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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 1057-1068, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668705

RESUMO

Average arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep (AvSpO2S) is a clinically relevant measure of physiological stress associated with sleep-disordered breathing, and this measure predicts incident cardiovascular disease and mortality. Using high-depth whole-genome sequencing data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) project and focusing on genes with linkage evidence on chromosome 8p23,1,2 we observed that six coding and 51 noncoding variants in a gene that encodes the GTPase-activating protein (DLC1) are significantly associated with AvSpO2S and replicated in independent subjects. The combined DLC1 association evidence of discovery and replication cohorts reaches genome-wide significance in European Americans (p = 7.9 × 10-7). A risk score for these variants, built on an independent dataset, explains 0.97% of the AvSpO2S variation and contributes to the linkage evidence. The 51 noncoding variants are enriched in regulatory features in a human lung fibroblast cell line and contribute to DLC1 expression variation. Mendelian randomization analysis using these variants indicates a significant causal effect of DLC1 expression in fibroblasts on AvSpO2S. Multiple sources of information, including genetic variants, gene expression, and methylation, consistently suggest that DLC1 is a gene associated with AvSpO2S.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15192, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645637

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that genes play a substantial role in determining a person's susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment. The existing studies on this subject have different results, which may be caused by difficulties in determining the phenotype or the limited number of participants involved. Here, we have gathered the largest sample to date (discovery n = 9,675; replication n = 10,963; validation n = 356,141), and examined phenotypes that represented low/mid and high frequency hearing loss on the pure tone audiogram. We identified 7 loci that were either replicated and/or validated, of which 5 loci are novel in hearing. Especially the ILDR1 gene is a high profile candidate, as it contains our top SNP, is a known hearing loss gene, has been linked to age-related hearing impairment before, and in addition is preferentially expressed within hair cells of the inner ear. By verifying all previously published SNPs, we can present a paper that combines all new and existing findings to date, giving a complete overview of the genetic architecture of age-related hearing impairment. This is of importance as age-related hearing impairment is highly prevalent in our ageing society and represents a large socio-economic burden.

3.
Am J Nephrol ; 50(4): 303-311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein A1 (APOL1) gene variants occurring in people of West African descent contribute to the greater burden of kidney disease among African Americans. These variants are associated with increased risk of nondiabetic nephropathy, more rapid progression of chronic kidney disease, and shorter survival of donor kidneys after transplantation. However, only a minority of people with APOL1-associated risk develops kidney disease and specific clinical measures to address APOL1-associated risk are lacking. Given these uncertainties, we sought to engage members of the African American public in discussions with other stakeholders about the appropriate use of APOL1 testing. METHODS: Formative interviews with community members, researchers, and clinicians in Seattle WA, Nashville TN, and Jackson MS, provided baseline information about views toward APOL1 testing and informed the design of 3 community-based deliberations among African Americans. A national meeting held in March 2018 included 13 community members, 7 scientific advisors and 26 additional researchers, clinicians, bioethicists, patient advocates, and representatives from professional organizations and federal funding agencies. Using small break-out and plenary discussion, the group agreed on recommendations based on current knowledge about APOL1-associated risk. RESULTS: Meeting outcomes included recommendations to develop educational materials about APOL1 for community members and clinicians; to offer APOL1 research results to participants; and on the use of APOL1testing in kidney transplant programs. The group recommended against the routine offer of APOL1 testing in clinical care. Areas of disagreement included whether kidney transplant programs should require APOL1 testing of prospective living donors or bar individuals with APOL1 risk from donating kidneys and whether testing should be available on request in routine clinical care. CONCLUSION: We recommend continued discussion among stakeholders and concerted efforts to ensure active and informed participation of members of the affected community to guide research on APOL1 and kidney disease.

