Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515452

RESUMO

The Diels-Alder cycloaddition, in which a diene reacts with a dienophile to form a cyclic compound, counts among the most important tools in organic synthesis. Achieving a precise understanding of its mechanistic details on the quantum level requires new experimental and theoretical methods. Here, we present an experimental approach that separates different diene conformers in a molecular beam as a prerequisite for the investigation of their individual cycloaddition reaction kinetics and dynamics under single-collision conditions in the gas phase. A low- and high-level quantum-chemistry-based screening of more than one hundred dienes identified 2,3-dibromobutadiene (DBB) as an optimal candidate for efficient separation of its gauche and s-trans conformers by electrostatic deflection. A preparation method for DBB was developed which enabled the generation of dense molecular beams of this compound. The theoretical predictions of the molecular properties of DBB were validated by the successful separation of the conformers in the molecular beam. A marked difference in photofragment ion yields of the two conformers upon femtosecond-laser pulse ionization was observed, pointing at a pronounced conformer-specific fragmentation dynamics of ionized DBB. Our work sets the stage for a rigorous examination of mechanistic models of cycloaddition reactions under controlled conditions in the gas phase.

2.
Science ; 367(6483): 1213-1218, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165581

RESUMO

Trapped atoms and ions, which are among the best-controlled quantum systems, find widespread applications in quantum science. For molecules, a similar degree of control is currently lacking owing to their complex energy-level structure. Quantum-logic protocols in which atomic ions serve as probes for molecular ions are a promising route for achieving this level of control, especially for homonuclear species that decouple from blackbody radiation. Here, a quantum-nondemolition protocol on single trapped [Formula: see text] molecules is demonstrated. The spin-rovibronic state of the molecule is detected with >99% fidelity, and a spectroscopic transition is measured without destroying the quantum state. This method lays the foundations for new approaches to molecular spectroscopy, state-to-state chemistry, and the implementation of molecular qubits.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5429, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780657

RESUMO

The investigation of cold interactions between ions and neutrals has recently emerged as a new scientific frontier at the interface of physics and chemistry. Here, we report a study of charge-transfer (CT) collisions of Rb atoms with N[Formula: see text] and O[Formula: see text] ions in the mK regime using a dynamic ion-neutral hybrid trapping experiment. We observe markedly different CT kinetics and dynamics for the different systems and reaction channels studied. While the kinetics in some channels are consistent with classical capture theory, others show distinct non-universal dynamics. The experimental results are interpreted with the help of classical-capture, quasiclassical-trajectory and quantum-scattering calculations using ab-initio potentials for the highly excited molecular states involved. The theoretical analysis reveals an intricate interplay between short- and long-range effects in the different reaction channels which ultimately determines the CT dynamics and rates. Our results illustrate salient mechanisms that determine the efficiency of cold molecular CT reactions.

4.
J Chem Phys ; 151(10): 104301, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521066

RESUMO

The Diels-Alder reaction between 2,3-dibromo-1,3-butadiene and maleic anhydride has been studied by means of multisurface adiabatic reactive molecular dynamics and the PhysNet neural network architecture. This system is used as a prototype to explore the concertedness, synchronicity, and possible ways of promotion of Diels-Alder reactions. Analysis of the minimum dynamic path indicates that rotational energy is crucial (∼65%) to drive the system toward the transition state in addition to collision energy (∼20%). Comparison with the reaction of butadiene and maleic anhydride shows that the presence of bromine substituents in the diene accentuates the importance of rotational excitation to promote the reaction. At the high total energies at which reactive events are recorded, the reaction is found to be direct and mostly synchronous.

8.
Faraday Discuss ; 217(0): 561-583, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041946

RESUMO

We present theoretical and experimental progress towards a new approach for the precision spectroscopy, coherent manipulation and state-to-state chemistry of single isolated molecular ions in the gas phase. Our method uses a molecular beam for creating packets of rotationally cold neutrals from which a single molecule is state-selectively ionized and trapped inside a radiofrequency ion trap. In addition to the molecular ion, a single co-trapped atomic ion is used to cool the molecular external degrees of freedom to the ground state of the trap and to detect the molecular state using state-selective coherent motional excitation from a modulated optical-dipole force acting on the molecule. We present a detailed discussion and theoretical characterization of the present approach. We simulate the molecular signal experimentally using a single atomic ion, indicating that different rovibronic molecular states can be resolved and individually detected with our method. The present approach for the coherent control and non-destructive detection of the quantum state of a single molecular ion opens up new perspectives for precision spectroscopies relevant for, e.g., tests of fundamental physical theories and the development of new types of clocks based on molecular vibrational transitions. It will also enable the observation and control of chemical reactions of single particles on the quantum level. While focusing on N2+ as a prototypical example in the present work, our method is applicable to a wide range of diatomic and polyatomic molecules.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2096, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844308

