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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 449, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza is an acute viral disease of the respiratory tract which is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, prostration, coryza, sore throat and cough. Globally, an estimated 3 to 5 million cases of severe influenza illness and 291 243-645 832 seasonal influenza-associated respiratory deaths occur annually. Although recent efforts from some African countries to describe burden of influenza disease and seasonality, these data are missing for the vast majority, including Ethiopia. Ethiopia established influenza sentinel surveillance in 2008 aiming to determine influenza strains circulating in the country and know characteristics, trend and burden of influenza viruses. METHODS: We used influenza data from sentinel surveillance sites and respiratory disease outbreak investigations from 2009 to 2015 for this analysis. We obtained the data by monitoring patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) at three health-centers, severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) at five hospitals and investigating patients during different respiratory infection outbreaks. Throat-swab specimens in viral transport media were transported to the national reference laboratory within 72 h of collection using a cold-chain system. We extracted viral RNA from throat-swabs and subjected to real-time PCR amplification. We further subtyped and characterized Influenza A-positive specimens using CDC real-time reverse transcription PCR protocol. RESULTS: A total of 4962 throat-swab samples were collected and 4799 (96.7%) of them were tested. Among them 988 (20.6%) were influenza-positive and of which 349 (35.3%) were seasonal influenza A(H3N2), 321 (32.5%) influenza A(H1N1)pdm2009 and 318 (32.0%) influenza B. Positivity rate was 29.5% in persons 5-14 years followed by 26.4% in 15-44 years, 21.2% in > 44 years and 6.4% in under five children. The highest positivity rate observed in November (37.5%) followed by March (27.6%), December (26.4%), October (24.4%) and January (24.3%) while the lowest positivity rate was in August (7.7%). CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, seasonal Influenza A(H3N2), Influenza A(H1N1)pdm2009 and Influenza B viruses were circulating during 2009-2015. Positivity rate and number of cases peaked in November and December. Influenza is one of public health problems in Ethiopia and the need to introduce influenza vaccine and antivirus is important to prevent and treat the disease in future.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
2.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(1): 38-45, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the national number of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization in Rwanda. METHODS: We multiplied the influenza virus detection rate from influenza surveillance conducted at 6 sentinel hospitals by the national number of respiratory hospitalization obtained from passive surveillance after adjusting for underreporting and reclassification of any respiratory hospitalizations as SARI during 2012-2014. The population at risk was obtained from projections of the 2012 census. Bootstrapping was used for the calculation of confidence intervals (CI) to account for the uncertainty associated with all levels of adjustment. Rates were expressed per 100 000 population. A sensitivity analysis using a different estimation approach was also conducted. RESULTS: SARI cases accounted for 70.6% (9759/13 813) of respiratory admissions at selected hospitals: 77.2% (6783/8786) and 59.2% (2976/5028) among individuals aged <5 and ≥5 years, respectively. Overall, among SARI cases tested, the influenza virus detection rate was 6.3% (190/3022): 5.7% (127/2220) and 7.8% (63/802) among individuals aged <5 and ≥5 years, respectively. The estimated mean annual national number of influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations was 3663 (95% CI: 2930-4395-rate: 34.7; 95% CI: 25.4-47.7): 2637 (95% CI: 2110-3164-rate: 168.7; 95% CI: 135.0-202.4) among children aged <5 years and 1026 (95% CI: 821-1231-rate: 11.3; 95% CI: 9.0-13.6) among individuals aged ≥5 years. The estimates obtained from both approaches were not statistically different (overlapping CIs). CONCLUSIONS: The burden of influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations was substantial and was highest among children aged <5 years.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 745, 2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, capacity for influenza surveillance and research in West Africa has strengthened. Data from these surveillance systems showed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulated in West Africa later than in other regions of the continent. METHODS: We contacted 11 West African countries to collect information about their influenza surveillance systems (number of sites, type of surveillance, sampling strategy, populations sampled, case definitions used, number of specimens collected and number of specimens positive for influenza viruses) for the time period January 2010 through December 2012. RESULTS: Of the 11 countries contacted, 8 responded: Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo. Countries used standard World Health Organization (WHO) case definitions for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) or slight variations thereof. There were 70 surveillance sites: 26 SARI and 44 ILI. Seven countries conducted SARI surveillance and collected 3114 specimens of which 209 (7%) were positive for influenza viruses. Among influenza-positive SARI patients, 132 (63%) were influenza A [68 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 64 influenza A(H3N2)] and 77 (37%) were influenza B. All eight countries conducted ILI surveillance and collected 20,375 specimens, of which 2278 (11%) were positive for influenza viruses. Among influenza-positive ILI patients, 1431 (63%) were influenza A [820 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 611 influenza A(H3N2)] and 847 (37%) were influenza B. A majority of SARI and ILI case-patients who tested positive for influenza (72% SARI and 59% ILI) were children aged 0-4 years, as were a majority of those enrolled in surveillance. The seasonality of influenza and the predominant influenza type or subtype varied by country and year. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 continued to circulate in West Africa along with influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B during 2010-2012. Although ILI surveillance systems produced a robust number of samples during the study period, more could be done to strengthen surveillance among hospitalized SARI case-patients. Surveillance systems captured young children but lacked data on adults and the elderly. More data on risk groups for severe influenza in West Africa are needed to help shape influenza prevention and clinical management policies and guidelines.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Biol Open ; 4(3): 253-8, 2015 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25661866