4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(10): 2027-2036, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two coding variants in the apo L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with kidney disease in blacks. Kidney disease itself increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether these variants have an independent direct effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear. Previous studies have had inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis to assess the association of APOL1 kidney-risk variants with adjudicated cardiovascular disease events and death, independent of kidney measures. The analysis included 21,305 blacks from eight large cohorts. RESULTS: Over 8.9±5.0 years of follow-up, 2076 incident cardiovascular disease events occurred in the 16,216 participants who did not have cardiovascular disease at study enrollment. In fully-adjusted analyses, individuals possessing two APOL1 kidney-risk variants had similar risk of incident cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.28) compared to individuals with zero or one kidney-risk variant. The risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure considered individually was also comparable by APOL1 genotype. APOL1 genotype was also not associated with death. There was no difference in adjusted associations by level of kidney function, age, diabetes status, or body-mass index. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis, APOL1 kidney-risk variants were not associated with incident cardiovascular disease or death independent of kidney measures.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(10): e00788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy affects up to 43% of African Americans (AAs). Antihypertensive treatment reduces LV mass (LVM). However, interindividual variation in LV traits in response to antihypertensive treatments exists. We hypothesized that genetic variants may modify the association of antihypertensive treatment class with LV traits measured by echocardiography. METHODS: We evaluated the main effects of the three most common antihypertensive treatments for AAs as well as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-drug interaction on LVM and relative wall thickness (RWT) in 2,068 participants across five community-based cohorts. Treatments included thiazide diuretics (TDs), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (dCCBs) and were compared in a pairwise manner. We performed fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analyses of main effects of drugs and 2.5 million SNP-by-drug interaction estimates. RESULTS: We observed that dCCBs versus TDs were associated with higher LVM after adjusting for covariates (p = 0.001). We report three SNPs at a single locus on chromosome 20 that modified the association between RWT and treatment when comparing dCCBs to ACE-Is with consistent effects across cohorts (smallest p = 4.7 × 10-8 , minor allele frequency range 0.09-0.12). This locus has been linked to LV hypertrophy in a previous study. A marginally significant locus in BICD1 (rs326641) was validated in an external population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified one locus having genome-wide significant SNP-by-drug interaction effect on RWT among dCCB users in comparison to ACE-I users. Upon additional validation in future studies, our findings can enhance the precision of medical approaches in hypertension treatment.

6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 5895-5923, 2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422385

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is associated with several aging-related diseases. Here, we present a DNA methylation estimator of TL (DNAmTL) based on 140 CpGs. Leukocyte DNAmTL is applicable across the entire age spectrum and is more strongly associated with age than measured leukocyte TL (LTL) (r ~-0.75 for DNAmTL versus r ~ -0.35 for LTL). Leukocyte DNAmTL outperforms LTL in predicting: i) time-to-death (p=2.5E-20), ii) time-to-coronary heart disease (p=6.6E-5), iii) time-to-congestive heart failure (p=3.5E-6), and iv) association with smoking history (p=1.21E-17). These associations are further validated in large scale methylation data (n=10k samples) from the Framingham Heart Study, Women's Health Initiative, Jackson Heart Study, InChianti, Lothian Birth Cohorts, Twins UK, and Bogalusa Heart Study. Leukocyte DNAmTL is also associated with measures of physical fitness/functioning (p=0.029), age-at-menopause (p=0.039), dietary variables (omega 3, fish, vegetable intake), educational attainment (p=3.3E-8) and income (p=3.1E-5). Experiments in cultured somatic cells show that DNAmTL dynamics reflect in part cell replication rather than TL per se. DNAmTL is not only an epigenetic biomarker of replicative history of cells, but a useful marker of age-related pathologies that are associated with it.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 5876-5894, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461406

RESUMO

Telomere length is associated with age-related diseases and is highly heritable. It is unclear, however, to what extent epigenetic modifications are associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL). In this study, we conducted a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of LTL using seven large cohorts (n=5,713) - the Framingham Heart Study, the Jackson Heart Study, the Women's Health Initiative, the Bogalusa Heart Study, the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936, and the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Our stratified analysis suggests that EWAS findings for women of African ancestry may be distinct from those of three other groups: males of African ancestry, and males and females of European ancestry. Using a meta-analysis framework, we identified DNA methylation (DNAm) levels at 823 CpG sites to be significantly associated (P<1E-7) with LTL after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and imputed white blood cell counts. Functional enrichment analyses revealed that these CpG sites are near genes that play a role in circadian rhythm, blood coagulation, and wound healing. Weighted correlation network analysis identified four co-methylation modules associated with LTL, age, and blood cell counts. Overall, this study reveals highly significant relationships between two hallmarks of aging: telomere biology and epigenetic changes.

