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1.
Genes Dev ; 35(23-24): 1657-1677, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819350

RESUMO

Senescence shapes embryonic development, plays a key role in aging, and is a critical barrier to cancer initiation, yet how senescence is regulated remains incompletely understood. TBX2 is an antisenescence T-box family transcription repressor implicated in embryonic development and cancer. However, the repertoire of TBX2 target genes, its cooperating partners, and how TBX2 promotes proliferation and senescence bypass are poorly understood. Here, using melanoma as a model, we show that TBX2 lies downstream from PI3K signaling and that TBX2 binds and is required for expression of E2F1, a key antisenescence cell cycle regulator. Remarkably, TBX2 binding in vivo is associated with CACGTG E-boxes, present in genes down-regulated by TBX2 depletion, more frequently than the consensus T-element DNA binding motif that is restricted to Tbx2 repressed genes. TBX2 is revealed to interact with a wide range of transcription factors and cofactors, including key components of the BCOR/PRC1.1 complex that are recruited by TBX2 to the E2F1 locus. Our results provide key insights into how PI3K signaling modulates TBX2 function in cancer to drive proliferation.

2.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 167(7)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224347

RESUMO

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a large group of micro-organisms comprising more than 200 individual species. Most NTM are saprophytic organisms and are found mainly in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In recent years, NTM have been increasingly associated with infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, prompting significant efforts to understand the diverse pathogenic and signalling traits of these emerging pathogens. Since the discovery of Type VII secretion systems (T7SS), there have been significant developments regarding the role of these complex systems in mycobacteria. These specialised systems, also known as Early Antigenic Secretion (ESX) systems, are employed to secrete proteins across the inner membrane. They also play an essential role in virulence, nutrient uptake and conjugation. Our understanding of T7SS in mycobacteria has significantly benefited over the last few years, from the resolution of ESX-3 structure in Mycobacterium smegmatis, to ESX-5 structures in Mycobacterium xenopi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, ESX-4, considered until recently as a non-functional system in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria, has been proposed to play an important role in the virulence of Mycobacterium abscessus; an increasingly recognized opportunistic NTM causing severe lung diseases. These major findings have led to important new insights into the functional mechanisms of these biological systems, their implication in virulence, nutrient acquisitions and cell wall shaping, and will be discussed in this review.

3.
Sci Adv ; 7(26)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172453

RESUMO

The ESX-5 type VII secretion system is a membrane-spanning protein complex key to the virulence of mycobacterial pathogens. However, the overall architecture of the fully assembled translocation machinery and the composition of the central secretion pore have remained unknown. Here, we present the high-resolution structure of the 2.1-megadalton ESX-5 core complex. Our structure captured a dynamic, secretion-competent conformation of the pore within a well-defined transmembrane section, sandwiched between two flexible protein layers at the cytosolic entrance and the periplasmic exit. We propose that this flexibility endows the ESX-5 machinery with large conformational plasticity required to accommodate targeted protein secretion. Compared to known secretion systems, a highly dynamic state of the pore may represent a fundamental principle of bacterial secretion machineries.

4.
Kidney Int ; 100(2): 281-288, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940110

RESUMO

Over the past decades, structural biology methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy have been increasingly used to study protein functions, molecular interactions, physiological processes, and disease mechanisms. This review outlines a selection of structural biology methods, highlights recent examples of how structural analyses have contributed to a more profound understanding of the machinery of life, and gives a perspective on how these methods can be applied to investigate functions of kidney molecules and pathogenic mechanisms of renal diseases.


Assuntos
Rim , Proteínas , Biologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9572, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953265

RESUMO

Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) using the inherent fluorescence of proteins (nDSF) is a popular technique to evaluate thermal protein stability in different conditions (e.g. buffer, pH). In many cases, ligand binding increases thermal stability of a protein and often this can be detected as a clear shift in nDSF experiments. Here, we evaluate binding affinity quantification based on thermal shifts. We present four protein systems with different binding affinity ligands, ranging from nM to high µM. Our study suggests that binding affinities determined by isothermal analysis are in better agreement with those from established biophysical techniques (ITC and MST) compared to apparent Kds obtained from melting temperatures. In addition, we describe a method to optionally fit the heat capacity change upon unfolding ([Formula: see text]) during the isothermal analysis. This publication includes the release of a web server for easy and accessible application of isothermal analysis to nDSF data.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2748, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980881

