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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851361

RESUMO

Importance: African American individuals have disproportionate rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) but lower levels of coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical CHD, than non-Hispanic White individuals. African American individuals may have distinct metabolite profiles associated with incident CHD risk compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, and examination of these differences could highlight important processes that differ between them. Objectives: To identify novel biomarkers of incident CHD and CAC among African American individuals and to replicate incident CHD findings in a multiethnic cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis targeted plasma metabolomic profiling of 2346 participants in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), a prospective population-based cohort study that included 5306 African American participants who were examined at baseline (2000-2004) and 2 follow-up visits. Replication of CHD-associated metabolites was sought among 1588 multiethnic participants from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a prospective population-based multiethnic cohort study of 161 808 postmenopausal women who were examined at baseline (1991-1995) and ongoing follow-up visits. Regression analyses were performed for each metabolite to examine the associations with incident CHD and CAC scores. Data were collected from the WHI between 1994 and 2009 and from the JHS between 2000 and 2015. All data were analyzed from November 2020 to August 2021. Exposures: Plasma metabolites. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident CHD was defined as definite or probable myocardial infarction or definite fatal CHD in both the JHS and WHI cohorts. In the JHS cohort, silent myocardial infarction between examinations (as determined by electrocardiography) and coronary revascularization were included in the incident CHD analysis. Coronary artery calcium was measured using a 16-channel computed tomographic system and reported as an Agatston score. Results: Among 2346 African American individuals in the JHS cohort, the mean (SD) age was 56 (13) years, and 1468 individuals (62.6%) were female. Among 1588 postmenopausal women in the WHI cohort, the mean (SD) age was 67 (7) years; 217 individuals (13.7%) self-identified as African American, 1219 (76.8%) as non-Hispanic White, and 152 (9.6%) as other races or ethnicities. In the fully adjusted model including 1876 individuals, 46 of 303 targeted metabolites were associated with incident CHD (false discovery rate q <0.100). Data for 32 of the 46 metabolites were available in the WHI cohort, and 13 incident CHD-associated metabolites from the JHS cohort were replicated in the WHI cohort. A total of 1439 participants from the JHS cohort with available CAC scores received metabolomic profiling. Nine metabolites were associated with CAC scores. Minimal overlap was found between the results from the incident CHD and CAC analyses, with only 3 metabolites shared between the 2 analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study identified metabolites that were associated with incident CHD among African American individuals, including 13 incident CHD-associated metabolites that were replicated in a multiethnic population and 9 novel metabolites that included N-acylamides, leucine, and lipid species. These findings may help to elucidate common and distinct metabolic processes that may be associated with CHD among individuals with different self-identified race.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(45): e27785, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766590

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: While increased obesity prevalence among persons of African ancestry (AAs) compared to persons of European ancestry (EAs) is linked to social, environmental and behavioral factors, there are no gene variants that are common and significantly associated with obesity in AA populations. We sought to explore the association between ancestry specific renal risk variants in the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene with obesity related traits in AAs.We conducted a genotype-phenotype association study from 3 electronic medical record linked cohorts (BioMe Biobank, BioVU, nuGENE); randomized controlled trials (genetic testing to understand and address renal disease disparities) and prospective cohort study (Jackson Heart Study). We analyzed association of APOL1 renal risk variants with cross-sectional measures of obesity (average body mass index (BMI), and proportion of overweight and obesity) and with measures of body composition (in Jackson Heart Study).We had data on 11,930 self-reported AA adults. Across cohorts, mean age was from 42 to 49 years and percentage female from 58% to 75.3%. Individuals who have 2 APOL1 risk alleles (14% of AAs) have 30% higher obesity odds compared to others (recessive model adjusted odds ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.41; P = 2.75 × 10-6). An additive model better fit the association, in which each allele (47% of AAs) increases obesity odds by 1.13-fold (adjusted odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.19; P = 3.07 × 10-6) and increases BMI by 0.36 kg/m2 (∼1 kg, for 1.7 m height; P = 2 × 10-4). APOL1 alleles are not associated with refined body composition traits overall but are significantly associated with fat free mass index in women [0.30 kg/m2 increment per allele; P = .03].Thus, renal risk variants in the APOL1 gene, found in nearly half of AAs, are associated with BMI and obesity in an additive manner. These variants could, either on their own or interacting with environmental factors, explain a proportion of ethnic disparities in obesity.

