have been made about the relationship between antihypertensives and malignancy, including melanoma. This review describes the current understanding of the most commonly prescribed antihypertensives and their associations with melanoma. The literature demonstrates that diuretics, specifically hydrochlorothiazide and indapamide, may increase the risk of melanoma. While there is no evidence that antihypertensives have a role in melanoma prevention, non-selective ß-blocker therapy has been associated with a decreased risk of disease progression and recurrence and may also improve outcomes in patients undergoing immunotherapy. In addition, experimental studies reveal that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers have anti-tumor effects, meriting further study.

15.
Exp Dermatol ; 29(2): 136-148, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845391

RESUMO

Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the cell membrane rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin, with caveolin proteins acting as their primary structural components that allow compartmentalization and orchestration of various signalling molecules. In this review, we discuss how pleiotropic functions of caveolin-1 (Cav1) and its intricate roles in numerous cellular functions including lipid trafficking, signalling, cell migration and proliferation, as well as cellular senescence, infection and inflammation, are integral for normal development and functioning of skin and its appendages. We then examine how disruption of the homeostatic levels of Cav1 can lead to development of various cutaneous pathophysiologies including skin cancers, cutaneous fibroses, psoriasis, alopecia, age-related changes in skin and aberrant wound healing and propose how levels of Cav1 may have theragnostic value in skin physiology/pathophysiology.

17.
J Thorac Dis ; 8(11): 3152-3159, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28066594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective cough frequency measurements are increasingly applied in clinical research. Technological advances enable automated detection and counting of cough events from sound recordings of many hours' duration. A possible limitation of sound-based cough frequency measurement is the contamination of recordings by environmental coughs (coughs from persons other than the patient). This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of a sound-based cough monitor for detecting and discriminating patient cough from environmental cough. METHODS: As part of a stroke trial (ISRCTN40298220), patients on a hospital ward underwent 15-minute recordings using the Leicester Cough Monitor (LCM), a sound-based cough monitor ('semi-automated counts'). Participants and other persons in the environment were prompted to cough. An observer present in the room recorded the number of patient and environmental coughs ('live counts'). LCM counts were also compared against a manual cough count, the most commonly used gold standard to determine accuracy ('manual sound counts' from listening to recordings), by a blinded assessor who cross-referenced timed cough events from the respective methods. Data for automated, manual and live cough counts were analyzed using agreement statistics. RESULTS: On sound recordings from five patients, there were 65 patient coughs and 78 environmental coughs (manual counts). Absolute agreement for patient cough count between all three measurement methods (LCM automated, live, and manual sound counts) was high, with intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.94 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.74, 0.99]. The proportion of exact agreements for patient cough between LCM and manual count was 0.92, and kappa was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.93). The LCM showed sensitivity of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.98), specificity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.96), positive predictive value of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.95) and negative predictive value of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.98) for detecting patient coughs. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study supports the validity of the cough monitor for detecting and discriminating patient from environmental cough. Further validation is recommended, to describe the level of accuracy with greater precision.

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