RESUMO

Imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (HisFH) is a heterodimeric bienzyme complex operating at a central branch point of metabolism. HisFH is responsible for the HisH-catalyzed hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia, which is then used for a cyclase reaction by HisF. The HisFH complex is allosterically regulated but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, we elucidate the molecular basis of the long range, allosteric activation of HisFH. We establish that the catalytically active HisFH conformation is only formed when the substrates of both HisH and HisF are bound. We show that in this conformation an oxyanion hole in the HisH active site is established, which rationalizes the observed 4500-fold allosteric activation compared to the inactive conformation. In solution, the inactive and active conformations are in a dynamic equilibrium and the HisFH turnover rates correlate with the population of the active conformation, which is in accordance with the ensemble model of allostery.


Assuntos
Regulação Alostérica , Aminoidrolases/química , Aminoidrolases/metabolismo , Aminoidrolases/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Glutamina/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Complexos Multienzimáticos , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , Ribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Thermotoga maritima/enzimologia
7.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 54(Pt 1): 7-21, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833637

RESUMO

The science of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) critically depends on the performance of the X-ray laser and on the quality of the samples placed into the X-ray beam. The stability of biological samples is limited and key biomolecular transformations occur on short timescales. Experiments in biology require a support laboratory in the immediate vicinity of the beamlines. The XBI BioLab of the European XFEL (XBI denotes XFEL Biology Infrastructure) is an integrated user facility connected to the beamlines for supporting a wide range of biological experiments. The laboratory was financed and built by a collaboration between the European XFEL and the XBI User Consortium, whose members come from Finland, Germany, the Slovak Republic, Sweden and the USA, with observers from Denmark and the Russian Federation. Arranged around a central wet laboratory, the XBI BioLab provides facilities for sample preparation and scoring, laboratories for growing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, a Bio Safety Level 2 laboratory, sample purification and characterization facilities, a crystallization laboratory, an anaerobic laboratory, an aerosol laboratory, a vacuum laboratory for injector tests, and laboratories for optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. Here, an overview of the XBI facility is given and some of the results of the first user experiments are highlighted.

8.
Traffic ; 22(5): 140-152, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580581

RESUMO

Proteins composed of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) arrays belong to the α-solenoid tandem-repeat family that have unique properties in terms of their overall conformational flexibility and ability to bind to multiple protein ligands. The peroxisomal matrix protein import receptor Pex5 comprises two TPR triplets that recognize protein cargos with a specific C-terminal Peroxisomal Targeting Signal (PTS) 1 motif. Import of PTS1-containing protein cargos into peroxisomes through a transient pore is mainly driven by allosteric binding, coupling and release mechanisms, without a need for external energy. A very similar TPR architecture is found in the functionally unrelated TRIP8b, a regulator of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channel. TRIP8b binds to the HCN ion channel via a C-terminal sequence motif that is nearly identical to the PTS1 motif of Pex5 receptor cargos. Pex5, Pex5-related Pex9, and TRIP8b also share a less conserved N-terminal domain. This domain provides a second protein cargo-binding site and plays a distinct role in allosteric coupling of initial cargo loading by PTS1 motif-mediated interactions and different downstream functional readouts. The data reviewed here highlight the overarching role of molecular allostery in driving the diverse functions of TPR array proteins, which could form a model for other α-solenoid tandem-repeat proteins involved in translocation processes across membranes.


Assuntos
Peroxissomos , Repetições de Tetratricopeptídeos , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Sinal de Orientação para Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16539, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024154