4.
Circulation ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814699

RESUMO

Background: Plasma proteins are critical mediators of cardiovascular processes and are the targets of many drugs. Previous efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of the plasma proteome have been limited by a focus on individuals of European descent and leveraged genotyping arrays and imputation. Here we describe whole genome sequence analysis of the plasma proteome in individuals with greater African ancestry, increasing our power to identify novel genetic determinants. Methods: Proteomic profiling of 1,301 proteins was performed in 1852 Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study using aptamer-based proteomics (SomaScan®). Whole genome sequencing association analysis was ascertained for all variants with minor allele count ≥ 5. Results were validated using an alternative, antibody-based, proteomic platform (Olink®) as well as replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the HERITAGE Family Study. Results: We identify 569 genetic associations between 479 proteins and 438 unique genetic regions at a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of 3.8 × 10-11. These associations include 114 novel locus-protein relationships and an additional 217 novel sentinel variant-protein relationships. Novel cardiovascular findings include new protein associations at the APOE gene locus including ZAP70 (sentinel single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7412-T, ß = 0.61±0.05, p-value = 3.27 × 10-30) and MMP-3 (ß = -0.60±0.05, p = 1.67 × 10-32), as well as a completely novel pleiotropic locus at the HPX gene, associated with nine proteins. Further, the associations suggest new mechanisms of genetically mediated cardiovascular disease linked to African ancestry; we identify a novel association between variants linked to APOL1 associated chronic kidney and heart disease and the protein CKAP2 (rs73885319-G, ß = 0.34±0.04, p = 1.34 × 10-17) as well as an association between ATTR amyloidosis and RBP4 levels in community dwelling individuals without heart failure. Conclusions: Taken together, these results provide evidence for the functional importance of variants in non-European populations, and suggest new biological mechanisms for ancestry-specific determinants of lipids, coagulation and myocardial function.

5.
Nat Genet ; 53(10): 1504-1516, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611364

RESUMO

Fine-mapping to plausible causal variation may be more effective in multi-ancestry cohorts, particularly in the MHC, which has population-specific structure. To enable such studies, we constructed a large (n = 21,546) HLA reference panel spanning five global populations based on whole-genome sequences. Despite population-specific long-range haplotypes, we demonstrated accurate imputation at G-group resolution (94.2%, 93.7%, 97.8% and 93.7% in admixed African (AA), East Asian (EAS), European (EUR) and Latino (LAT) populations). Applying HLA imputation to genome-wide association study data for HIV-1 viral load in three populations (EUR, AA and LAT), we obviated effects of previously reported associations from population-specific HIV studies and discovered a novel association at position 156 in HLA-B. We pinpointed the MHC association to three amino acid positions (97, 67 and 156) marking three consecutive pockets (C, B and D) within the HLA-B peptide-binding groove, explaining 12.9% of trait variance.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Infecções por HIV/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Alelos , Aminoácidos/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , HIV-1/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Padrões de Referência , Seleção Genética , Carga Viral
6.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 136, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity. The genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing remains poorly understood. Through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, we performed the first whole-genome sequence analysis of sleep-disordered breathing. METHODS: The study sample was comprised of 7988 individuals of diverse ancestry. Common-variant and pathway analyses included an additional 13,257 individuals. We examined five complementary traits describing different aspects of sleep-disordered breathing: the apnea-hypopnea index, average oxyhemoglobin desaturation per event, average and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation across the sleep episode, and the percentage of sleep with oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90%. We adjusted for age, sex, BMI, study, and family structure using MMSKAT and EMMAX mixed linear model approaches. Additional bioinformatics analyses were performed with MetaXcan, GIGSEA, and ReMap. RESULTS: We identified a multi-ethnic set-based rare-variant association (p = 3.48 × 10-8) on chromosome X with ARMCX3. Additional rare-variant associations include ARMCX3-AS1, MRPS33, and C16orf90. Novel common-variant loci were identified in the NRG1 and SLC45A2 regions, and previously associated loci in the IL18RAP and ATP2B4 regions were associated with novel phenotypes. Transcription factor binding site enrichment identified associations with genes implicated with respiratory and craniofacial traits. Additional analyses identified significantly associated pathways. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the first gene-based rare-variant associations with objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing traits. Our results increase the understanding of the genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing and highlight associations in genes that modulate lung development, inflammation, respiratory rhythmogenesis, and HIF1A-mediated hypoxic response.

