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1.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 113: 104126, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045518

RESUMO

Plasma-based treatment is a prevalent strategy to alter biological response and enhance biomaterial coating quality at the surfaces of biomedical devices and implants, especially polymeric materials. Plasma, an ionized gas, is often thought to have negligible effects on the bulk properties of prosthetic substrates given that it alters the surface chemistry on only the outermost few nanometers of material. However, no studies to date have systematically explored the effects of plasma exposure on both the surface and bulk properties of a biomaterial. This work examines the time-dependent effects of a nonthermal plasma on the surface and bulk (i.e. mechanical) properties of polymeric implants, specifically polypropylene surgical meshes and sutures. Findings suggest that plasma exposure improved resistance to fibrinogen adsorption and Escherichia coli attachment, and promoted mammalian fibroblast attachment, although increased duration of exposure resulted in a state of diminishing returns. At the same time, it was observed that plasma exposure can be detrimental to the material properties of individual filaments (i.e. sutures), as well as the structural characteristics of knitted meshes, with longer exposures resulting in further embrittlement and larger changes in anisotropic behavior. Though there are few guidelines regarding appropriate mechanical properties of surgical textiles, the results from this investigation imply that there are ultimate exposure limits for plasma-based treatments of polymeric implant materials when structural properties must be preserved, and that the effects of a plasma on a given biomaterial should be examined carefully before translation to a clinical scenario.

2.
Eur J Haematol ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: von Willebrand disease (vWD) is a heterogeneous hereditary bleeding disorder and associated with risk of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). DESIGN AND METHODS: An observational study at a tertiary referral centre in Australia of 16 women with 23 deliveries with a median age of 27.5 years (range, 21-39; IQR=9). Median gestational age at delivery was 39 weeks (range, 35-41; IQR=1.1). RESULTS: All cases had type 1 vWD apart from one case with type 2. Patients were managed in combined obstetrics and haematology clinics. PPH occurred in ten deliveries (44%). Intravenous desmopressin was administered in 6 cases and IV human vWF was administered in 4 cases. Two cases with mild vWD had received oral tranexamic acid. The median Apgar score at 1 and 5 min was 9 (IQR=1.0) while the median Apgar score at 10 min was 10.0 (IQR=0.0). One case required transfusion of blood products post-delivery. There were no other significant complications observed. CONCLUSIONS: vWD was associated with a high incidence of PPH. Individualised treatment to restore haemostasis, according to the severity of the disease could achieve as possible normal haemostasis with favourable outcomes for both mothers and their infants. Further studies to confirm our findings are warranted.

3.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 4(4): 411-421, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258957

RESUMO

Plague is an infectious disease found worldwide and has been responsible for pandemics throughout history. Yersinia pestis, the causative bacterium, survives in rodent hosts with flea vectors that also transmit it to humans. It has been endemic in Madagascar for a century but the 1990s saw major outbreaks and in 2006 the WHO described the plague as re-emerging in Madagascar and the world. This review highlights the variety of factors leading to plague re-emergence in Madagascar, including climate events, insecticide resistance, and host and human behaviour. It also addresses areas of concern for future epidemics and ways to mitigate these. Pinpointing and addressing current and future drivers of plague re-emergence in Madagascar will be essential to controlling future outbreaks both in Madagascar and worldwide.

4.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 021401, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312517

RESUMO

Background: In the sub-Saharan Africa region, the adolescent birth rate is the highest in the world, estimated at 100.5 births per 1000 women aged 15 to 19 years, and 2.4 times greater than the global average. This analysis examines coverage levels and gaps in basic maternal health care for adolescent mothers living in this region. Methods: We used data from national Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) conducted between 2010 and 2016 in 22 of the sub-Saharan African Countdown to 2030 priority countries with adolescent birth rates above 100 in 2016. We analyzed 11 indicators of coverage of key services provided during the pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period. We described the coverage level among adolescent girls aged 15-19 and women aged 20-49 for basic indicators in the continuum of care. We conducted a multilevel random effect logistic regression to quantify the association between the receipt of basic package of maternal care and woman's socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Results: The median coverage of the basic package of maternal care among adolescents was extremely low, at 9.3%. Adolescent mothers who were in the highest household wealth quintile (odds ratio OR = 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.23-2.68), living in an urban area (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.18-1.33) and having secondary education (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.50-1.73) had greater odds of receiving the basic package of maternal health care as compared to those in the lowest wealth quintile, living in rural areas, and with no education respectively. Adolescent girls aged 15-17 and 18-19 had respectively 26% (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.67-0.82) and 9% (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.84-0.98) lower odds of receiving the basic package compared to women 20-49 years old. Child brides had 12% (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.93) lower odds of receiving the basic package compared to women who were married after the age of 18. Conclusion: Coverage of basic maternal health care for adolescent mothers is inadequate in the countries with the highest adolescent birth rates in the world. Addressing the reproductive and maternal health needs of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is of critical importance, especially given projections that this region will experience the highest increases in adolescent births in the coming decades.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333734