RESUMO

The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis resulting in over 1 million fatalities every year, despite decades of research into the development of new anti-TB compounds. Unlike most other organisms M. tuberculosis has six putative genes for epoxide hydrolases (EH) of the α/ß-hydrolase family with little known about their individual substrates, suggesting functional significance for these genes to the organism. Due to their role in detoxification, M. tuberculosis EH's have been identified as potential drug targets. Here, we demonstrate epoxide hydrolase activity of M. thermoresistibile epoxide hydrolase A (Mth-EphA) and report its crystal structure in complex with the inhibitor 1,3-diphenylurea at 2.0 Å resolution. Mth-EphA displays high sequence similarity to its orthologue from M. tuberculosis and generally high structural similarity to α/ß-hydrolase EHs. The structure of the inhibitor bound complex reveals the geometry of the catalytic residues and the conformation of the inhibitor. Comparison to other EHs from mycobacteria allows insight into the active site plasticity with respect to substrate specificity. We speculate that mycobacterial EHs may have a narrow substrate specificity providing a potential explanation for the genetic repertoire of epoxide hydrolase genes in M. tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Cristalização , Epóxido Hidrolases/química , Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Carbanilidas , Epóxido Hidrolases/fisiologia , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
Protein Sci ; 29(12): 2528-2537, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006405

RESUMO

Structural and biophysical characterization of molecular mechanisms of disease-causing pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, often requires recombinant expression of large amounts highly pure protein. For the production of mycobacterial proteins, overexpression in the fast-growing and non-pathogenic species Mycobacterium smegmatis has several benefits over the standard Escherichia coli expression strains. However, unlike for E. coli, the range of expression vectors currently available is limited. Here we describe the development of the pMy vector series, a set of expression plasmids for recombinant production of single proteins and protein complexes in M. smegmatis. By incorporating an alternative selection marker, we show that these plasmids can also be used for co-expression studies. All vectors in the pMy vector series are available in the Addgene repository (www.addgene.com).


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular , Vetores Genéticos , Mycobacterium smegmatis , Plasmídeos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Mycobacterium smegmatis/genética , Mycobacterium smegmatis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21432-21440, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817524

RESUMO

Approximately half of eukaryotic proteins reside in organelles. To reach their correct destination, such proteins harbor targeting signals recognized by dedicated targeting pathways. It has been shown that differences in targeting signals alter the efficiency in which proteins are recognized and targeted. Since multiple proteins compete for any single pathway, such differences can affect the priority for which a protein is catered. However, to date the entire repertoire of proteins with targeting priority, and the mechanisms underlying it, have not been explored for any pathway. Here we developed a systematic tool to study targeting priority and used the Pex5-mediated targeting to yeast peroxisomes as a model. We titrated Pex5 out by expressing high levels of a Pex5-cargo protein and examined how the localization of each peroxisomal protein is affected. We found that while most known Pex5 cargo proteins were outcompeted, several cargo proteins were not affected, implying that they have high targeting priority. This priority group was dependent on metabolic conditions. We dissected the mechanism of priority for these proteins and suggest that targeting priority is governed by different parameters, including binding affinity of the targeting signal to the cargo factor, the number of binding interfaces to the cargo factor, and more. This approach can be modified to study targeting priority in various organelles, cell types, and organisms.


Assuntos
Sinais de Orientação para Peroxissomos , Receptor 1 de Sinal de Orientação para Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22841-22848, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859757

RESUMO

Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) maturation of an immunoglobulin (Ig) powered by supercomputation delivers novel functionality to this catalytic template and facilitates artificial evolution of biocatalysts. We here employ density functional theory-based (DFT-b) tight binding and funnel metadynamics to advance our earlier QM/MM maturation of A17 Ig-paraoxonase (WTIgP) as a reactibody for organophosphorus toxins. It enables regulation of biocatalytic activity for tyrosine nucleophilic attack on phosphorus. The single amino acid substitution l-Leu47Lys results in 340-fold enhanced reactivity for paraoxon. The computed ground-state complex shows substrate-induced ionization of the nucleophilic l-Tyr37, now H-bonded to l-Lys47, resulting from repositioning of l-Lys47. Multiple antibody structural homologs, selected by phenylphosphonate covalent capture, show contrasting enantioselectivities for a P-chiral phenylphosphonate toxin. That is defined by crystallographic analysis of phenylphosphonylated reaction products for antibodies A5 and WTIgP. DFT-b analysis using QM regions based on these structures identifies transition states for the favored and disfavored reactions with surprising results. This stereoselection analysis is extended by funnel metadynamics to a range of WTIgP variants whose predicted stereoselectivity is endorsed by experimental analysis. The algorithms used here offer prospects for tailored design of highly evolved, genetically encoded organophosphorus scavengers and for broader functionalities of members of the Ig superfamily, including cell surface-exposed receptors.