8.
Sleep ; 42(11)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386152

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We examined the night-to-night associations of evening use of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine with actigraphically estimated sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) among a large cohort of African American adults. METHODS: Participants in the Jackson Heart Sleep Study underwent wrist actigraphy for an average of 6.7 nights and completed concurrent daily sleep diary assessments to record any consumption of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine within 4 hours of bedtime. Linear mixed-effect models were fit and adjusted for age, sex, educational attainment, body mass index, depression, anxiety, stress, and having work/school the next day. RESULTS: Eligible participants (n = 785) were an average of 63.7 years (SD: 10.6), and were predominantly female (67.9%). There were 5164 days of concurrent actigraphy and sleep diary data. Evening alcohol use was associated with that night's lower sleep efficiency (-0.98% [95% CI: -1.67% to -0.29%], p = 0.005), but not with WASO or sleep duration. Evening nicotine use was associated with that night's lower sleep efficiency [1.74% (95% CI: -2.79 to -0.68), p = 0.001] and 6.09 minutes higher WASO ([95% CI: 0.82 to 11.35], p = 0.02), but was not associated with sleep duration. Evening caffeine use was not associated with any of the sleep parameters. CONCLUSION: Nicotine and alcohol use within 4 hours of bedtime were associated with increased sleep fragmentation in the associated night, even after controlling for multiple potential confounders. These findings support the importance of sleep health recommendations that promote the restriction of evening alcohol and nicotine use to improve sleep continuity.

9.
Circulation ; 140(1): 42-54, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Truncating variants in the Titin gene (TTNtvs) are common in individuals with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, a comprehensive genomics-first evaluation of the impact of TTNtvs in different clinical contexts, and the evaluation of modifiers such as genetic ancestry, has not been performed. METHODS: We reviewed whole exome sequence data for >71 000 individuals (61 040 from the Geisinger MyCode Community Health Initiative (2007 to present) and 10 273 from the PennMedicine BioBank (2013 to present) to identify anyone with TTNtvs. We further selected individuals with TTNtvs in exons highly expressed in the heart (proportion spliced in [PSI] >0.9). Using linked electronic health records, we evaluated associations of TTNtvs with diagnoses and quantitative echocardiographic measures, including subanalyses for individuals with and without DCM diagnoses. We also reviewed data from the Jackson Heart Study to validate specific analyses for individuals of African ancestry. RESULTS: Identified with a TTNtv in a highly expressed exon (hiPSI) were 1.2% individuals in PennMedicine BioBank and 0.6% at Geisinger. The presence of a hiPSI TTNtv was associated with increased odds of DCM in individuals of European ancestry (odds ratio [95% CI]: 18.7 [9.1-39.4] {PennMedicine BioBank} and 10.8 [7.0-16.0] {Geisinger}). hiPSI TTNtvs were not associated with DCM in individuals of African ancestry, despite a high DCM prevalence (odds ratio, 1.8 [0.2-13.7]; P=0.57). Among 244 individuals of European ancestry with DCM in PennMedicine BioBank, hiPSI TTNtv carriers had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (ß=-12%, P=3×10-7), and increased left ventricular diameter (ß=0.65 cm, P=9×10-3). In the Geisinger cohort, hiPSI TTNtv carriers without a cardiomyopathy diagnosis had more atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 2.4 [1.6-3.6]) and heart failure (odds ratio, 3.8 [2.4-6.0]), and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (ß=-3.4%, P=1×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals of European ancestry with hiPSI TTNtv have an abnormal cardiac phenotype characterized by lower left ventricular ejection fraction, irrespective of the clinical manifestation of cardiomyopathy. Associations with arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation, were observed even when controlling for cardiomyopathy diagnosis. In contrast, no association between hiPSI TTNtvs and DCM was discerned among individuals of African ancestry. Given these findings, clinical identification of hiPSI TTNtv carriers may alter clinical management strategies.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(7): 636-643, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166569