RESUMO

Children's relationships with teachers in kindergarten are crucial for academic and social success. Research shows that teacher-child relationships are predicated, in part, on children's temperament. The "INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament" intervention was intended to improve children's and teachers' understanding of their and others' temperament, and has been shown to improve children's social skills and self-regulation in urban, under-resourced schools. The current study is part of a replication of the effects of INSIGHTS with a sample in rural schools. The purpose was to test the effectiveness of INSIGHTS for promoting positive relationships between teachers and children in kindergarten. Two cohorts of kindergarten students (N = 127) and teachers (N = 30) were randomized into INSIGHTS or control conditions by school. Teachers reported on the quality of the teacher-child relationship before and after the INSIGHTS intervention (Time 1 and 2) using the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: Short Form and provided a rating of children's temperament with the Teacher School-Age Temperament Inventory at Time 1. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling. Two significant findings emerged. First, INSIGHTS promoted more closeness between teachers and children, regardless of temperament. Second, the INSIGHTS intervention was protective against the development of conflictual teacher-child relationships for children with negative reactivity.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Professores Escolares , Criança , Humanos , Estudantes , Temperamento
6.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040830, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099499

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As short-term mortality declines for critically ill patients, a growing number of survivors face long-term physical, cognitive and/or mental health impairments. After hospital discharge, many critical illness survivors require an in-depth plan to address their healthcare needs. Early after hospital discharge, numerous survivors experience inadequate care or a mismatch between their healthcare needs and what is provided. Many patients are readmitted to the hospital, have substantial healthcare resource use and experience long-lasting morbidity. The objective of this study is to investigate the gap in healthcare needs occurring immediately after hospital discharge and its association with hospital readmissions or death for survivors of acute respiratory failure (ARF). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this multicentre prospective cohort study, we will enrol 200 survivors of ARF in the intensive care unit (ICU) who are discharged directly home from their acute care hospital stay. Unmet healthcare needs, the primary exposure of interest, will be evaluated as soon as possible within 1 to 4 weeks after hospital discharge, via a standardised telephone assessment. The primary outcome, death or hospital readmission, will be measured at 3 months after discharge. Secondary outcomes (eg, quality of life, cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder) will be measured as part of 3-month and 6-month telephone-based follow-up assessments. Descriptive statistics will be reported for the exposure and outcome variables along with a propensity score analysis, using inverse probability weighting for the primary exposure, to evaluate the relationship between the primary exposure and outcome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study received ethics approval from Vanderbilt University Medical Center Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the University of Utah IRB (for the Veterans Affairs site). These results will inform both clinical practice and future interventional trials in the field. We plan to disseminate the results in peer-reviewed journals, and via national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03738774). Registered before enrollment of the first patient.

7.
Chest ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a frequently lethal state, commonly associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in sepsis is less well understood. RESEARCH QUESTION: In septic patients, how common is right ventricular dysfunction, and is it associated with worse outcomes? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured echocardiographic parameters on critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock within the first 24 hours of ICU admission. We defined RV dysfunction as fractional area change (FAC) < 35% or tricuspid annulus systolic plane excursion (TAPSE) < 1.6 cm. We defined LV systolic dysfunction as ejection fraction (EF) < 45% or longitudinal strain > -19%. Using logistic regression, we assessed the relationship between 28-day mortality and presence of RV dysfunction and LV systolic dysfunction, controlling for receipt of vasopressors, receipt of fluid, mechanical ventilation, and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score. RESULTS: We studied 393 patients. RV and LV dysfunction were common (48% and 63%, respectively). Mean echocardiographic values were: RV end-diastolic area: 22.4 ± 7.0 cm2, RV end-systolic area: 14.2 ± 6.0 cm2, RV FAC 38 ± 11%, TAPSE 1.8 ± .06 cm, RV longitudinal strain -15.3 ± 6.5%, LV EF 60 ± 14%, LV longitudinal strain -16.5 ± 6.0%. Patients with right ventricular dysfunction had higher 28-day mortality (31% vs 16%, p = 0.001). In our multivariable regression model, RV dysfunction was associated with increased mortality (OR 3.4, CI 1.7-6.8 p = 0.001), while LV systolic dysfunction was not (OR 0.63, CI 0.3 -1.2 p = 0.32) INTERPRETATION: Right ventricular dysfunction is present in nearly half of studied septic patients and is associated with over threefold higher 28-day mortality.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16459, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020512

