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1.
Intell Based Med ; 5: 100036, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179855

RESUMO

Objective: Among the stakeholders of COVID-19 research, clinicians particularly experience difficulty keeping up with the deluge of SARS-CoV-2 literature while performing their much needed clinical duties. By revealing major topics, this study proposes a text-mining approach as an alternative to navigating large volumes of COVID-19 literature. Materials and methods: We obtained 85,268 references from the NIH COVID-19 Portfolio as of November 21. After the exclusion based on inadequate abstracts, 65,262 articles remained in the final corpus. We utilized natural language processing to curate and generate the term list. We applied topic modeling analyses and multiple correspondence analyses to reveal the major topics and the associations among topics, journal countries, and publication sources. Results: In our text mining analyses of NIH's COVID-19 Portfolio, we discovered two sets of eleven major research topics by analyzing abstracts and titles of the articles separately. The eleven major areas of COVID-19 research based on abstracts included the following topics: 1) Public Health, 2) Patient Care & Outcomes, 3) Epidemiologic Modeling, 4) Diagnosis and Complications, 5) Mechanism of Disease, 6) Health System Response, 7) Pandemic Control, 8) Protection/Prevention, 9) Mental/Behavioral Health, 10) Detection/Testing, 11) Treatment Options. Further analyses revealed that five (2,3,4,5, and 9) of the eleven abstract-based topics showed a significant correlation (ranked from moderate to weak) with title-based topics. Conclusion: By offering up the more dynamic, scalable, and responsive categorization of published literature, our study provides valuable insights to the stakeholders of COVID-19 research, particularly clinicians.

2.
AIDS Care ; 32(10): 1207-1216, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530307

RESUMO

Factors associated with prescription of smoking cessation medication (SCM), including the impact of race, have not been well described among a large population of people living with HIV (PLWH) engaged in routine clinical care. Our study investigated whether there are racial differences between African-American and White PLWH regarding SCM prescription and sought to identify other factors associated with these prescriptions at a large HIV clinic in the Southeastern United States. Among 1899 smokers, 38.8% of those prescribed SCMs were African-American and 61.2% were White. Factors associated with lower odds of SCM prescription included African-American race (AOR, 0.63 [95% CI: 0.47, 0.84]) or transferring care from another HIV provider during the study period (AOR, 0.63 [95% CI: 0.43, 0.91]). Whereas major depression (AOR, 1.54 [95% CI: 1.10, 2.15]), anxiety symptoms (AOR, 1.43 [95% CI: 1.05, 1.94]), and heavy smoking (>20 cigarettes/day) (OR, 3.50 [95% CI: 2.11, 5.98]) were associated with increased likelihood of SCM prescription. There were racial disparities in the prescription of SCM in African Americans with HIV. These findings underscore the need to increase pharmacotherapy use among African Americans to improve smoking cessation outcomes across racial groups among PLWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Fatores Raciais , Fumantes , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Estados Unidos
3.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(5): 213-227, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396474

RESUMO

HIV disclosure is an important behavior with implications for HIV treatment and prevention but understudied among new to HIV care patients who face unique challenges adjusting to a new diagnosis. This study evaluated the factors associated with HIV disclosure status and patterns of HIV disclosure among new to HIV care patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted evaluating the iENGAGE (integrating ENGagement and Adherence Goals upon Entry) cohort. Participants were enrolled in this randomized behavioral trial between December 2013 and June 2016. The primary and secondary outcomes included HIV disclosure status (Yes/No) and patterns of disclosure (Broad, Selective and Nondisclosure), respectively. Logistic and Multinomial Logistic Regression were used to evaluate the association of participant factors with HIV disclosure and patterns of HIV disclosure, respectively. Of 371 participants, the average age was 37 ± 12 years, 79.3% were males, and 62.3% were African Americans. A majority of participants (78.4%) disclosed their HIV status at baseline, 63.1% were broad disclosers and 15.2% were selective disclosers. In multivariable regression, black race, emotional support, and unmet needs predicted any HIV and broad disclosure, whereas males, emotional support, active coping, and acceptance were associated with selective disclosure. Interventions to promote early disclosure should focus on coping strategies and unmet needs, particularly among black and male people living with HIV initiating care.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência ao Paciente , Autorrevelação , Revelação da Verdade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Estudos de Coortes , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(2): 170-177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059838