RESUMO

Experiments were performed on a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a lamprey, to explore the strategies for controlling swimming speed. The muscle component of the model was based on previous experiments on isolated lamprey muscle. The patterns of muscle activation were those found in EMG studies on swimming lampreys. The fluid mechanics were modelled with G.I. Taylor's simplification. Tail beat frequencies of 2-6 sec(-1) were combined with muscle activation strengths of 0.1% to 20% of maximum tetanic isometric strength. The resulting forward swimming speed and changing body shape were recorded. From the changing body shape the speed of the backward-travelling wave of curvature was calculated, as well as the ratio between the speeds of the waves of activation and curvature. For any given activation strength there was a tail beat frequency that gave maximal forward speed. Furthermore, for all the combinations of activation strength and tail beat frequency that gave such maximum swimming speeds, the ratio of the speed of the wave of curvature to the wave of muscle activation was approximately 0.75. This is similar to the ratio found in swimming lampreys.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 212(6): 853-60, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25712970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on causes of death due to respiratory illness in Africa are limited. METHODS: From January to April 2013, 28 African countries were invited to participate in a review of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI)-associated deaths identified from influenza surveillance during 2009-2012. RESULTS: Twenty-three countries (82%) responded, 11 (48%) collect mortality data, and 8 provided data. Data were collected from 37 714 SARI cases, and 3091 (8.2%; range by country, 5.1%-25.9%) tested positive for influenza virus. There were 1073 deaths (2.8%; range by country, 0.1%-5.3%) reported, among which influenza virus was detected in 57 (5.3%). Case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher among countries with systematic death reporting than among those with sporadic reporting. The influenza-associated CFP was 1.8% (57 of 3091), compared with 2.9% (1016 of 34 623) for influenza virus-negative cases (P < .001). Among 834 deaths (77.7%) tested for other respiratory pathogens, rhinovirus (107 [12.8%]), adenovirus (64 [6.0%]), respiratory syncytial virus (60 [5.6%]), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (57 [5.3%]) were most commonly identified. Among 1073 deaths, 402 (37.5%) involved people aged 0-4 years, 462 (43.1%) involved people aged 5-49 years, and 209 (19.5%) involved people aged ≥50 years. CONCLUSIONS: Few African countries systematically collect data on outcomes of people hospitalized with respiratory illness. Stronger surveillance for deaths due to respiratory illness may identify risk groups for targeted vaccine use and other prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(46): 19832-7, 2010 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21037110

RESUMO

Animal movements result from a complex balance of many different forces. Muscles produce force to move the body; the body has inertial, elastic, and damping properties that may aid or oppose the muscle force; and the environment produces reaction forces back on the body. The actual motion is an emergent property of these interactions. To examine the roles of body stiffness, muscle activation, and fluid environment for swimming animals, a computational model of a lamprey was developed. The model uses an immersed boundary framework that fully couples the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics with an actuated, elastic body model. This is the first model at a Reynolds number appropriate for a swimming fish that captures the complete fluid-structure interaction, in which the body deforms according to both internal muscular forces and external fluid forces. Results indicate that identical muscle activation patterns can produce different kinematics depending on body stiffness, and the optimal value of stiffness for maximum acceleration is different from that for maximum steady swimming speed. Additionally, negative muscle work, observed in many fishes, emerges at higher tail beat frequencies without sensory input and may contribute to energy efficiency. Swimming fishes that can tune their body stiffness by appropriately timed muscle contractions may therefore be able to optimize the passive dynamics of their bodies to maximize peak acceleration or swimming speed.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Lampreias/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Reologia , Natação/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Cauda/fisiologia , Viscosidade
7.
J Exp Biol ; 213(4): 643-50, 2010 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20118315

RESUMO

A model is developed to predict the force generated by active skeletal muscle when subjected to imposed patterns of lengthening and shortening, such as those that occur during normal movements. The model is based on data from isolated lamprey muscle and can predict the forces developed during swimming. The model consists of a set of ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically. The model's first part is a simplified description of the kinetics of Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and binding to muscle protein filaments, in response to neural activation. The second part is based on A. V. Hill's mechanical model of muscle, consisting of elastic and contractile elements in series, the latter obeying known physiological properties. The parameters of the model are determined by fitting the appropriate mathematical solutions to data recorded from isolated lamprey muscle activated under conditions of constant length or rate of change of length. The model is then used to predict the forces developed under conditions of applied sinusoidal length changes, and the results compared with corresponding data. The most significant advance of this model is the incorporation of work-dependent deactivation, whereby a muscle that has been shortening under load generates less force after the shortening ceases than otherwise expected. In addition, the stiffness in this model is not constant but increases with increasing activation. The model yields a closer prediction to data than has been obtained before, and can thus prove an important component of investigations of the neural-mechanical-environmental interactions that occur during natural movements.


Assuntos
Lampreias/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Natação , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Biológicos
8.
J Comput Neurosci ; 15(2): 233-45, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14512749

RESUMO

A method of estimating coupling strength between two neural oscillators based on their spikes trains (Kiemel and Cohen, J. Comput. Neurosci. 5: 267-284, 1998) is tested using simulated data and then applied to experimental data from the central pattern generator (CPG) for swimming in the lamprey. The method is tested using a model of two connectionist oscillators and a model of two endogenously bursting cells. For both models, the method provides useful estimates of the relative strength of coupling in each direction, as well as estimates of total strength. The method is applied to pairs of motor-nerve recordings from isolated 50-segment pieces of spinal cords from adult silver lampreys (Ichthyomyzon unicuspus). The strength and direction of coupling is estimated under control conditions and conditions in which intersegmental coupling between the two recording locations is weakened by hemisections of the spinal cords and/or chambers containing an inhibitory solution that blocks firing in postsynaptic cells. The relevance of these measures in constraining models of the CPG is discussed.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Neurônios/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Vias Eferentes/fisiologia , Eletrofisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Hemisferectomia/métodos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lampreias , Modelos Neurológicos , Inibição Neural , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/citologia , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Química , Fatores de Tempo
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