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders present with synaptic alterations that disrupt the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signaling. For example, hyperexcitability of cortical neurons is associated with both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders. However, the mechanisms that initially establish the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signaling in brain development are not well understood. Here, we sought to determine how the extracellular matrix directs synapse formation and regulates synaptic function in a model of human cortical brain development. The extracellular matrix, making up twenty percent of brain volume, is largely comprised of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan acts as both a scaffold of the extracellular matrix and a space-filling molecule. Hyaluronan is present from the onset of brain development, beginning with neural crest cell migration. Through acute perturbation of hyaluronan levels during synaptogenesis, we sought to determine how hyaluronan impacts the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory synapse formation and the resulting neural activity. We used 3-D cortical spheroids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells to replicate this neurodevelopmental window. Our results demonstrate that hyaluronan preferentially surrounds nascent excitatory synapses. Removal of hyaluronan increases the expression of excitatory synapse markers and results in a corresponding increase in the formation of excitatory synapses, while also decreasing inhibitory synapse formation. This increased excitatory synapse formation elevates network activity, as demonstrated by microelectrode array analysis. In contrast, the addition of purified hyaluronan suppresses excitatory synapse formation. These results establish that the hyaluronan extracellular matrix surrounds developing excitatory synapses, where it critically regulates synapse formation and the resulting balance between excitatory to inhibitory signaling.

9.
J Anxiety Disord ; 76: 102309, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002756

RESUMO

Intolerance of uncertainty is a psychological vulnerability implicated in the development and maintenance of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12 (IUS-12) is a widely used measure, however no studies have thoroughly tested the psychometric properties in a clinically diagnosed GAD sample. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure, measurement properties and clinical utility of the IUS-12 in clinical and non-clinical samples. Participants were screened using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV to ascertain clinical (n = 136: principal diagnosis of GAD) or non-clinical status (n = 76). Confirmatory factor analysis determined that the bifactor type (two-factor testlet) model demonstrated significantly better fit in comparison to the unidimensional model for the clinical sample. The IUS-12 exhibited limited multidimensionality indicating that only the total score provides meaningful interpretation. The IUS-12 demonstrated good construct validity (with DASS-21, MCQ-30, and PSWQ), good internal consistency, as well as good test-retest reliability over 12-weeks. The IUS-12 demonstrated responsivity to treatment following cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness based psychological interventions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated an optimal cut-off score of 28 for distinguishing individuals with GAD from non-clinical cases. Overall, the IUS-12 is a valid, reliable and clinically useful instrument for individuals with GAD.

10.
Environ Int ; 144: 105740, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866732

RESUMO

Feminine hygiene products (FHPs) are used on highly permeable and sensitive vaginal and vulvar tissues by many women. These products contain a variety of chemicals, and few regulations require disclosure of their ingredients. The objectives of this study are to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may be present in these products and to evaluate the potential for exposure and health risk associated with product use. We collected 79 commercially available FHPs, including washes, tampons, menstrual pads, wipes, sprays, powders and moisturizers, and analyzed their composition using purge and trap sampling, thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Exposures and risks were modeled using reasonable upper bound exposure scenarios. The highest VOC concentrations (as total target VOCs) were found in washes, sprays and powders, with median concentrations from 25,000 to 34,000 ng/g. Benzene (maximum: 3,604 ng/g) was detected in 83% of the collected products, and 1,4-dioxane (maximum: 24,354 ng/g) in 50% of the products. VOC composition depended on the FHP type, manufacturer and brand. Products labeled as "organic," "natural," or "for sensitive skin" did not necessarily have lower VOC concentrations. For most FHPs, calculated risks were low; however, menstrual pads had hazard ratios of up to 11, sprays and powders had hazard ratios of up to 2.2 and excess cancer risks of up to 2.1 × 10-6, and washes had excess cancer risks of up to 3.3 × 10-6. Our data suggest that all tested FHPs contained some toxic VOCs, and that risks of using some products should be addressed. We recommend the elimination of toxic ingredients and the disclosure of all chemicals that are used in these products.