RESUMO

Despite its potential to improve metabolic health outcomes, longitudinal physical activity (PA) patterns and their association with cardiometabolic disease among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not been well characterized. We investigated this relationship among PLWH in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems with at least one PA self-report between 2008 and 2015. The 4-item Lipid Research Clinics PA instrument was used to categorize habitual PA levels as: Very Low, Low, Moderate, or High. We analyzed demographic differences in PA patterns. Multivariable generalized estimating equation regression models were fit to assess longitudinal associations of PA with blood pressure, lipid, and glucose levels. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of being diagnosed with obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, or multimorbidity. A total of 40,462 unique PA assessments were provided by 11,719 participants. Only 13% of PLWH reported High PA, while 68% reported Very Low/Low PA at baseline and did not increase PA levels during the study period. Compared to those reporting High PA, participants with Very Low PA had almost 2-fold increased risk for CVD. Very Low PA was also associated with several risk factors associated with CVD, most notably elevated triglycerides (odds ratio 25.4), obesity (odds ratio 1.9), hypertension (odds ratio 1.4), and diabetes (odds ratio 2.3; all p < 0.01). Low levels of PA over time among PLWH are associated with increased cardiometabolic disease risk.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Sobreviventes de Longo Prazo ao HIV , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Proteção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1409, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) have a high level of interest in quitting smoking, but only a small proportion have sustainable abstinence 6 months after cessation. Few investigations have focused on relapse to smoking among PLWH. In this investigation, we evaluated the prevalence of relapse after smoking cessation and the characteristics associated with smoking relapse using a retrospective, longitudinal cohort of PLWH during an eight-year observation. METHODS: All patients aged ≥19 years that reported current smoking during the study period and then reported not smoking on a subsequent tobacco use questionnaire (quitters) were eligible for the study. In addition, patients required at least one subsequent follow-up visit after quitting where smoking status was again reported to allow for assessment of relapse. A Cox proportional hazard model was fit to evaluate factors associated with smoking relapse in PLWH attending routine clinical care. RESULTS: Of the 473 patients who quit smoking in the study, 51% relapsed. In multivariable analysis, factors significantly associated with a higher likelihood of relapse were anxiety symptoms (HR = 1.55, 95% CI [1.11, 2.17]) and at-risk alcohol use (HR = 1.74, 95% CI [1.06, 2.85]), whereas antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence (HR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.49, 0.99]) and longer time in care (HR = 0.94, 95% CI [0.91, 0.98]) were associated with a reduced likelihood of relapse after cessation. CONCLUSION: Our study underscores the high prevalence of smoking relapse that exists among PLWH after they quit smoking. Successful engagement in mental health care may enhance efforts to reduce relapse in the underserved populations of PLWH.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Alabama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Gait Posture ; 73: 246-250, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians often use thirty-second-sit (chair)-to-stand (30CST), timed-up-and-go (TUG), and the five-times-sit-to-stand (5xSTS) since these outcome measures (OMs) are sensitive for strength, balance and mobility. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to validate a custom smart phone application (App) that can remotely assess the 30CST, TUG, and 5xSTS. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy adults (range: 22-55 y; 54.6-106.8 kg; 160-185 cm; 19 females) participated in this cross-sectional study. Each participant performed the 30CST, TUG, and 5xSTS at a slow and normal speed. They performed each OMs twice while the App collected their performance data using both an iOS and Android phone. The gold standard of each test was the average of the silent count of two investigators for the 30CST and the time recorded by two investigators using stopwatches for the TUG and 5xSTS. Investigators analyzed the data using Intraclass Correlation coefficients (ICC), Pearson R coefficients, Signed Rank Tests, and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Tests. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE: A significant correlation was observed between the performances recorded by the phones and the direct observation gold standard for all three OMs (r > 0.97). For 30CST, no significant mean count differences were found for the following comparisons: between phones, within phone types, or within phone-by-speed levels. (P-values range 0.06-1.00). While a statistically significant difference was found in all of the time comparisons when performing TUG and 5xSTS (p < 0.0001) except for the between phone comparison with TUG (p = 0.27). For TUG and 5xSTS, the time difference was less than a second when compared to the gold standard and ICCs showed moderate to strong agreement when comparing the phone application to the gold standard (ICCs range 0.60-0.99). These data suggested that the App could validly measure performance of these OMs.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Smartphone , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Telefone Celular , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 149, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher risks for myocardial infarction (MI) than the general population. This is driven in part by higher type 2 MI (T2MI, due to coronary supply-demand mismatch) rates among persons with HIV (PWH). In the general population, T2MI has higher mortality than type 1 MI (T1MI, spontaneous and generally due to plaque rupture and thrombosis). PWH have a greater burden of comorbidities and may therefore have an even greater excess risk for complication and death in the setting of T2MI. However, mortality patterns after T1MI and T2MI in HIV are unknown. METHODS: We analyzed mortality after MI among PWH enrolled in the multicenter, US-based Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort (N = 28,186). Incident MIs occurring between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2014, were centrally adjudicated and classified as T1MI or T2MI. We first compared mortality following T1MI vs. T2MI among PWH. Cox survival analyses and Bayesian model averaging were then used to evaluate pre-MI covariates associated with mortality following T1MI and T2MI. RESULTS: Among the 596 out of 28,186 PWH who experienced MI (2.1%; 293 T1MI and 303 T2MI), mortality rates were significantly greater after T2MI (22.2/100 person-years; 1-, 3-, and 5-year mortality 39%, 52%, and 62%) than T1MI (8.2/100 person-years; 1-, 3-, and 5-year mortality 15%, 22%, and 30%). Significant mortality predictors after T1MI were higher HIV viral load, renal dysfunction, and older age. Significant predictors of mortality after T2MI were low body-mass index (BMI) and detectable HIV viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality is high following MI for PWH and substantially greater after T2MI than T1MI. Predictors of death after MI differed by type of MI, reinforcing the different clinical scenarios associated with each MI type and the importance of considering MI types separately.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Redes Comunitárias , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
AIDS Care ; 31(11): 1353-1361, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117821