RESUMO

Water is one of the most fundamental molecules in chemistry, biology and astrophysics. It exists as two distinct nuclear-spin isomers, para- and ortho-water, which do not interconvert in isolated molecules. The experimental challenges in preparing pure samples of the two isomers have thus far precluded a characterization of their individual chemical behavior. Capitalizing on recent advances in the electrostatic deflection of polar molecules, we separate the ground states of para- and ortho-water in a molecular beam to show that the two isomers exhibit different reactivities in a prototypical reaction with trapped diazenylium ions. Based on ab initio calculations and a modelling of the reaction kinetics using rotationally adiabatic capture theory, we rationalize this finding in terms of different rotational averaging of ion-dipole interactions during the reaction.

10.
J Chem Phys ; 145(4): 044314, 2016 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27475368

RESUMO

We develop a model for predicting fine- and hyperfine intensities in the direct photoionization of molecules based on the separability of electron and nuclear spin states from vibrational-electronic states. Using spherical tensor algebra, we derive highly symmetrized forms of the squared photoionization dipole matrix elements from which we derive the salient selection and propensity rules for fine- and hyperfine resolved photoionizing transitions. Our theoretical results are validated by the analysis of the fine-structure resolved photoelectron spectrum of O2 reported by Palm and Merkt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1385 (1998)] and are used for predicting hyperfine populations of molecular ions produced by photoionization.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 145(4): 044315, 2016 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27475369

RESUMO

Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is a widely used technique for studying molecular photoionization and producing molecular cations for spectroscopy and dynamics studies. Here, we present a model for describing hyperfine-structure effects in the REMPI process and for predicting hyperfine populations in molecular ions produced by this method. This model is a generalization of our model for fine- and hyperfine-structure effects in one-photon ionization of molecules presented in Paper I [M. Germann and S. Willitsch, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 044314 (2016)]. This generalization is achieved by covering two main aspects: (1) treatment of the neutral bound-bound transition including the hyperfine structure that makes up the first step of the REMPI process and (2) modification of our ionization model to account for anisotropic populations resulting from this first excitation step. Our findings may be used for analyzing results from experiments with molecular ions produced by REMPI and may serve as a theoretical background for hyperfine-selective ionization experiments.

12.
Chemphyschem ; 17(22): 3769-3775, 2016 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27553714

RESUMO

We present a dynamic ion-atom hybrid trap for studies of cold ion-neutral collisions and reactions with a significantly improved energy resolution compared with previous experiments. Our approach is based on pushing a cloud of laser-cooled Rb atoms through a stationary Coulomb crystal of cold ions by using precisely controlled, tunable radiation pressure forces. We demonstrate the tuning of the atom kinetic energies over an interval ranging from 30 mK up to 350 mK with energy spreads as low as 24 mK, inferred from the comparison of experimental time-of-flight measurements with Monte Carlo trajectory simulations. We also demonstrate the first applications of our method to the investigation of chemical reactions. Our development opens up perspectives for accurate studies of the energy dependence of the reaction rates, the dynamics, and the reaction-product ratios of the ion-neutral processes in the cold regime. It also paves the way for the realization of fully energy- and state-controlled cold-collision experiments.

13.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(5): 053305, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27250412

RESUMO

We present the design and performance of two supersonic radical beam sources: a conventional pinhole-discharge source and a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) source, both based on the Nijmegen pulsed valve. Both designs have been characterized by discharging water molecules seeded in the rare gases Ar, Kr, or Xe. The resulting OH radicals have been detected by laser-induced fluorescence. The measured OH densities are (3.0 ± 0.6) × 10(11) cm(-3) and (1.0 ± 0.5) × 10(11) cm(-3) for the pinhole-discharge and DBD sources, respectively. The beam profiles for both radical sources show a relative longitudinal velocity spread of about 10%. The absolute rotational ground state population of the OH beam generated from the pinhole-discharge source has been determined to be more than 98%. The DBD source even produces a rotationally colder OH beam with a population of the ground state exceeding 99%. For the DBD source, addition of O2 molecules to the gas mixture increases the OH beam density by a factor of about 2.5, improves the DBD valve stability, and allows to tune the mean velocity of the radical beam.