7.
Sleep ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197610

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: African-Americans have a high burden of poor sleep, yet, psychosocial determinants (e.g., discrimination) are understudied. We investigated longitudinal associations between everyday discrimination and sleep quality and duration among African-Americans (N=3404) in the Jackson Heart Study. METHODS: At Exam 1 (2000-2004) and Exam 3 (2008-2013), participants completed the Everyday Discrimination Scale, rated their sleep quality (1=poor to 5=excellent), and self-reported hours of sleep. A subset of participants (N=762) underwent 7-day actigraphy to objectively assess sleep duration (Sleep Exam 2012-2016). Changes in discrimination were defined as low stable (reference), increasing, decreasing, and stable high. Within-person changes in sleep from Exam 1-to-3 were regressed on change in discrimination from Exam 1-to-3 while adjusting for age, sex, education, income, employment, physical activity, smoking, body mass index, social support and stress. RESULTS: At Exam 1, the mean age was 54.1 (12.0) years; 64% were female, mean sleep quality was 3.0 (1.1) and 54% were short sleepers. The distribution of the discrimination change trajectories, were 54.1% low stable, 13.5% increasing, 14.6% decreasing, and 17.7% were high stable. Participants who were in the increasing (vs. stable low) discrimination group had greater decrease in sleep quality. There was no association between change in discrimination and change in sleep duration. Among Sleep Exam participants, higher discrimination was cross-sectionally associated with shorter self-reported sleep duration, independent of stress. CONCLUSION: Discrimination is a unique stressor for African-Americans; thus, future research should identify interventions to reduce the burden of discrimination on sleep quality.

8.
Mitochondrion ; 60: 33-42, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303007

RESUMO

We investigated the concordance of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmic mutations (heteroplasmies) in 6745 maternal pairs of European (EA, n = 4718 pairs) and African (AA, n = 2027 pairs) Americans in whole blood. Mother-offspring pairs displayed the highest concordance rate, followed by sibling-sibling and more distantly-related maternal pairs. The allele fractions of concordant heteroplasmies exhibited high correlation (R2 = 0.8) between paired individuals. Discordant heteroplasmies were more likely to be in coding regions, be nonsynonymous or nonsynonymous-deleterious (p < 0.001). The number of deleterious heteroplasmies was significantly correlated with advancing age (20-44, 45-64, and ≥65 years, p-trend = 0.01). One standard deviation increase in heteroplasmic burden (i.e., the number of heteroplasmies carried by an individual) was associated with 0.17 to 0.26 (p < 1e - 23) standard deviation decrease in mtDNA copy number, independent of age. White blood cell count and differential count jointly explained 0.5% to 1.3% (p ≤ 0.001) variance in heteroplasmic burden. A genome-wide association and meta-analysis identified a region at 11p11.12 (top signal rs779031139, p = 2.0e - 18, minor allele frequency = 0.38) associated with the heteroplasmic burden. However, the 11p11.12 region is adjacent to a nuclear mitochondrial DNA (NUMT) corresponding to a 542 bp area of the D-loop. This region was no longer significant after excluding heteroplasmies within the 542 bp from the heteroplasmic burden. The discovery that blood mtDNA heteroplasmies were both inherited and somatic origins and that an increase in heteroplasmic burden was strongly associated with a decrease in average number of mtDNA copy number in blood are important findings to be considered in association studies of mtDNA with disease traits.

9.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003258, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. RESULTS: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near PHACTR1 and rs10757278 near CDKN2B) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near APOE-APOC1) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near CSNK1A1L/LINC00547/POSTN at 13q13.3) at P=2.0×10-8 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints POSTN, encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (P<3.1×10-4) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near CDKN2B-AS1 and rs11170820 near FLJ12825 for CAC, and rs7412 near APOE for cIMT). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.