13.
Sci Adv ; 6(26): eaaz9861, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637600

RESUMO

Microbial communities are self-controlled by repertoires of lethal agents, the antibiotics. In their turn, these antibiotics are regulated by bioscavengers that are selected in the course of evolution. Kinase-mediated phosphorylation represents one of the general strategies for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. A new subfamily of AmiN-like kinases, isolated from the Siberian bear microbiome, inactivates antibiotic amicoumacin by phosphorylation. The nanomolar substrate affinity defines AmiN as a phosphotransferase with a unique catalytic efficiency proximal to the diffusion limit. Crystallographic analysis and multiscale simulations revealed a catalytically perfect mechanism providing phosphorylation exclusively in the case of a closed active site that counteracts substrate promiscuity. AmiN kinase is a member of the previously unknown subfamily representing the first evidence of a specialized phosphotransferase bioscavenger.

14.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 14(2): 271-275, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557393

RESUMO

Retinoic acid-induced protein 2 is a human protein of 530 residues encoded by the RAI2 gene (Q9Y5P3; RAI2_HUMAN). RAI2 is a novel tumor suppressor protein whose depletion in breast cancer cell lines results in the downregulation of several genes associated with differentiation along with increased invasiveness and aggressive tumor phenotype of the cells. The role of the protein is specified to be a transcriptional regulator that promotes chromosomal stability and hence controls the expression of several regulators of cancer and metastasis. Structurally, RAI2 remains an unknown entity and, hence, to obtain a detailed view on the structure function relationship we report the 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for the backbone and side chain nuclei of the C-terminal region (a.a. 303-451 of UniProt Q9Y5P3) of RAI2.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/análise , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Algoritmos , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio
15.
Cell Rep ; 31(12): 107817, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579913

RESUMO

Proteins of the lipocalin family are known to bind small hydrophobic ligands and are involved in various physiological processes ranging from lipid transport to oxidative stress responses. The genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains a single protein PF3D7_0925900 with a lipocalin signature. Using crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering, we show that the protein has a tetrameric structure of typical lipocalin monomers; hence we name it P. falciparum lipocalin (PfLCN). We show that PfLCN is expressed in the intraerythrocytic stages of the parasite and localizes to the parasitophorous and food vacuoles. Conditional knockdown of PfLCN impairs parasite development, which can be rescued by treatment with the radical scavenger Trolox or by temporal inhibition of hemoglobin digestion. This suggests a key function of PfLCN in counteracting oxidative stress-induced cell damage during multiplication of parasites within erythrocytes.


Assuntos
Lipocalinas/química , Lipocalinas/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Parasitos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Evolução Molecular , Hemeproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estresse Oxidativo , Parasitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmodium falciparum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vacúolos/metabolismo
16.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 472-487.e10, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531202

RESUMO

It is widely assumed that decreasing transcription factor DNA-binding affinity reduces transcription initiation by diminishing occupancy of sequence-specific regulatory elements. However, in vivo transcription factors find their binding sites while confronted with a large excess of low-affinity degenerate motifs. Here, using the melanoma lineage survival oncogene MITF as a model, we show that low-affinity binding sites act as a competitive reservoir in vivo from which transcription factors are released by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-stimulated acetylation to promote increased occupancy of their regulatory elements. Consequently, a low-DNA-binding-affinity acetylation-mimetic MITF mutation supports melanocyte development and drives tumorigenesis, whereas a high-affinity non-acetylatable mutant does not. The results reveal a paradoxical acetylation-mediated molecular clutch that tunes transcription factor availability via genome-wide redistribution and couples BRAF to tumorigenesis. Our results further suggest that p300/CREB-binding protein-mediated transcription factor acetylation may represent a common mechanism to control transcription factor availability.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Melanoma/genética , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Acetilação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sequência Conservada , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/química , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 440, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974402