RESUMO

People living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of smoking and are less likely to quit smoking than the general population. Few studies involving a large sample of PLWH receiving routine care have evaluated factors associated with smoking cessation. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study evaluated factors associated with smoking cessation among PLWH from 2007 to 2018. Of 1,714 PLWH smokers included in the study, 27.6% reported quitting smoking. Suppressed plasma HIV-1 RNA (<200 copies/ml) was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of smoking cessation (HRadjusted = 1.27, 95% CI [1.03, 1.58]); whereas age/10 year increments (HRadjusted = 0.12, 95% CI [0.04, 0.38]), greater length of care at the HIV clinic (HRadjusted = 0.97, 95% CI [0.94, 0.99]), lack of insurance (HRadjusted = 0.77, 95% CI [0.61, 0.99]) or having public insurance (HRadjusted = 0.74, 95% CI [0.55, 0.97)]), current substance use (HRadjusted = 0.66, 95% CI [0.43, 0.97]) and risk of developing alcohol use disorder (HRadjusted = 0.60, 95% CI [0.43, 0.84]) were associated with a reduced likelihood of quitting smoking. These findings underscore the importance of early smoking cessation intervention among PLWH. In addition, targeted smoking cessation intervention strategies are needed for groups at risk for being less likely to quit, including older patients, and those with alcohol and substance use disorders.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia
10.
J Nurs Educ ; 58(2): 79-85, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing faculty sought to promote students' engagement with course material and their peers by using Kaizen, an online educational game. The purpose of this qualitative study was to learn more about nursing students' perceptions of team competition in an educational game and whether the game promoted their engagement with educational material in one fundamental nursing course. METHOD: Qualitative data collection included focus groups, observations of students, documents showing leaderboards and game participation, and "status of competition" e-mails. Data were transcribed and coded to determine emerging themes. RESULTS: Four themes emerged from data analysis: learning in teams, motivators to play, learning course content, and suggestions for game improvement. CONCLUSION: Students were overwhelmingly positive about using a gamified platform for its educational rewards. They perceived that playing the game increased their knowledge retention, and they believed it helped them improve their test-taking skills. [J Nurs Educ. 2019;58(2):79-85.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos
11.
Med Sci Educ ; 29(3): 739-747, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071793