11.
Am J Crit Care ; 29(5): 350-357, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family members of patients in intensive care units may experience psychological distress and substantial caregiver burden. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether change in caregiver burden from intensive care unit admission to 3-month follow-up is associated with caregiver depression at 3 months. METHODS: Caregiver burden was assessed at enrollment and 3 months later, and caregiver depression was assessed at 3 months. Depression was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score. The primary analysis was the association between depression at 3 months and change in caregiver burden, controlling for a history of caregiver depression. RESULTS: One hundred one participants were enrolled; 65 participants had a surviving loved one and completed 3-month follow-up. At 3-month follow-up, 12% of participants met criteria for depression. Increased caregiver burden over time was significantly associated with depression at follow-up (Fisher exact test, P = .004), although this association was not significant after controlling for self-reported history of depression at baseline (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, P = .23). CONCLUSIONS: Family members are increasingly recognized as a vulnerable population susceptible to negative psychological outcomes after a loved one's admission to the intensive care unit. In this small sample, no significant association was found between change in caregiver burden and depression at 3 months after controlling for baseline depression.

12.
JCI Insight ; 5(17)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879139

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown an association between elevated atrial NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and decreased plasma apelin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), though the basis for this relationship is unclear. In the current study, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence studies of human right atrial appendages (RAAs) showed expression of the apelin receptor, APJ, and reduced apelin content in the atria, but not in plasma, of patients with AF versus normal sinus rhythm. Disruption of the apelin gene in mice increased (2.4-fold) NADPH-stimulated superoxide levels and slowed atrial conduction velocities in optical mapping of a Langendorff-perfused isolated heart model, suggesting that apelin levels may influence AF vulnerability. Indeed, in mice with increased AF vulnerability (induced by chronic intense exercise), apelin administration reduced the incidence and duration of induced atrial arrhythmias in association with prolonged atrial refractory periods. Moreover, apelin decreased AF induction in isolated atria from exercised mice while accelerating conduction velocity and increasing action potential durations. At the cellular level, these changes were associated with increased atrial cardiomyocyte sodium currents. These findings support the conclusion that reduced atrial apelin is maladaptive in fibrillating human atrial myocardium and that increasing apelin bioavailability may be a worthwhile therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing AF.

13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 108(2): 356-361, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In February 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic reached the United States. The impact of the pandemic on the US radiation oncology field remains unknown. The American Society for Radiation Oncology surveyed US radiation oncology practice leaders to gauge initial impact and immediate operational responses to the pandemic. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From April 16 to April 30, 2020, the American Society for Radiation Oncology surveyed US radiation oncology practice leaders by email to gauge initial impact and immediate operational responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-two (43%) of 517 leaders responded from community and academic practices (62% and 34%, respectively), hospital-based and free-standing centers (69% and 29%), and metro and rural locations (88% and 12%). Practices reported treating an average of 1086 patients per year in 2019 (range, 0-7900) with an average daily treatment volume of 70 patients (range, 5-400). All practices reported uninterrupted operation. On average, practices were treating 68% of their typical volume (range, 10%-95%), with 92% implementing planned treatment postponement for lower risk patients. An estimated revenue decrease of 20% or more was experienced by 71% of practices. Confirmed COVID-19 patient cases were treated by 39% of practices. Seventy percent experienced staff shortages. Almost all (98%) practices implemented formal operational procedures to protect patients and staff, although personal protective equipment/infection control supply shortages were reported by 78% of practices. Seventy-four percent used telemedicine for virtual follow-up surveillance, and 15% leveraged telemedicine for on-treatment assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and financial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on US radiation oncology were deep and broad. Despite reported shortages in personal protective equipment, declines in revenue, and reduced patient volumes, practices adapted quickly by refining standard processes of care, implementing recommended safety measures, and employing telemedicine to facilitate treatment continuity. Patients with higher risk disease experienced uninterrupted access to care. We plan to continue regular surveying across the lifespan of the pandemic to document the geographic and temporal impact of COVID-19 on the field and its patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Sociedades Médicas , Humanos , Corpo Clínico/provisão & distribução , Telemedicina , Estados Unidos
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22341-22350, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855302

