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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561919

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Primary aldosteronism (PA) comprises unilateral (lateralized, LPA) and bilateral disease (BPA). The identification of LPA is important to recommend potentially curative adrenalectomy. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is considered the gold standard for PA subtyping, but the procedure is available in few referral centers. OBJECTIVE: To develop prediction models for subtype diagnosis of PA using patient clinical and biochemical characteristics. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND SETTING: Patients referred to a tertiary hypertension unit. Diagnostic algorithms were built and tested in a training (N=150) and in an internal validation cohort (N=65), respectively. The models were validated in an external independent cohort (N=118). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regression analyses and supervised machine learning algorithms were used to develop and validate two diagnostic models and a 20-point score to classify patients with PA according to subtype diagnosis. RESULTS: Six parameters were associated with a diagnosis of LPA (aldosterone at screening and after confirmatory testing, lowest potassium value, presence/absence of nodules, nodule diameter, and computed tomography results) and were included in the diagnostic models. Machine learning algorithms displayed high accuracy at training and internal validation (79.1% to 93%), whereas a 20-point score reached an AUC of 0.896, and a sensitivity/specificity of 91.7/79.3%. An integrated flow-chart correctly addressed 96.3% of patients to surgery and would have avoided AVS in 43.7% of patients. The external validation on an independent cohort confirmed a similar diagnostic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic modelling techniques can be used for subtype diagnosis and guide surgical decision in patients with PA in centers where AVS is unavailable.

2.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(6): 345-346, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544975

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is characterized by hypertension caused by inappropriately high adrenal aldosterone secretion, consecutively low plasma renin, and an elevated aldosterone to renin ratio. It is nowadays the universally accepted main cause of endocrine hypertension. According to the most recent epidemiological data, PA is present in 5.8% of unselected hypertensives in primary care, 6-12% of hypertensives treated in hypertension centers, and up to 30% in subjects with resistant hypertension 1. Despite this high prevalence, a recent survey demonstrated that screening for PA is not universally followed. Renin and aldosterone measurements, the basis for PA screening, are currently performed by only 7% of general practitioners in Italy and 8% in Germany 2. Accordingly, the prevalence of PA was low with 1% among hypertensives in Italy and 2% in Germany. In a retrospective cohort study of 4660 patients with resistant hypertension in California the screening rate for PA was 2.1% 3. Based on these data, it is clear that we still miss the majority of PA cases, despite advances in diagnosis and therapy.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303754

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The clinical spectrum and knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying primary aldosteronism (PA), the most frequent form of endocrine hypertension, has evolved over recent years. In accordance with the Endocrine Society guidelines and in light of the growing evidence showing adverse cardiovascular outcomes, it is expected that a progressively wider population of patients affected by hypertension will be screened for PA, including the elderly. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search of PubMed was undertaken for studies related to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), PA, and adrenal histopathology in the elderly population. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Several studies showed an age-dependent decrease in the activity of RAAS, together with a progressive decrease of the aldosterone response to sodium intake, particularly after the sixth decade of life. The positive correlation between age and serum aldosterone during liberal sodium intake over serum aldosterone during sodium restriction is paralleled by histological changes in adrenal aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression patterns. Immunohistochemical studies showed a progressive loss of the continuous expression of CYP11B2 in the adrenal zona glomerulosa with aging and a concomitant increase of aldosterone-producing cell clusters, which might be responsible for relatively autonomous aldosterone production. Additionally, following PA confirmation and subtype diagnosis, older age is correlated with a lower benefit after adrenalectomy for unilateral PA. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulating evidence suggests that RAAS physiology and regulation show age-related changes. Further studies may investigate to what extent these variations might affect the diagnostic workup of patients affected by PA.

4.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(6): 379-385, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168525

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of endocrine hypertension. Agonistic autoantibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R-Abs) have been described in transplantation medicine and women with pre-eclampsia and more recently in patients with PA. Any functional role of AT1R-Abs in either of the two main subtypes of PA (aldosterone-producing adenoma or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia) requires clarification. In this review, we discuss the studies performed to date on AT1R-Abs in PA.