10.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(3): e003191, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased left ventricular (LV) mass is associated with adverse cardiovascular events including heart failure (HF). Both increased LV mass and HF disproportionately affect Black individuals. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we undertook a proteomic screen in a Black cohort and compared the findings to results from a White cohort. METHODS: We measured 1305 plasma proteins using the SomaScan platform in 1772 Black participants (mean age, 56 years; 62% women) in JHS (Jackson Heart Study) with LV mass assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Incident HF was assessed in 1600 participants. We then compared protein associations in JHS to those observed in White participants from FHS (Framingham Heart Study; mean age, 54 years; 56% women). RESULTS: In JHS, there were 110 proteins associated with LV mass and 13 proteins associated with incident HF hospitalization with false discovery rate <5% after multivariable adjustment. Several proteins showed expected associations with both LV mass and HF, including NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; ß=0.04; P=2×10-8; hazard ratio, 1.48; P=0.0001). The strongest association with LV mass was novel: LKHA4 (leukotriene-A4 hydrolase; ß=0.05; P=5×10-15). This association was confirmed on an alternate proteomics platform and further supported by related metabolomic data. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 (C-X3-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) showed a novel association with incident HF (hazard ratio, 1.32; P=0.0002). While established biomarkers such as cystatin C and NT-proBNP showed consistent associations in Black and White individuals, LKHA4 and fractalkine were significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several novel biological pathways specific to Black adults hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiologic cascade of LV hypertrophy and incident HF including LKHA4 and fractalkine.

11.
Aging Cell ; 20(6): e13366, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050697

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a common precursor state for blood cancers that most frequently occurs due to mutations in the DNA-methylation modifying enzymes DNMT3A or TET2. We used DNA-methylation array and whole-genome sequencing data from four cohorts together comprising 5522 persons to study the association between CHIP, epigenetic clocks, and health outcomes. CHIP was strongly associated with epigenetic age acceleration, defined as the residual after regressing epigenetic clock age on chronological age, in several clocks, ranging from 1.31 years (GrimAge, p < 8.6 × 10-7 ) to 3.08 years (EEAA, p < 3.7 × 10-18 ). Mutations in most CHIP genes except DNA-damage response genes were associated with increases in several measures of age acceleration. CHIP carriers with mutations in multiple genes had the largest increases in age acceleration and decrease in estimated telomere length. Finally, we found that ~40% of CHIP carriers had acceleration >0 in both Hannum and GrimAge (referred to as AgeAccelHG+). This group was at high risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.90, p < 4.1 × 10-8 ) and coronary heart disease (CHD) (hazard ratio 3.24, p < 9.3 × 10-6 ) compared to those who were CHIP-/AgeAccelHG-. In contrast, the other ~60% of CHIP carriers who were AgeAccelHG- were not at increased risk of these outcomes. In summary, CHIP is strongly linked to age acceleration in multiple clocks, and the combination of CHIP and epigenetic aging may be used to identify a population at high risk for adverse outcomes and who may be a target for clinical interventions.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2182, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846329

RESUMO

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10-72), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10-4), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10-5). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fenômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(8): e2000796, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629508