RESUMO

Importance: Metabolic responses to exercise training are variable. Metabolite profiling may aid in the clinical assessment of an individual's responsiveness to exercise interventions. Objective: To investigate the association between a novel circulating biomarker of hepatic fat, dimethylguanidino valeric acid (DMGV), and metabolic health traits before and after 20 weeks of endurance exercise training. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study involved cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, a 20-week, single-arm endurance exercise clinical trial performed in multiple centers between 1993 and 1997. White participants with sedentary lifestyles who were free of cardiometabolic disease were included. Metabolomic tests were performed using a liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry method on plasma samples collected before and after exercise training in the HERITAGE study. Metabolomics and data analysis were performed from August 2017 to May 2018. Exposures: Plasma DMGV levels. Main Outcome and Measures: The association between DMGV levels and measures of body composition, plasma lipids, insulin, and glucose homeostasis before and after exercise training. Results: Among the 439 participants included in analyses from HERITAGE, the mean (SD) age was 36 (15) years, 228 (51.9%) were female, and the median (interquartile range) body mass index was 25 (22-28). Baseline levels of DMGV were positively associated with body fat percentage, abdominal visceral fat, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, and inversely associated with insulin sensitivity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein size, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (range of ß coefficients, 0.17-0.46 [SEs, 0.026-0.050]; all P < .001, after adjusting for age and sex). After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline traits, baseline DMGV levels were positively associated with changes in small high-density lipoprotein particles (ß, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.05-0.23]) and inversely associated with changes in medium and total high-density lipoprotein particles (ß, -0.15 [95% CI, -0.24 to -0.05] and -0.19 [95% CI, -0.28 to -0.10], respectively), apolipoprotein A1 (ß, -0.14 [95% CI, -0.23 to -0.05]), and insulin sensitivity (ß, -0.13; P = 3.0 × 10-3) after exercise training. Conclusions and Relevance: Dimethylguanidino valeric acid is an early marker of cardiometabolic dysfunction that is associated with attenuated improvements in lipid traits and insulin sensitivity after exercise training. Levels of DMGV may identify individuals who require additional therapies beyond guideline-directed exercise to improve their metabolic health.

11.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 21, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a significant public health concern disproportionately affecting African Americans (AAs). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the leading cause of ESKD in the USA, and efforts to uncover genetic susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have had limited success. A prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs with T2D-ESKD was expanded with additional AA cases and controls and genotypes imputed to the higher density 1000 Genomes reference panel. The discovery analysis included 3432 T2D-ESKD cases and 6977 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls (N = 10,409), followed by a discrimination analysis in 2756 T2D non-nephropathy controls to exclude T2D-associated variants. RESULTS: Six independent variants located in or near RND3/RBM43, SLITRK3, ENPP7, GNG7, and APOL1 achieved genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with T2D-ESKD. Following extension analyses in 1910 non-diabetic ESKD cases and 908 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls, a meta-analysis of 5342 AA all-cause ESKD cases and 6977 AA non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls revealed an additional novel all-cause ESKD locus at EFNB2 (rs77113398; P = 9.84 × 10-9; OR = 1.94). Exclusion of APOL1 renal-risk genotype carriers identified two additional genome-wide significant T2D-ESKD-associated loci at GRAMD3 and MGAT4C. A second variant at GNG7 (rs373971520; P = 2.17 × 10-8, OR = 1.46) remained associated with all-cause ESKD in the APOL1-negative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide further evidence for genetic factors associated with advanced kidney disease in AAs with T2D.

12.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(5): e002376, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939045

RESUMO

Background Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia is a genetic disorder caused by rare protein-truncating variants (PTV) in the gene encoding APOB (apolipoprotein B), the major protein component of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether heterozygous APOB deficiency is associated with decreased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is uncertain. We combined family-based and large scale gene-sequencing to characterize the association of rare PTVs in APOB with circulating LDL-C (LDL cholesterol), triglycerides, and risk for CHD. Methods We sequenced the APOB gene in 29 Japanese hypobetalipoproteinemia families, as well as 57 973 individuals derived from 12 CHD case-control studies-18 442 with early-onset CHD and 39 531 controls. We defined PTVs as variants that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice-sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift reading frame. We tested the association of rare APOB PTV carrier status with blood lipid levels and CHD. Results Among 29 familial hypobetalipoproteinemia families, 8 families harbored APOB PTVs. Carrying 1 APOB PTV was associated with 55 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=3×10-5) and 53% lower triglyceride level ( P=2×10-4). Among 12 case-control studies, an APOB PTV was present in 0.038% of CHD cases as compared to 0.092% of controls. APOB PTV carrier status was associated with a 43 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=2×10-7), a 30% decrease in triglycerides ( P=5×10-4), and a 72% lower risk for CHD (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64; P=0.002). Conclusions Rare PTV mutations in APOB which are associated with lower LDL-C and reduced triglycerides also confer protection against CHD.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1007739, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990817