5.
Hypertension ; 75(4): 1025-1033, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114853

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) was considered a rare disorder almost always associated with hypokalemia. The widespread screening of patients with hypertension unveiled an increased prevalence of PA with normokalemic hypertension the prevailing phenotype. Many studies have reported the prevalence of hypokalemia in patients with PA; conversely, the prevalence of PA in patients with hypokalemia is unknown. In this retrospective observational study, we define the prevalence of hypokalemia in referred patients with hypertension and the prevalence of PA in patients with hypokalemia and hypertension. Hypokalemia was present in 15.8% of 5100 patients with hypertension, whereas 76.9% were normokalemic, and 7.3% hyperkalemic. The prevalence of PA in patients with hypokalemia was 28.1% and increased with decreasing potassium concentrations up to 88.5% of patients with spontaneous hypokalemia and potassium concentrations <2.5 mmol/L. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated the association of hypokalemia with the occurrence of cardiovascular events independent of PA diagnosis. An association of PA with the occurrence of cardiovascular events and target organ damage independent of hypokalemia was also demonstrated. In conclusion, our results confirm that PA is a frequent cause of secondary hypertension in patients with hypokalemia, and the presence of hypertension and spontaneous hypokalemia are strong indications for PA diagnosis. Finally, we show that PA and hypokalemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.

6.
Hypertension ; 75(3): 634-644, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957522

RESUMO

Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are one of the main causes of primary aldosteronism and the most prevalent surgically correctable form of hypertension. Aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) comprise tight nests of zona glomerulosa cells, strongly positive for CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) in immunohistochemistry. APCCs have been suggested as possible precursors of APAs because they frequently carry driver mutations for constitutive aldosterone production, and a few adrenal lesions with histopathologic features of both APCCs and APAs have been identified. Our objective was to investigate the metabolic phenotypes of APCCs (n=27) compared with APAs (n=6) using in situ matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded adrenals from patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism. Specific distribution patterns of metabolites were associated with APCCs and classified 2 separate APCC subgroups (subgroups 1 and 2) indistinguishable by CYP11B2 immunohistochemistry. Metabolic profiles of APCCs in subgroup 1 were tightly clustered and distinct from subgroup 2 and APAs. Multiple APCCs from the same adrenal displayed metabolic profiles of the same subgroup. Metabolites of APCC subgroup 2 were highly similar to the APA group and indicated enhanced metabolic pathways favoring cell proliferation compared with APCC subgroup 1. In conclusion, we demonstrate specific subgroups of APCCs with strikingly divergent distribution patterns of metabolites. One subgroup displays a metabolic phenotype convergent with APAs and may represent the progression of APCCs to APAs.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789380

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenomas (APAs) are mainly composed of clear (lipid rich) and compact (eosinophilic) tumor cells. The detailed association between these histological features and somatic mutations (KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D) in APAs is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between histological features and individual genotypes in APAs. METHODS: Examination of 39 APAs subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing (11 KCNJ5, 10 ATP1A1, 10 ATP2B3, and 8 CACNA1D) and quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical (CYP11B2 and CYP17A1) analyses using digital imaging software. RESULTS: KCNJ5- and ATP2B3-mutated APAs had clear cell dominant features (KCNJ5: clear 59.8% [54.4-64.6%] vs compact 40.2% (35.4-45.6%), P = .0022; ATP2B3: clear 54.3% [48.2-62.4 %] vs compact 45.7% (37.6-51.8 %), P = .0696). ATP1A1- and CACNA1D-mutated APAs presented with marked intratumoral heterogeneity. A significantly positive correlation of immunoreactivity was detected between CYP11B2 and CYP17A1 in tumor cells of KCNJ5-mutated APAs (P = .0112; ρ = 0.7237), in contrast, significantly inverse correlation was detected in ATP1A1-mutated APAs (P = .0025; ρ = -0.8667). CONCLUSION: KCNJ5-mutated APAs, coexpressing CYP11B2 and CYP17A1, were more deviated in terms of zonation-specific differentiation of adrenocortical cells than ATP1A1- and ATP2B3-mutated APAs.

8.
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837980

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common potentially curable form of hypertension. The overproduction of aldosterone leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events as well as adverse effects to the heart and kidney and psychological disorders. PA is mainly caused by unilateral aldosterone excess due to an aldosterone-producing adenoma or bilateral excess due to bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia. The diagnostic work-up of PA comprises three steps: screening, confirmatory testing and differentiation of unilateral surgically-correctable forms from medically treated bilateral PA. These specific treatments can mitigate or reverse the increased risks associated with PA. Herein we summarise the prevalence, outcomes and current and future clinical approaches for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism.