RESUMO

SCOPE: New biomarkers are needed that are representative of dietary intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assess metabolites associated with Southern dietary patterns in 1401 Jackson Heart Study participants. Three dietary patterns are empirically derived using principal component analysis: meat and fast food, fish and vegetables, and starchy foods. We randomly select two subsets of the study population: two-third sample for discovery (n = 934) and one-third sample for replication (n = 467). Among the 327 metabolites analyzed, 14 are significantly associated with the meat and fast food dietary pattern, four are significantly associated with the fish and vegetables dietary pattern, and none are associated with the starchy foods dietary pattern in the discovery sample. In the replication sample, nine remain associated with the meat and fast food dietary pattern [indole-3-propanoic acid, C24:0 lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), N-methyl proline, proline betaine, C34:2 phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plasmalogen, C36:5 PE plasmalogen, C38:5 PE plasmalogen, cotinine, hydroxyproline] and three remain associated with the fish and vegetables dietary pattern [1,7-dimethyluric acid, C22:6 lysophosphatidylethanolamine, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. CONCLUSION: Twelve metabolites are discovered and replicated in association with dietary patterns detected in a Southern U.S. African-American population, which could be useful as biomarkers of Southern dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta , Afro-Americanos , Feminino , Produtos Pesqueiros , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Produtos da Carne , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi , Verduras
15.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(1): e007275, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by significant metabolic disturbances; however, the breadth of metabolic dysfunction before the onset of overt disease is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of circulating metabolites with incident HF to uncover novel metabolic pathways to disease. METHODS: We performed targeted plasma metabolomic profiling in a deeply phenotyped group of Black adults from the JHS (Jackson Heart Study; n=2199). We related metabolites associated with incident HF to established etiological mechanisms, including increased left ventricular mass index and incident coronary heart disease. Furthermore, we evaluated differential associations of metabolites with HF with preserved ejection fraction versus HF with reduced ejection fraction. RESULTS: Metabolites associated with incident HF included products of posttranscriptional modifications of RNA, as well as polyamine and nitric oxide metabolism. A subset of metabolite-HF associations was independent of well-established HF pathways such as increased left ventricular mass index and incident coronary heart disease and included homoarginine (per 1 SD increase in metabolite level, hazard ratio, 0.77; P=1.2×10-3), diacetylspermine (hazard ratio, 1.34; P=3.4×10-3), and uridine (hazard ratio, 0.79; P, 3×10-4). Furthermore, metabolites involved in pyrimidine metabolism (orotic acid) and collagen turnover (N-methylproline) among others were part of a distinct metabolic signature that differentiated individuals with HF with preserved ejection fraction versus HF with reduced ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of clinical phenotyping with plasma metabolomic profiling uncovered novel metabolic processes in nontraditional disease pathways underlying the heterogeneity of HF development in Black adults.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colágeno/metabolismo , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Homoarginina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ácido Orótico/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/metabolismo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Risco , Espermina/análogos & derivados , Espermina/metabolismo , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Uridina/metabolismo
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2030435, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399855

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) are substantially higher among African American individuals compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, even after adjusting for traditional factors associated with CHD. The unexplained excess risk might be due to genetic factors related to African ancestry that are associated with a higher risk of CHD, such as the heterozygous state for the sickle cell variant or sickle cell trait (SCT). Objective: To evaluate whether there is an association between SCT and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) or composite CHD outcomes in African American individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 5 large, prospective, population-based cohorts of African American individuals in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. The follow-up periods included in this study were 1993 and 1998 to 2014 for the WHI study, 2003 to 2014 for the REGARDS study, 2002 to 2016 for the MESA, 2002 to 2015 for the JHS, and 1987 to 2016 for the ARIC study. Data analysis began in October 2013 and was completed in October 2020. Exposures: Sickle cell trait status was evaluated by either direct genotyping or high-quality imputation of rs334 (the sickle cell variant). Participants with sickle cell disease and those with a history of CHD were excluded from the analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident MI, defined as adjudicated nonfatal or fatal MI, and incident CHD, defined as adjudicated nonfatal MI, fatal MI, coronary revascularization procedures, or death due to CHD. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for incident MI or CHD comparing SCT carriers with noncarriers. Models were adjusted for age, sex (except for the WHI study), study site or region of residence, hypertension status or systolic blood pressure, type 1 or 2 diabetes, serum high-density lipoprotein level, total cholesterol level, and global ancestry (estimated from principal components analysis). Results: A total of 23 197 African American men (29.8%) and women (70.2%) were included in the combined sample, of whom 1781 had SCT (7.7% prevalence). Mean (SD) ages at baseline were 61.2 (6.9) years in the WHI study (n = 5904), 64.0 (9.3) years in the REGARDS study (n = 10 714), 62.0 (10.0) years in the MESA (n = 1556), 50.3 (12.0) years in the JHS (n = 2175), and 53.2 (5.8) years in the ARIC study (n = 2848). There were no significant differences in the distribution of traditional factors associated with cardiovascular disease by SCT status within cohorts. A combined total of 1034 participants (76 with SCT) had incident MI, and 1714 (137 with SCT) had the composite CHD outcome. The meta-analyzed crude incidence rate of MI did not differ by SCT status and was 3.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 3.3-4.5 per 1000 person-years) among those with SCT and 3.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 2.7-5.1 per 1000 person-years) among those without SCT. For the composite CHD outcome, these rates were 7.3 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 5.5-9.7 per 1000 person-years) among those with SCT and 6.0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 4.9-7.4 per 1000 person-years) among those without SCT. Meta-analysis of the 5 study results showed that SCT status was not significantly associated with MI (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81-1.32) or the composite CHD outcome (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.92-1.47). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, there was not an association between SCT and increased risk of MI or CHD in African American individuals. These disorders may not be associated with sickle cell trait-related sudden death in this population.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença das Coronárias , Traço Falciforme , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traço Falciforme/complicações , Traço Falciforme/epidemiologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5182, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057025