RESUMO

Sleep disordered breathing (SDB)-related overnight hypoxemia is associated with cardiometabolic disease and other comorbidities. Understanding the genetic bases for variations in nocturnal hypoxemia may help understand mechanisms influencing oxygenation and SDB-related mortality. We conducted genome-wide association tests across 10 cohorts and 4 populations to identify genetic variants associated with three correlated measures of overnight oxyhemoglobin saturation: average and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep and the percent of sleep with oxyhemoglobin saturation under 90%. The discovery sample consisted of 8,326 individuals. Variants with p < 1 × 10(-6) were analyzed in a replication group of 14,410 individuals. We identified 3 significantly associated regions, including 2 regions in multi-ethnic analyses (2q12, 10q22). SNPs in the 2q12 region associated with minimum SpO2 (rs78136548 p = 2.70 × 10(-10)). SNPs at 10q22 were associated with all three traits including average SpO2 (rs72805692 p = 4.58 × 10(-8)). SNPs in both regions were associated in over 20,000 individuals and are supported by prior associations or functional evidence. Four additional significant regions were detected in secondary sex-stratified and combined discovery and replication analyses, including a region overlapping Reelin, a known marker of respiratory complex neurons.These are the first genome-wide significant findings reported for oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep, a phenotype of high clinical interest. Our replicated associations with HK1 and IL18R1 suggest that variants in inflammatory pathways, such as the biologically-plausible NLRP3 inflammasome, may contribute to nocturnal hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Hexoquinase/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-18/genética , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Sono/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Oxigênio/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/sangue , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sleep Breath ; 23(3): 777-784, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756321

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that snoring is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Limited data exists pertaining to this association among African Americans. We therefore examined the association between self-reported habitual snoring and incident CVD in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), a population-based cohort study of African Americans. METHODS: Self-reported data on snoring and risk factors for CVD were collected at baseline (2000-2004). Participants were followed prospectively for the development of incident CVD. Habitual snoring was defined as present if the participants reported it as "often" or "almost always" or absent if reported as "sometimes," "never," or "seldom." A CVD event included stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, or fatal CHD event. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the independent association between self-reported habitual snoring and incident CVD event adjusting for multiple covariates, including age, sex, hypertension, body mass index, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking status. RESULTS: The snorer group consisted of 787 participants (mean age 52.1 years) and the nonsnorer group consisted of 3708 participants (mean age 54.9 years). Frequency of incident CVD events in the snorer group was not significantly different from the nonsnorer group. The fully adjusted hazard ratio for a CVD event in the snorer group was 1.01 (95% confidence interval [0.69, 1.47], p value of 0.96). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, self-reported habitual snoring was not associated with incident CVD among this large African American cohort. Future studies providing objective data on snoring and sleep apnea may provide more information on the snoring-CVD association among African Americans. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identification Number: NCT00005485.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 260-274, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639324

RESUMO

With advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) technology, more advanced statistical methods for testing genetic association with rare variants are being developed. Methods in which variants are grouped for analysis are also known as variant-set, gene-based, and aggregate unit tests. The burden test and sequence kernel association test (SKAT) are two widely used variant-set tests, which were originally developed for samples of unrelated individuals and later have been extended to family data with known pedigree structures. However, computationally efficient and powerful variant-set tests are needed to make analyses tractable in large-scale WGS studies with complex study samples. In this paper, we propose the variant-set mixed model association tests (SMMAT) for continuous and binary traits using the generalized linear mixed model framework. These tests can be applied to large-scale WGS studies involving samples with population structure and relatedness, such as in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. SMMATs share the same null model for different variant sets, and a virtue of this null model, which includes covariates only, is that it needs to be fit only once for all tests in each genome-wide analysis. Simulation studies show that all the proposed SMMATs correctly control type I error rates for both continuous and binary traits in the presence of population structure and relatedness. We also illustrate our tests in a real data example of analysis of plasma fibrinogen levels in the TOPMed program (n = 23,763), using the Analysis Commons, a cloud-based computing platform.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Computação em Nuvem , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/análise , Fibrinogênio/genética , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Masculino , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Medicina de Precisão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(2): 303-327, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669119