10.
Exp Suppl ; 111: 213-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588534

RESUMO

The overwhelming majority of cases of primary aldosteronism (PA) occur sporadically due to a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or bilateral idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia. Familial forms of PA are rare with four subtypes defined to date (familial hyperaldosteronism types I-IV). The molecular basis of familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH type I or glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism) was established in 1992; two decades later the genetic variant causing FH type III was identified and germline mutations causing FH type IV and FH type II were determined soon after. Effective diagnostic protocols and methods to detect the overactive gland in unilateral PA by adrenal venous sampling followed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy have made available APAs for scientific studies. In rapid succession, following the widespread use of next-generation sequencing, recurrent somatic driver mutations in APAs were identified in genes encoding ion channels and transporters. The development of highly specific monoclonal antibodies against key enzymes in adrenal steroidogenesis has unveiled the heterogeneous features of the diseased adrenal in PA and helped reveal the high proportion of APAs with driver mutations. We discuss what is known about the genetics of PA that has led to a clearer understanding of the disease pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Adenoma Adrenocortical/complicações , Hiperaldosteronismo/genética , Adrenalectomia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/classificação
11.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 784-792, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476909

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism is a common form of endocrine hypertension mainly caused by a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH). AT1R-Abs (autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor) have been reported in patients with disorders associated with hypertension. Our objective was to assess AT1R-Ab levels in patients with primary aldosteronism (APA, n=40 and BAH, n=40) relative to patients with primary hypertension (n=40), preeclampsia (n=23), and normotensive individuals (n=25). AT1R-Abs in whole sera were measured using 2 different ELISAs which gave contrasting results. A functional cell-based assay was used to quantify activation of the AT1R (angiotensin II type 1 receptor) using whole sera or affinity-purified antibodies in the absence or presence of losartan (a specific AT1R antagonist). Serum samples from all groups displayed different levels of AT1R activation with different responses to losartan. Patients with BAH displayed higher losartan-independent affinity-isolated agonistic AT1R-Ab levels compared with patients with APA (P<0.01) and with normotensive individuals (P<0.0001). In patients with APA, BAH, and primary hypertension combined, higher aldosterone-to-renin ratios and lower plasma renin concentrations were associated with higher compared with lower agonistic AT1R-Ab levels. In patients with primary aldosteronism, higher AT1R-Ab activity was associated with an increased likelihood of a diagnosis of BAH compared with APA and with the presence of adrenal hyperplasia detected by computed tomography. Taken together, these data suggest that agonistic AT1R-Abs may have a functional role in a subgroup of patients with primary aldosteronism.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/imunologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/imunologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/imunologia , Gravidez , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555214

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the leading cause of secondary hypertension. The source of aldosterone hypersecretion is often due to a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma, and unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is recommended in such patients. Before surgery, confirmation of unilateral hypersecretion is necessary. This is optimally performed by adrenal venous sampling (AVS). However, AVS is not always successful e.g., due to difficulties in the cannulation of the right adrenal vein. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old female patient with primary aldosteronism, a left-sided adrenal mass and an inconspicuous right adrenal. AVS was performed, but cannulation of the right adrenal vein failed. Therefore, aldosterone hypersecretion also of the right adrenal could not be excluded despite higher aldosterone concentrations in the left renal and adrenal vein. To increase the certainty that the left sided adrenal mass was the source of aldosterone hypersecretion, steroid profiling was performed in a sample from the inferior vena cava. This revealed markedly elevated levels of 18-oxocortisol, 18-hydroxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 11-deoxycortisol, a steroid profile that strongly suggested that the left sided adrenal mass was an aldosterone producing adenoma, most likely due to a somatic KCNJ5 mutation. Following unilateral adrenalectomy, CYP11B2 immunohistochemistry, and genetics analysis of the resected adrenal confirmed a solitary aldosterone-producing adenoma with intense aldosterone synthase expression, which harbored a previously described KCNJ5 Phe154Cys mutation. Biochemical and clinical cure was confirmed 6 months postoperatively.