RESUMO

Conformational diversity and self-cross-reactivity of antigens have been correlated with evasion from neutralizing antibody responses. We utilized single cell B cell sequencing, biolayer interferometry and X-ray crystallography to trace mutation selection pathways where the antibody response must resolve cross-reactivity between foreign and self-proteins bearing near-identical contact surfaces, but differing in conformational flexibility. Recurring antibody mutation trajectories mediate long-range rearrangements of framework (FW) and complementarity determining regions (CDRs) that increase binding site conformational diversity. These antibody mutations decrease affinity for self-antigen 19-fold and increase foreign affinity 67-fold, to yield a more than 1,250-fold increase in binding discrimination. These results demonstrate how conformational diversity in antigen and antibody does not act as a barrier, as previously suggested, but rather facilitates high affinity and high discrimination between foreign and self.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Diversidade de Anticorpos/genética , Autoantígenos , Rearranjo Gênico do Linfócito B/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/genética , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Afinidade de Anticorpos/genética , Autoanticorpos/química , Autoanticorpos/genética , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/química , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Hipermutação Somática de Imunoglobulina/genética
16.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-5, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812452

RESUMO

Indocyanine green (ICG) and near infra-red fluorescence imaging in minimally invasive surgery is an option to map sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of SLN mapping between laparoscopic and robotic surgery. One-hundred-and-forty women with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer, were treated with a minimally invasive hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and SLN mapping. After anaesthetic induction, ICG was superficially injected into cervical submucosa and deeply injected into the cervical stroma at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions (1.25 mg/site). Eleven cases were abandoned after ICG injection (laparoscopic surgery seven cases and robotic surgery four cases) because of obesity, technical difficulty and peritoneal disease. One-hundred-and-eleven patients were analysed. Seventy-six patients had a laparoscopic procedure and 33 patients had robotic surgery. The overall and bilateral detection rates were 97% and 83% for laparoscopic surgery and 88% and 73% for robotic surgery. Laparoscopic surgery was superior to robotic surgery in terms of overall detection (p-value .046). There was no significant difference in the intra-operative SLN identification time or SLN dissection time between laparoscopy and robotic surgery (p-value .247 and .145, respectively). Further research is required to compare laparoscopy and robotic surgery in terms of SLN detection. Impact Statement What is already known on this subject? Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping aims to avoid complications and provide useful staging information for endometrial cancer. ICG has been shown to improve the detection rate and NPV compared with other tracers (blue dye and technetium 99). No data exists comparing SLN mapping rates using ICG in laparoscopy and robotic surgery. What do the results of this study add? The overall and bilateral detection rates were 97% and 83% for laparoscopic surgery and 88% and 73% for robotic surgery. Laparoscopic surgery was superior to robotic surgery in terms of overall detection. There was no significant difference in the intra-operative SLN identification time or SLN dissection time between laparoscopy and robotic surgery. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research?: This study confirms that laparoscopy and robotic surgery are not different in terms of bilateral detection rate and SLN operating time; the study population is small.

17.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-10, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787689

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Complex Audio Visual Emotion Assessment Task (CAVEAT) is a measure of emotion recognition using dynamic, naturalistic videos to assess recognition of 22 different emotional states (11 positive, 11 negative). It has established construct validity and demonstrated sensitivity to emotion perception impairments in those with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite this, its lengthy administration has limited its use in clinical practice and rehabilitation. The current paper aimed to develop shortened versions of the CAVEAT and examine their psychometric properties. METHODS: The CAVEAT-S A and CAVEAT-S B (22 items each) and the CAVEAT-S AB (44 items) were developed using the original data. Comparability, reliability, construct and predictive validity were examined in the original sample (Study 1: 32 people with TBI and 32 demographically matched control participants) and a replication sample (Study 2: 18 adults with TBI and 21 demographically matched controls). RESULTS: All short forms produced comparable accuracy ratings to the full measure, as well as discriminating between people with or without a TBI. Shortened forms all correlated with other measures of emotion perception and social cognition and also predicted psychosocial outcomes in terms of self-reported interpersonal relationships. Internal reliability of the short forms was low relative to the longer forms, especially for the two very short measures. CONCLUSIONS: The new shortened forms of the CAVEAT are promising tools that are sensitive and valid for assessing emotion perception in people with TBI for clinical purposes. Their application in other clinical disorders is yet to be examined. Implications for rehabilitation Emotion perception deficits are present in many clinical populations and an important target for rehabilitation. CAVEAT Short provides ecologically valid emotional stimuli. Such stimuli are important for assessing real world function and to set rehabilitation targets. By having parallel versions of CAVEAT, there is the opportunity to test pre and post intervention while minimising practice effects. Alternatively, one version of CAVEAT-S can be used for assessment, while the other is used for training purposes during remediation.