RESUMO

A longstanding challenge facing MD-PhD students and other dual-degree medical trainees is the loss of clinical knowledge that occurs during the non medical phases of training. Academic medical institutions nationwide have developed continued clinical training and exposure to maintain clinical competence; however, quantitative assessment of their usefulness remains largely unexplored. The current study therefore sought to both implement and optimize an online game platform to support MD-PhD students throughout their research training. Sixty three current MD-PhD students completing the PhD research phase of training were enrolled in an institutionally-developed online game platform for 2 preliminary and 4 competition rounds of 3-4 weeks each. During preliminary game rounds, we found that participation, though initially high, declined precipitously throughout the duration of each round, with 37 students participating to some extent. Daily reminders were implemented in subsequent rounds, which markedly improved player participation. Average participation in competition rounds exceeded 35% (23/63) active participants each round, with trending improvement in scores throughout the duration of PhD training. Both player participation and progress through the research phase of the MD-PhD program correlated positively with game performance and therefore knowledge retention and/or acquisition. Coupled with positive survey-based feedback from participants, our data therefore suggest that gamification is an effective tool for MD-PhD programs to combat loss of clinical knowledge during research training.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206828, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Walking speed has been associated with many clinical outcomes (e.g., frailty, mortality, joint replacement need, etc.). Accurately measuring walking speed (stride length x step count/time) typically requires significant clinician/staff time or a gait lab with specialized equipment (i.e., electronic timers or motion capture). In the present study, our goal was to measure "step count" via smartphones through novel software and to compare with step tracking software that come standard with iOS and Android smartphones as a first step in walking speed measurement. METHODS: A separate calibration and validation data collection was performed. Individuals in the calibration collection (n = 5) walked 20m at normal and slow speed (<1.0 m/s). Appropriate settings for the novel mobile application were chosen to measure step count. Individuals in the validation (n = 52) collection walked at 6m, 10m, and 20m at normal and slow walking speeds. We compared step difference (absolute difference) from observed step counts to native step tracking software and our novel software derived step counts. We used generalized estimated equation adjusted (participant level) negative binomial regression models of absolute step difference from observed step counts, to determine optimal settings (calibration) and subsequently to gauge performance of the shake algorithm settings and native step tracking software across different distances and speeds (validation). RESULTS: For iOS/iPhone 6, when compared to observed step count, the shake service (software driven approach) significantly outperformed the embedded native step tracking software across all distances at slow speed, and for short distance (6m) at normal speed. On the Android phone, the shake service outperformed the native step tracking software at slow speed at 6 meters and 20 meters, while its performance eclipsed the native step tracking software only at 20 meters at normal speed. DISCUSSION: Our software based approach outperformed native step tracking software across various speeds and distances and carries the advantage of having adjustable measurement parameters that can be further optimized for specific medical conditions. Such software applications will provide an effective way to capture standardized data across multiple commercial smartphone devices, facilitating the future capture of walking speed and other clinically important performance parameters that will influence clinical and home care in the era of value based care.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Aplicativos Móveis , Software/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
14.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 36(9): 458-465, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985195