13.
JCI Insight ; 4(17)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484828

RESUMO

Recent genetic examinations and multisteroid profiles have provided the basis for subclassification of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). The objective of the current study was to produce a comprehensive, high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) map of APAs in relation to morphometry, immunohistochemical profiles, mutational status, and clinical outcome. The study cohort comprised 136 patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance MSI was conducted, and metabolite profiles were analyzed with genotype/phenotype information, including digital image analysis from morphometry and IHC of steroidogenic enzymes. Distinct molecular signatures between KCNJ5- and CACNA1D-mutated APAs with significant differences of 137 metabolites, including metabolites of purine metabolism and steroidogenesis, were observed. Intratumor concentration of 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol were inversely correlated with the staining intensity of CYP11B1. Lower staining intensity of CYP11B1 and higher levels of 18-oxocortisol were associated with a higher probability of complete clinical success after surgery. The present study demonstrates distinct metabolomic profiles of APAs in relation to tumor genotype. In addition, we reveal an inverse correlation between cortisol derivatives and CYP11B1 and the impact of 18-oxocortisol and CYP11B1 on clinical outcome, which provides unprecedented insights into the pathophysiology, clinical features, and steroidogenesis of APAs.

14.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 21(10): 77, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482378

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Steroid profiling and immunohistochemistry are both promising new tools used to improve diagnostic accuracy in the work-up of primary aldosteronism (PA) and to predict treatment outcomes. Herein, we review the recent literature and present an outlook to the future of diagnostics and therapeutic decision-making in patients with PA. RECENT FINDING: PA is the most common endocrine cause of arterial hypertension and unilateral forms of the disease are potentially curable by surgical resection of the overactive adrenal. Recent studies have shown that adrenal steroid profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be helpful for subtyping unilateral and bilateral forms of PA, classifying patients with a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) according to the presence of driver mutations of aldosterone production in APAs, and potentially predicting the outcomes of surgical treatment for unilateral PA. Following adrenalectomy, immunohistochemistry of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) in resected adrenals is a new tool to analyze "functional" histopathology and may be an indicator of biochemical outcomes after surgery. Biochemical and clinical outcomes of therapy in PA vary widely among patients. Peripheral venous steroid profiling at baseline could improve diagnostic accuracy and help in surgical decision-making in cases of a suspected APA; results of "functional" histopathology could help determine which patients are likely to need close post-surgical follow-up for persistent aldosteronism.

16.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 809-816, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446799

RESUMO

Aldosterone-producing adenomas with somatic mutations in the KCNJ5 G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel are a cause of primary aldosteronism. These mutations drive aldosterone excess, but their role in cell growth is undefined. Our objective was to determine the role of KCNJ5 mutations in adrenal cell proliferation and apoptosis. The Ki67 proliferative index was positively correlated with adenoma diameter in aldosterone-producing adenomas with a KCNJ5 mutation (r=0.435, P=0.007), a negative correlation was noted in adenomas with no mutation detected (r=-0.548, P=0.023). Human adrenocortical cell lines were established with stable expression of cumate-inducible wild-type or mutated KCNJ5. Increased cell proliferation was induced by low-level induction of KCNJ5-T158A expression compared with control cells (P=0.009), but increased induction ablated this difference. KCNJ5-G151R displayed no apparent proliferative effect, but KCNJ5-G151E and L168R mutations each resulted in decreased cell proliferation (difference P<0.0001 from control cells, both comparisons). Under conditions tested, T158A had no effect on apoptosis, but apoptosis increased with expression of G151R (P<0.0001), G151E (P=0.008), and L168R (P<0.0001). We generated a specific KCNJ5 monoclonal antibody which was used in immunohistochemistry to demonstrate strong KCNJ5 expression in adenomas without a KCNJ5 mutation and in the zona glomerulosa adjacent to adenomas irrespective of genotype as well as in aldosterone-producing cell clusters. Double immunofluorescence staining for KCNJ5 and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) showed markedly decreased KCNJ5 immunostaining in CYP11B2-positive cells compared with CYP11B2-negative cells in aldosterone-producing adenomas with a KCNJ5 mutation. Together, these findings support the concept that cell growth effects of KCNJ5 mutations are determined by the expression level of the mutated channel.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Hiperaldosteronismo/genética , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
17.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 127(2-03): 81-83, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30812048

RESUMO

Diseases of the adrenal gland are as important for the general practitioner as for the endocrine specialist. The high prevalence of some adrenal endocrinopathies, such as adrenal incidentalomas (1-2% of the population) and primary aldosteronism (6% of hypertensives), which affect millions of patients, makes adrenal diseases a relevant health issue. The high morbidity and mortality of some of the rarer adrenal diseases, i. e., Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome (Table 1), make early detection and appropriate treatment such a challenge for the health care system.


