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BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 77, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590930


BACKGROUND: Tree squirrels (Sciuridae, Sciurini), in particular the highly diverse Neotropical lineages, are amongst the most rapidly diversifying branches of the mammal tree of life but also some of the least known. Negligence of this group by systematists is likely a product of the difficulties in assessing morphological informative traits and of the scarcity or unavailability of fresh tissue samples for DNA sequencing. The highly discrepant taxonomic arrangements are a consequence of the lack of phylogenies and the exclusive phenotypic-based classifications, which can be misleading in a group with conservative morphology. Here we used high-throughput sequencing and an unprecedented sampling of museum specimens to provide the first comprehensive phylogeny of tree squirrels, with a special emphasis on Neotropical taxa. RESULTS: We obtained complete or partial mitochondrial genomes from 232 historical and modern samples, representing 40 of the 43 currently recognized species of Sciurini. Our phylogenetic analyses-performed with datasets differing on levels of missing data and taxa under distinct analytical methods-strongly support the monophyly of Sciurini and consistently recovered 12 major clades within the tribe. We found evidence that the diversity of Neotropical tree squirrels is underestimated, with at least six lineages that represent taxa to be named or revalidated. Ancestral state reconstructions of number of upper premolars and number of mammae indicated that alternative conditions of both characters must have evolved multiple times throughout the evolutionary history of tree squirrels. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mitogenomes were obtained from museum specimens as old as 120 years, reinforcing the potential of historical samples for phylogenetic inferences of elusive lineages of the tree of life. None of the taxonomic arrangements ever proposed for tree squirrels fully corresponded to our phylogenetic reconstruction, with only a few of the currently recognized genera recovered as monophyletic. By investigating the evolution of two morphological traits widely employed in the taxonomy of the group, we revealed that their homoplastic nature can help explain the incongruence between phylogenetic results and the classification schemes presented so far. Based on our phylogenetic results we suggest a tentative supraspecific taxonomic arrangement for Sciurini, employing 13 generic names used in previous taxonomic classifications.

Variação Genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Fenótipo , Sciuridae/classificação , Sciuridae/genética , Animais , Filogenia
Zootaxa ; 4564(1): zootaxa.4564.1.7, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716520


Adopting the name Canis dingo for the Dingo to explicitly denote a species-level taxon separate from other canids was suggested by Crowther et al.  (2014) as a means to eliminate taxonomic instability and contention. However, Jackson et al.  (2017), using standard taxonomic and nomenclatural approaches and principles, called instead for continued use of the nomen C. familiaris for all domestic dogs and their derivatives, including the Dingo. (This name, C. familiaris, is applied to all dogs that derive from the domesticated version of the Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, based on nomenclatural convention.) The primary reasons for this call by Jackson et al.  (2017) were: (1) a lack of evidence to show that recognizing multiple species amongst the dog, including the Dingo and New Guinea Singing Dog, was necessary taxonomically, and (2) the principle of nomenclatural priority (the name familiaris Linnaeus, 1758, antedates dingo Meyer, 1793). Overwhelming current evidence from archaeology and genomics indicates that the Dingo is of recent origin in Australia and shares immediate ancestry with other domestic dogs as evidenced by patterns of genetic and morphological variation. Accordingly, for Smith et al.  (2019) to recognise Canis dingo as a distinct species, the onus was on them to overturn current interpretations of available archaeological, genomic, and morphological datasets and instead show that Dingoes have a deeply divergent evolutionary history that distinguishes them from other named forms of Canis (including C. lupus and its domesticated version, C. familiaris). A recent paper by Koepfli et al.  (2015) demonstrates exactly how this can be done in a compelling way within the genus Canis-by demonstrating deep evolutionary divergence between taxa, on the order of hundreds of thousands of years, using data from multiple genetic systems. Smith et al.  (2019) have not done this; instead they have misrepresented the content and conclusions of Jackson et al.  (2017), and contributed extraneous arguments that are not relevant to taxonomic decisions. Here we dissect Smith et al.  (2019), identifying misrepresentations, to show that ecological, behavioural and morphological evidence is insufficient to recognise Dingoes as a separate species from other domestic dogs. We reiterate: the correct binomial name for the taxon derived from Gray Wolves (C. lupus) by passive and active domestication, including Dingoes and other domestic dogs, is Canis familiaris. We are strongly sympathetic to arguments about the historical, ecological, cultural, or other significance of the Dingo, but these are issues that will have to be considered outside of the more narrow scope of taxonomy and nomenclature.

Lobos , Animais , Austrália , Cães , Nova Guiné
Zootaxa ; 4446(2): 257-264, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313889


Myotis aelleni Baud, 1979 was described based on a large series from Chubut, Argentina, and is known only from the type locality and Río Negro, also in Argentina. According to the original description, M. aelleni is closest morphologically to M. chiloensis (Waterhouse, 1840), but can be distinguished based on the tricolored dorsal hairs and skull size and shape. The taxonomic status of M. aelleni has been questioned but the species is still treated as valid. Based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of the type series of M. aelleni, and series of M. chiloensis, including the neotype, we recognize M. aelleni as a junior synonym of M. chiloensis. M. aelleni and M. chiloensis have bicolor dorsal hairs and cannot be distinguished on the basis of the skull size and shape. After synonymy, M. chiloensis occur from Central Chile and western Argentina to central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego archipelago. Twenty-one species of Myotis occur in South America, including Trinidad and Tobago.

Quirópteros , Crânio , Animais , Argentina , Chile , Trinidad e Tobago
Zookeys ; (324): 1-83, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24003317


We present the first comprehensive taxonomic revision and review the biology of the olingos, the endemic Neotropical procyonid genus Bassaricyon, based on most specimens available in museums, and with data derived from anatomy, morphometrics, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, field observations, and geographic range modeling. Species of Bassaricyon are primarily forest-living, arboreal, nocturnal, frugivorous, and solitary, and have one young at a time. We demonstrate that four olingo species can be recognized, including a Central American species (Bassaricyon gabbii), lowland species with eastern, cis-Andean (Bassaricyon alleni) and western, trans-Andean (Bassaricyon medius) distributions, and a species endemic to cloud forests in the Andes. The oldest evolutionary divergence in the genus is between this last species, endemic to the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador, and all other species, which occur in lower elevation habitats. Surprisingly, this Andean endemic species, which we call the Olinguito, has never been previously described; it represents a new species in the order Carnivora and is the smallest living member of the family Procyonidae. We report on the biology of this new species based on information from museum specimens, niche modeling, and fieldwork in western Ecuador, and describe four Olinguito subspecies based on morphological distinctions across different regions of the Northern Andes.

PLoS One ; 7(10): e46578, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23056352


BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

Quirópteros/genética , Citocromos b/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Quirópteros/classificação , Filogenia , América do Sul
Baltimore; Johns Hopkins University Press; 3rd ed; 2005. 743 p.
Monografia em Inglês | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-940240
Baltimore; Johns Hopkins University Press; 3rd ed; 2005. 745-2143 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-940241
Baltimore; Johns Hopkins University Press; 3rd ed; 2005. 743 p.
Monografia em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-736755
Baltimore; Johns Hopkins University Press; 3rd ed; 2005. 745-2143 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-736756
Evolution ; 32(4): 740-751, 1978 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28567922