RESUMO

To determine the effects of gamification on student education, researchers implemented "Kaizen," a software-based knowledge competition, among a first-year class of undergraduate nursing students. Multiple-choice questions were released weekly or biweekly during two rounds of play. Participation was voluntary, and students could play the game using any Web-enabled device. Analyses of data generated from the game included (1) descriptive, (2) logistic regression modeling of factors associated with user attrition, (3) generalized linear mixed model for retention of knowledge, and (4) analysis of variance of final examination performance by play styles. Researchers found a statistically significant increase in the odds of a correct response (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.4) for a round 1 question repeated in round 2, suggesting retention of knowledge. They also found statistically significant differences in final examination performance among different play styles.To maximize the benefits of gamification, researchers must use the resulting data both to power educational analytics and to inform nurse educators how to enhance student engagement, knowledge retention, and academic performance.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Jogos Experimentais , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Instrução por Computador , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Software
15.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194940, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans are disproportionately affected by both HIV and hypertension. Failure to modify risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease such as hypertension among HIV-infected patients may attenuate the benefits conferred by combination antiretroviral therapy. In the general population, African Americans with hypertension are less likely to have controlled blood pressure than whites. However, racial differences in blood pressure control among HIV-infected patients are not well studied. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study evaluating racial differences in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control among 1,664 patients attending the University of Alabama at Birmingham HIV Clinic in 2013. Multivariable analyses were performed to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) as the measure of association between race and hypertension prevalence and control while adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 47 years, 77% were male and 54% African-American. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among African Americans compared with whites (49% vs. 43%; p = 0.02). Among those with hypertension, 91% of African Americans and 93% of whites were treated (p = 0.43). Among those treated, 50% of African Americans versus 60% of whites had controlled blood pressure (systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) (p = 0.007). After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, prevalence of hypertension was higher among African Americans compared to whites (PR 1.25; 95% CI 1.12-1.39) and prevalence of BP control was lower (PR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Despite comparable levels of hypertension treatment, African Americans in our HIV cohort were less likely to achieve blood pressure control. This may place them at increased risk for adverse outcomes that disproportionately impact HIV-infected patients, such as cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease, and thus attenuate the benefits conferred by combination antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Appl Clin Inform ; 8(4): 1159-1172, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinical informatics researchers depend on the availability of high-quality data from the electronic health record (EHR) to design and implement new methods and systems for clinical practice and research. However, these data are frequently unavailable or present in a format that requires substantial revision. This article reports the results of a review of informatics literature published from 2010 to 2016 that addresses these issues by identifying categories of data content that might be included or revised in the EHR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used an iterative review process on 1,215 biomedical informatics research articles. We placed them into generic categories, reviewed and refined the categories, and then assigned additional articles, for a total of three iterations. RESULTS: Our process identified eight categories of data content issues: Adverse Events, Clinician Cognitive Processes, Data Standards Creation and Data Communication, Genomics, Medication List Data Capture, Patient Preferences, Patient-reported Data, and Phenotyping. DISCUSSION: These categories summarize discussions in biomedical informatics literature that concern data content issues restricting clinical informatics research. These barriers to research result from data that are either absent from the EHR or are inadequate (e.g., in narrative text form) for the downstream applications of the data. In light of these categories, we discuss changes to EHR data storage that should be considered in the redesign of EHRs, to promote continued innovation in clinical informatics. CONCLUSION: Based on published literature of clinical informaticians' reuse of EHR data, we characterize eight types of data content that, if included in the next generation of EHRs, would find immediate application in advanced informatics tools and techniques.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Informática Médica , Mineração de Dados , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/normas , Fenótipo , Padrões de Referência , Autorrelato
17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 6(6): e115, 2017 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28623185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meticulous tracking of study data must begin early in the study recruitment phase and must account for regulatory compliance, minimize missing data, and provide high information integrity and/or reduction of errors. In behavioral intervention trials, participants typically complete several study procedures at different time points. Among HIV-infected patients, behavioral interventions can favorably affect health outcomes. In order to empower newly diagnosed HIV positive individuals to learn skills to enhance retention in HIV care, we developed the behavioral health intervention Integrating ENGagement and Adherence Goals upon Entry (iENGAGE) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), where we deployed an in-clinic behavioral health intervention in 4 urban HIV outpatient clinics in the United States. To scale our intervention strategy homogenously across sites, we developed software that would function as a behavioral sciences research platform. OBJECTIVE: This manuscript aimed to: (1) describe the design and implementation of a Web-based software application to facilitate deployment of a multisite behavioral science intervention; and (2) report on results of a survey to capture end-user perspectives of the impact of this platform on the conduct of a behavioral intervention trial. METHODS: In order to support the implementation of the NIAID-funded trial iENGAGE, we developed software to deploy a 4-site behavioral intervention for new clinic patients with HIV/AIDS. We integrated the study coordinator into the informatics team to participate in the software development process. Here, we report the key software features and the results of the 25-item survey to evaluate user perspectives on research and intervention activities specific to the iENGAGE trial (N=13). RESULTS: The key features addressed are study enrollment, participant randomization, real-time data collection, facilitation of longitudinal workflow, reporting, and reusability. We found 100% user agreement (13/13) that participation in the database design and/or testing phase made it easier to understand user roles and responsibilities and recommended participation of research teams in developing databases for future studies. Users acknowledged ease of use, color flags, longitudinal work flow, and data storage in one location as the most useful features of the software platform and issues related to saving participant forms, security restrictions, and worklist layout as least useful features. CONCLUSIONS: The successful development of the iENGAGE behavioral science research platform validated an approach of early and continuous involvement of the study team in design development. In addition, we recommend post-hoc collection of data from users as this led to important insights on how to enhance future software and inform standard clinical practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01900236; (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01900236 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6qAa8ld7v).