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diagnosed by reduced lung function, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We performed whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis of lung function and COPD in a multi-ethnic sample of 11,497 participants from population- and family-based studies, and 8499 individuals from COPD-enriched studies in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program. We identify at genome-wide significance 10 known GWAS loci and 22 distinct, previously unreported loci, including two common variant signals from stratified analysis of African Americans. Four novel common variants within the regions of PIAS1, RGN (two variants) and FTO show evidence of replication in the UK Biobank (European ancestry n ~ 320,000), while colocalization analyses leveraging multi-omic data from GTEx and TOPMed identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying four of the 22 novel loci. Our study demonstrates the value of performing WGS analyses and multi-omic follow-up in cohorts of diverse ancestry.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Inibidoras de STAT Ativados/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etnologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/genética
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25026-25035, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958645

RESUMO

In addition to their fundamental role in clearance, the kidneys release select molecules into the circulation, but whether any of these anabolic functions provides insight on kidney health is unknown. Using aptamer-based proteomics, we characterized arterial (A)-to-renal venous (V) gradients for >1,300 proteins in 22 individuals who underwent invasive sampling. Although most of the proteins that changed significantly decreased from A to V, consistent with renal clearance, several were found to increase, the most significant of which was testican-2. To assess the clinical implications of these physiologic findings, we examined proteomic data in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), an African-American cohort (n = 1,928), with replication in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), a White cohort (n = 1,621). In both populations, testican-2 had a strong, positive correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In addition, higher baseline testican-2 levels were associated with a lower rate of eGFR decline in models adjusted for age, gender, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, baseline eGFR, and albuminuria. Glomerular expression of testican-2 in human kidneys was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, while single-cell RNA sequencing of human kidneys showed expression of the cognate gene, SPOCK2, exclusively in podocytes. In vitro, testican-2 increased glomerular endothelial tube formation and motility, raising the possibility that its secretion has a functional role within the glomerulus. Taken together, our findings identify testican-2 as a podocyte-derived biomarker of kidney health and prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/genética , Proteômica , Afro-Americanos/genética , Aptâmeros de Peptídeos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/patologia , Rim/patologia , Testes de Função Renal , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Podócitos/metabolismo , Podócitos/patologia , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo
20.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2454-2463, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Blacks endure a nearly 2-fold greater risk of stroke and are 2× to 3× more likely to die from stroke than European Americans. METHODS: The COMPASS (Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke) has conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of stroke in >22 000 individuals of African ancestry (3734 cases, 18 317 controls) from 13 cohorts. RESULTS: In meta-analyses, we identified one single nucleotide polymorphism (rs55931441) near the HNF1A gene that reached genome-wide significance (P=4.62×10-8) and an additional 29 variants with suggestive evidence of association (P<1×10-6), representing 24 unique loci. For validation, a look-up analysis for a 100 kb region flanking the COMPASS single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network) Europeans, SiGN Hispanics, and METASTROKE (Europeans). Using a stringent Bonferroni correction P value of 2.08×10-3 (0.05/24 unique loci), we were able to validate associations at the HNF1A locus in both SiGN (P=8.18×10-4) and METASTROKE (P=1.72×10-3) European populations. Overall, 16 of 24 loci showed evidence for validation across multiple populations. Previous studies have reported associations between variants in the HNF1A gene and lipids, C-reactive protein, and risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. Suggestive associations with variants in the SFXN4 and TMEM108 genes represent potential novel ischemic stroke loci. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the most thorough investigation of genetic determinants of stroke in individuals of African descent, to date.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
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