RESUMO

p62/SQSTM1 is an autophagy receptor and signaling adaptor with an N-terminal PB1 domain that forms the scaffold of phase-separated p62 bodies in the cell. The molecular determinants that govern PB1 domain filament formation in vitro remain to be determined and the role of p62 filaments inside the cell is currently unclear. We here determine four high-resolution cryo-EM structures of different human and Arabidopsis PB1 domain assemblies and observed a filamentous ultrastructure of p62/SQSTM1 bodies using correlative cellular EM. We show that oligomerization or polymerization, driven by a double arginine finger in the PB1 domain, is a general requirement for lysosomal targeting of p62. Furthermore, the filamentous assembly state of p62 is required for autophagosomal processing of the p62-specific cargo KEAP1. Our results show that using such mechanisms, p62 filaments can be critical for cargo uptake in autophagy and are an integral part of phase-separated p62 bodies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/química , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arginina/química , Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Polimerização , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(2): 934-948, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777941

RESUMO

Interrupted dimeric coiled coil segments are found in a broad range of proteins and generally confer selective functional properties such as binding to specific ligands. However, there is only one documented case of a basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor-microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF)-in which an insertion of a three-residue stammer serves as a determinant of conditional partner selectivity. To unravel the molecular principles of this selectivity, we have analyzed the high-resolution structures of stammer-containing MITF and an engineered stammer-less MITF variant, which comprises an uninterrupted symmetric coiled coil. Despite this fundamental difference, both MITF structures reveal identical flanking in-phase coiled coil arrangements, gained by helical over-winding and local asymmetry in wild-type MITF across the stammer region. These conserved structural properties allow the maintenance of a proper functional readout in terms of nuclear localization and binding to specific DNA-response motifs regardless of the presence of the stammer. By contrast, MITF heterodimer formation with other bHLH-Zip transcription factors is only permissive when both factors contain either the same type of inserted stammer or no insert. Our data illustrate a unique principle of conditional partner selectivity within the wide arsenal of transcription factors with specific partner-dependent functional readouts.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/química , Núcleo Celular/química , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/química , Conformação Proteica , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Ligantes , Camundongos , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/genética , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Multimerização Proteica
19.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 152: 25-34, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765647

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) remains the foremost cause of death by infectious disease and is propagated by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The virulence associated with Mtb is mediated by proteins secreted into host cells by the type VII secretion system (T7SS), making this system a candidate for future drug and vaccine development. However, while many of the components involved in the T7SS have been identified, the mechanism of translocation across both the inner and outer mycobacterial membranes remains largely unexplained. Key to the translocation of proteins across the membrane is the activity of conserved AAA+ ATPases EccA and EccC, which are explored in this review. Although the T7SS does not appear homologous to other known bacterial secretion systems, many of those require ATPase activity during different phases of protein translocation. Thus, exploring the roles of ATPases in multiple secretion systems may provide insights into the T7SS. Targeting bacterial virulence factors such as secretion systems is becoming an increasingly explored area of research, and here we review how such strategies could be applied to the T7SS.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/ultraestrutura , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VII/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Virulência
20.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385180

RESUMO

The multimeric plasma glycoprotein (GP) von Willebrand factor (VWF) is best known for recruiting platelets to sites of injury during primary hemostasis. Generally, mutations in the VWF gene lead to loss of hemostatic activity and thus the bleeding disorder von Willebrand disease. By employing cone and platelet aggregometry and microfluidic assays, we uncovered a platelet GPIIb/IIIa-dependent prothrombotic gain of function (GOF) for variant p.Pro2555Arg, located in the C4 domain, leading to an increase in platelet aggregate size. We performed complementary biophysical and structural investigations using circular dichroism spectra, small-angle X-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulations on the single C4 domain, and dimeric wild-type and p.Pro2555Arg constructs. C4-p.Pro2555Arg retained the overall structural conformation with minor populations of alternative conformations exhibiting increased hinge flexibility and slow conformational exchange. The dimeric protein becomes disordered and more flexible. Our data suggest that the GOF does not affect the binding affinity of the C4 domain for GPIIb/IIIa. Instead, the increased VWF dimer flexibility enhances temporal accessibility of platelet-binding sites. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we revealed that p.Pro2555Arg is the first VWF variant, which increases platelet aggregate size and shows a shear-dependent function of the VWF stem region, which can become hyperactive through mutations. Prothrombotic GOF variants of VWF are a novel concept of a VWF-associated pathomechanism of thromboembolic events, which is of general interest to vascular health but not yet considered in diagnostics. Thus, awareness should be raised for the risk they pose. Furthermore, our data implicate the C4 domain as a novel antithrombotic drug target.

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