18.
AIDS Behav ; 21(7): 1914-1925, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285434

RESUMO

Hazardous alcohol use is associated with detrimental health outcomes among persons living with HIV (PLWH). We examined the prevalence and factors associated with hazardous alcohol use in the current era using several hazardous drinking definitions and binge drinking defined as ≥5 drinks for men versus ≥4 for women. We included 8567 PLWH from 7 U.S. sites from 2013 to 2015. Current hazardous alcohol use was reported by 27% and 34% reported binge drinking. In adjusted analyses, current and past cocaine/crack (odd ratio [OR] 4.1:3.3-5.1, p < 0.001 and OR 1.3:1.1-1.5, p < 0.001 respectively), marijuana (OR 2.5:2.2-2.9, p < 0.001 and OR 1.4:1.2-1.6, p < 0.001), and cigarette use (OR 1.4:1.2-1.6, p < 0.001 and OR 1.3:1.2-1.5, p < 0.001) were associated with increased hazardous alcohol use. The prevalence of hazardous alcohol use remains high in the current era, particularly among younger men. Routine screening and targeted interventions for hazardous alcohol use, potentially bundled with interventions for other drugs, remain a key aspect of HIV care.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Cocaína Crack , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 33(6): 534-545, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28092168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy and illicit drug use, smoking, and at-risk alcohol use among a large diverse cohort of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in clinical care. METHODS: 7,931 PLWH at six sites across the United States completed 21,279 clinical assessments, including lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy, drug/alcohol use, physical activity level, and smoking. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy were measured using the FRAM body morphology instrument and associations were assessed with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Lipohypertrophy (33% mild, 4% moderate-to-severe) and lipoatrophy (20% mild, 3% moderate-to-severe) were common. Older age, male sex, and higher current CD4 count were associated with more severe lipohypertrophy (p values <.001-.03). Prior methamphetamine or marijuana use, and prior and current cocaine use, were associated with more severe lipohypertrophy (p values <.001-.009). Older age, detectable viral load, and low current CD4 cell counts were associated with more severe lipoatrophy (p values <.001-.003). In addition, current smoking and marijuana and opiate use were associated with more severe lipoatrophy (p values <.001-.03). Patients with very low physical activity levels had more severe lipohypertrophy and also more severe lipoatrophy than those with all other activity levels (p values <.001). For example, the lipohypertrophy score of those reporting high levels of physical activity was on average 1.6 points lower than those reporting very low levels of physical activity (-1.6, 95% CI: -1.8 to -1.4, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy among a nationally distributed cohort of PLWH. While low levels of physical activity were associated with both lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy, associations with substance use and other clinical characteristics differed between lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy. These results support the conclusion that lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy are distinct, and highlight differential associations with specific illicit drug use.

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