18.
J Neurosci Res ; 98(11): 2148-2165, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713041

RESUMO

Excitatory synapse formation begins in mid-fetal gestation. However, due to our inability to image fetal synaptogenesis, the initial formation of synapses remains understudied. The recent development of human fetal brain spheroids provides access to this critical period of synapse formation. Using human neurons and brain spheroids, we address how altered actin regulation impacts the formation of excitatory synapses during fetal brain development. Prior to synapse formation, inhibition of RhoA kinase (ROCK) signaling promotes neurite elongation and branching. In addition to increasing neural complexity, ROCK inhibition increases the length of protrusions along the neurite, ultimately promoting excitatory synapse formation in human cortical brain spheroids. A corresponding increase in Rac1-driven actin polymerization drives this increase in excitatory synaptogenesis. Using STORM super-resolution microscopy, we demonstrate that actomyosin regulators, including the Rac1 regulator, α-PIX, and the RhoA regulator, p115-RhoGEF, localize to nascent excitatory synapses, where they preferentially localize to postsynaptic compartments. These results demonstrate that coordinated RhoGTPase activities underlie the initial formation of excitatory synapses and identify critical cytoskeletal regulators of early synaptogenic events.

19.
Indoor Air ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609907

RESUMO

Hotel housekeepers represent a large, low-income, predominantly minority, and high-risk workforce. Little is known about their exposure to chemicals, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study evaluates VOC exposures of housekeepers, sources and factors affecting VOC levels, and provides preliminary estimates of VOC-related health risks. We utilized indoor and personal sampling at two hotels, assessed ventilation, and characterized the VOC composition of cleaning agents. Personal sampling of hotel staff showed a total target VOC concentration of 57 ± 36 µg/m3 (mean ± SD), about twice that of indoor samples. VOCs of greatest health significance included chloroform and formaldehyde. Several workers had exposure to alkanes that could cause non-cancer effects. VOC levels were negatively correlated with estimated air change rates. The composition and concentrations of the tested products and air samples helped identify possible emission sources, which included building sources (for formaldehyde), disinfection by-products in the laundry room, and cleaning products. VOC levels and the derived health risks in this study were at the lower range found in the US buildings. The excess lifetime cancer risk (average of 4.1 × 10-5 ) still indicates a need to lower exposure by reducing or removing toxic constituents, especially formaldehyde, or by increasing ventilation rates.

20.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(5): 872-878, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685897

RESUMO

Background: Discharged medical patients are at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is difficult to identify which discharged patients would benefit from extended duration thromboprophylaxis. The Intermountain Risk Score is a prediction score derived from discrete components of the complete blood cell count and basic metabolic panel and is highly predictive of 1-year mortality. We sought to ascertain if the Intermountain Risk Score might also be predictive of 90-day postdischarge hospital-associated VTE (HA-VTE). Methods: We applied the Intermountain Risk Score to 60 064 medical patients who survived 90 days after discharge and report predictiveness for HA-VTE. Area under the receiver operating curve analyses were performed. We then assessed whether the Intermountain Risk Score improved prediction of 2 existing VTE risk assessment models. Results: The Intermountain Risk Score poorly predicted HA-VTE (area under the curve = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.60). Each clinical risk assessment model was superior to the Intermountain Risk Score (UTAH area under the curve, 0.63; Kucher area under the curve, 0.62; Intermountain Risk Score area under the curve, 0.58; P < .001 for each comparison). Adding the Intermountain Risk Score to these scores did not substantially improve the performance of either risk assessment model (UTAH + Intermountain Risk Score, 0.65; Kucher + Intermountain Risk Score, 0.64). Conclusion: The Intermountain Risk Score demonstrated poor predictiveness for HA-VTE when compared to existing risk assessment models. Adding the Intermountain Risk Score to existing risk assessment models did not improve upon either risk assessment model alone to justify the added complexity.

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