Assuntos
Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Glândulas Suprarrenais , Humanos
18.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672800

RESUMO

MINI: Clinical remission after unilateral adrenalectomy to treat unilateral primary aldosteronism is achieved in less than half of patients. A linear discriminant model with 6 presurgical predictors of clinical remission was used to build a 25-point prediction score of postsurgical clinical outcomes. The prediction score was integrated into a user-friendly online tool which can be used in a clinical setting to differentiate patients who are likely to be clinically cured after surgery from those who will need continuous surveillance after surgery due to remnant hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To develop a prediction model for clinical outcomes after unilateral adrenalectomy for unilateral primary aldosteronism. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Unilateral primary aldosteronism is the most common surgically curable form of endocrine hypertension. Surgical resection of the dominant overactive adrenal in unilateral primary aldosteronism results in complete clinical success with resolution of hypertension without antihypertensive medication in less than half of patients with a wide between-center variability. METHODS: A linear discriminant analysis model was built using data of 380 patients treated by adrenalectomy for unilateral primary aldosteronism to classify postsurgical clinical outcomes. The total cohort was then randomly divided into training (280 patients) and test (100 patients) datasets to create and validate a score system to predict clinical outcomes. An online tool (Primary Aldosteronism Surgical Outcome predictor) was developed to facilitate the use of the predictive score. RESULTS: Six presurgical factors associated with complete clinical success (known duration of hypertension, sex, antihypertensive medication dosage, body mass index, target organ damage, and size of largest nodule at imaging) were selected based on classification performance in the linear discriminant analysis model. A 25-point predictive score was built with an optimal cut-off of greater than 16 points (accuracy of prediction = 79.2%; specificity = 84.4%; sensitivity = 71.3%) with an area under the curve of 0.839. CONCLUSIONS: The predictive score and the primary aldosteronism surgical outcome predictor can be used in a clinical setting to differentiate patients who are likely to be clinically cured after surgery from those who will need continuous surveillance after surgery due to persistent hypertension.

19.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 189: 274-282, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654107

RESUMO

In primary aldosteronism (PA) the differentiation of unilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH) is usually performed by adrenal venous sampling (AVS) and/or computed tomography (CT). CT alone often lacks the sensitivity to identify micro-APAs. Our objectives were to establish if steroid profiling could be useful for the identification of patients with micro-APAs and for the development of an online tool to differentiate micro-APAs, macro-APAs and BAH. The study included patients with PA (n = 197) from Munich (n = 124) and Torino (n = 73) and comprised 33 patients with micro-APAs, 95 with macro-APAs, and 69 with BAH. Subtype differentiation was by AVS, and micro- and macro-APAs were selected according to pathology reports. Steroid concentrations in peripheral venous plasma were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. An online tool using a random forest model was built for the classification of micro-APA, macro-APA and BAH. Micro-APA were classified with low specificity (33%) but macro-APA and BAH were correctly classified with high specificity (93%). Improved classification of micro-APAs was achieved using a diagnostic algorithm integrating steroid profiling, CT scanning and AVS procedures limited to patients with discordant steroid and CT results. This would have increased the correct classification of micro-APAs to 68% and improved the overall classification to 92%. Such an approach could be useful to select patients with CT-undetectable micro-APAs in whom AVS should be considered mandatory.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Esteroides/análise , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/diagnóstico , Masculino
20.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 127(2-03): 100-108, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130807

RESUMO

The importance of an early diagnosis and appropriate management of patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) has become increasingly clear because of the adverse impact of the disorder on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and target organ damage. Adrenalectomy potentially cures patients with unilateral PA resulting in normalisation of blood pressure or significant clinical improvements in the majority of patients. Different criteria have been used to evaluate outcomes of unilateral adrenalectomy. Clinical remission (cure of hypertension) is observed in 6% to 86% of patients and clinical benefits from surgery are seen in the majority. Several factors have been identified that predict clinical success after surgery such as age, sex, anti-hypertensive medication dosage and known duration of hypertension. Biochemical remission of PA after unilateral adrenalectomy, characterised by the resolution of hyperaldosteronism and correction of pre-surgical hypokalaemia, is observed in 67% to 100% of patients with unilateral PA. In only a small proportion of patients, adrenalectomy fails to resolve hyperaldosteronism and inappropriate aldosterone production persists after surgery. In this review we discuss the potential reasons for failing to cure hyperaldosteronism after unilateral adrenalectomy for unilateral primary aldosteronism.


Assuntos
Adrenalectomia/métodos , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico
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