RESUMO

It was unknown whether plasma protein levels can be estimated based on DNA methylation (DNAm) levels, and if so, how the resulting surrogates can be consolidated into a powerful predictor of lifespan. We present here, seven DNAm-based estimators of plasma proteins including those of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and growth differentiation factor 15. The resulting predictor of lifespan, DNAm GrimAge (in units of years), is a composite biomarker based on the seven DNAm surrogates and a DNAm-based estimator of smoking pack-years. Adjusting DNAm GrimAge for chronological age generated novel measure of epigenetic age acceleration, AgeAccelGrim.Using large scale validation data from thousands of individuals, we demonstrate that DNAm GrimAge stands out among existing epigenetic clocks in terms of its predictive ability for time-to-death (Cox regression P=2.0E-75), time-to-coronary heart disease (Cox P=6.2E-24), time-to-cancer (P= 1.3E-12), its strong relationship with computed tomography data for fatty liver/excess visceral fat, and age-at-menopause (P=1.6E-12). AgeAccelGrim is strongly associated with a host of age-related conditions including comorbidity count (P=3.45E-17). Similarly, age-adjusted DNAm PAI-1 levels are associated with lifespan (P=5.4E-28), comorbidity count (P= 7.3E-56) and type 2 diabetes (P=2.0E-26). These DNAm-based biomarkers show the expected relationship with lifestyle factors including healthy diet and educational attainment.Overall, these epigenetic biomarkers are expected to find many applications including human anti-aging studies.

19.
Hum Genet ; 138(2): 199-210, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671673

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated low-frequency and rare variants associated with blood pressure (BP) by focusing on a linkage region on chromosome 16p13. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program on 395 Cleveland Family Study (CFS) European Americans (CFS-EA). By analyzing functional coding variants and non-coding rare variants with CADD score > 10 residing within the chromosomal region in families with linkage evidence, we observed 25 genes with nominal statistical evidence (burden or SKAT p < 0.05). One of the genes is RBFOX1, an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates tissue-specific alternative splicing that we previously reported to be associated with BP using exome array data in CFS. After follow-up analysis of the 25 genes in ten independent TOPMed studies with individuals of European, African, and East Asian ancestry, and Hispanics (N = 29,988), we identified variants in SLX4 (p = 2.19 × 10-4) to be significantly associated with BP traits when accounting for multiple testing. We also replicated the associations previously reported for RBFOX1 (p = 0.007). Follow-up analysis with GTEx eQTL data shows SLX4 variants are associated with gene expression in coronary artery, multiple brain tissues, and right atrial appendage of the heart. Our study demonstrates that linkage analysis of family data can provide an efficient approach for detecting rare variants associated with complex traits in WGS data.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Exoma , Ligação Genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Recombinases/genética
20.
Circulation ; 139(10): 1275-1284, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blacks have a high prevalence of hypertension and uncontrolled blood pressure (BP), each of which may be partially explained by untreated sleep apnea. We investigated the association of sleep apnea with uncontrolled BP and resistant hypertension in blacks. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2016, Jackson Heart Sleep Study participants (N=913) underwent an in-home Type 3 sleep apnea study, clinic BP measurements, and anthropometry. Moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was defined as a respiratory event index ≥15, and nocturnal hypoxemia was quantified as percent sleep time with <90% oxyhemoglobin saturation. Prevalent hypertension was defined as either a systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic BP >80mm Hg, use of antihypertensive medication, or self-report of a diagnosis of hypertension. Controlled BP was defined as systolic BP <130 mm Hg and diastolic BP <80 mm Hg; uncontrolled BP as systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg with use of 1 to 2 classes of antihypertensive medication; and resistant BP as systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg with the use of ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication (including a diuretic) or use of ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication regardless of BP level. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between OSA severity and uncontrolled BP or resistant hypertension (versus controlled BP) after multivariable adjustment. RESULTS: The analytic sample with hypertension (N=664) had a mean age of 64.0 (SD,10.6) years, and were predominately female (69.1%), obese (58.6%), and college educated (51.3%). Among the sample, 25.7% had OSA, which was untreated in 94% of participants. Overall, 48% of participants had uncontrolled hypertension and 14% had resistant hypertension. After adjustment for confounders, participants with moderate or severe OSA had a 2.0 times higher odds of resistant hypertension (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-3.67). Each standard deviation higher than <90% oxyhemoglobin saturation was associated with an adjusted odds ratio for resistant hypertension of 1.25 (95% CI 1.01-1.55). OSA and <90% oxyhemoglobin saturation were not associated with uncontrolled BP. CONCLUSION: Untreated moderate or severe OSA is associated with increased odds of resistant hypertension. These results suggest that untreated OSA may contribute to inadequate BP control in blacks.

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