14.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 69(4): 213-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26668941

RESUMO

A range of interesting fundamental scientific questions can be addressed by high-precision molecular spectroscopy. A promising way towards this goal is the measurement of dipole-forbidden vibrational transitions in molecular ions. We have recently reported the first such observation in a molecular ion. Here, we give an overview of our method and our results as well as an outlook on potential future applications.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 140(12): 124202, 2014 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24697433

RESUMO

Many molecules exhibit multiple conformers that often easily interconvert under thermal conditions. Therefore, single conformations are difficult to isolate which renders the study of their distinct chemical reactivities challenging. We have recently reported a new experimental method for the characterization of conformer-specific effects in chemical reactions [Y.-P. Chang, K. Dlugolecki, J. Küpper, D. Rösch, D. Wild, and S. Willitsch, "Specific chemical reactivities of spatially separated 3-aminophenol conformers with cold Ca(+) ions," Science 342, 98-101 (2013)]. Different conformers are spatially separated using inhomogeneous electric fields and reacted with a Coulomb crystal of cold, spatially localized ions in a trap. As a first application, we studied reactions between the two conformers of 3-aminophenol and Ca(+). We observed a twofold larger rate constant for the cis compared to the trans conformer which was rationalized in terms of the differences in the long-range ion-molecule interactions. The present article provides a detailed description of the new method and a full account of the experimental results as well as the accompanying theoretical calculations.

16.
Science ; 342(6154): 98-101, 2013 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24092740

RESUMO

Many molecules exhibit multiple rotational isomers (conformers) that interconvert thermally and are difficult to isolate. Consequently, a precise characterization of their role in chemical reactions has proven challenging. We have probed the reactivity of specific conformers by using an experimental technique based on their spatial separation in a molecular beam by electrostatic deflection. The separated conformers react with a target of Coulomb-crystallized ions in a trap. In the reaction of Ca(+) with 3-aminophenol, we find a twofold larger rate constant for the cis compared with the trans conformer (differentiated by the O-H bond orientation). This result is explained by conformer-specific differences in the long-range ion-molecule interaction potentials. Our approach demonstrates the possibility of controlling reactivity through selection of conformational states.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(23): 233202, 2012 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23368197

RESUMO

We report on a study of cold reactive collisions between sympathetically cooled molecular ions and laser-cooled atoms in an ion-atom hybrid trap. Chemical reactions were studied at average collision energies /k(B)>/~20 mK, about 2 orders of magnitude lower than has been achieved in previous experiments with molecular ions. Choosing N(2)(+)+Rb as a prototypical system, we find that the reaction rate is independent of the collision energy within the range studied, but strongly dependent on the internal state of Rb. Highly efficient charge exchange four times faster than the Langevin rate was observed with Rb in the excited (5p) (2)P(3/2) state. This observation is rationalized by a capture process dominated by the charge-quadrupole interaction and a near resonance between the entrance and exit channels of the system. Our results provide a test of classical models for reactions of molecular ions at the lowest energies reached thus far.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(42): 18703-4, 2011 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21989765
19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(24): 243202, 2011 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22242998

RESUMO

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled Ca+ ions and Rb atoms in an ion-atom hybrid trap. We observe rich chemical dynamics which are interpreted in terms of nonadiabatic and radiative charge exchange as well as radiative molecule formation using high-level electronic structure calculations. We study the role of light-assisted processes and show that the efficiency of the dominant chemical pathways is considerably enhanced in excited reaction channels. Our results illustrate the importance of radiative and nonradiative processes for the cold chemistry occurring in ion-atom hybrid traps.

20.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 64(12): 855-8, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21268992

RESUMO

Chemical physics and molecular spectroscopy are topics with a traditionally strong emphasis in the department. Current research focuses on the spectroscopic characterization of transient molecules present in interstellar space and the preparation, control and chemistry of ultracold molecules and ions in the gas phase.


Assuntos
Físico-Química/métodos , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Astronomia/métodos , Cátions , Íons , Lasers , Temperatura
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA