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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016211

RESUMO

The synthesis and single crystal structures of Am(iii) and Cm(iii) thiocyanate complexes are reported along with an isostructural series of lanthanide thiocyanate complexes. Because the complexes are isostructural, a comparative study of the metal-thiocyanate bonds was conducted using Raman spectroscopy indicating very similar and electrostatic metal-ligand interactions.

2.
Chemistry ; 26(7): 1497-1500, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805204

RESUMO

Hydrofluxes are hydrated salts with melting points well below that of the dehydrated salt and boiling points well above that of water, affording a reaction medium, in which mild temperatures and pressures can be accessed for the synthesis of materials. Herein, the use of alkali metal hydroxide hydrofluxes for the synthesis of single crystal α-Na2 NpO4 is described, and the single crystal X-ray structure of α-Na2 NpO4 , along with its X-ray absorption spectra and vibrational spectra, is reported. The ability to synthesize complex oxides of the actinides, in particular, transuranium materials, under mild conditions will serve to advance our ability to explore the structure-property relationships of the f elements.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(5): 3203-3210, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746941

RESUMO

The synthesis of a series of molecular actinyl(VI), namely, uranium(VI), neptunium(VI), and plutonium(VI), hydroxo-bridged dimers is reported. These complexes were isolated from an aqueous nitrate solution by titration with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. The solid-state structures were determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing molecular complexes with the formula [Me4N]2[(AnO2)2(µ2-OH)2(NO3)4], where An = UVI, NpVI, and PuVI. Spectroscopic data-UV-vis-near-IR absorption, IR, and Raman-were collected on the solutions and solid-state complexes where available and compared to those of the aqueous solutions from which the crystals formed. These data provide structural evidence for higher-order polynuclear complexes of actinyl(VI) complexes upon a pH increase in the aqueous solution, confirming earlier thermodynamic models.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 57(6): 3008-3016, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493229

RESUMO

The synthesis, structure, and vibrational properties are presented for an isostructural series of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) complexes of the form [Ph4P]2AnO2Cl4, where An = Np(VI) or Pu(VI). The reported complexes are readily synthesized in ambient laboratory conditions, and their molecular structures were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Their vibrational spectra were studied using a combination of Raman and FT-IR vibrational spectroscopies. Analysis of the vibrational spectra and force constants highlight the periodic properties associated with the actinide contraction and filling of the 5f electronic shells. Additionally, we have assessed the utility of these complexes as conveniently synthesized starting materials for non-aqueous synthesis of transuranium molecules and materials.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 622, 2018 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434286

RESUMO

The role of the 5f and 6d orbitals in the chemistry of the actinide elements has been of considerable interest since their discovery and synthesis. Relativistic effects cause the energetics of the 5f and 6d orbitals to change as the actinide series is traversed left to right imparting a rich and complex chemistry. The 5f and 6d atomic states cross in energy at protactinium (Pa), making it a potential intersection between transition metal and actinide chemistries. Herein, we report the synthesis of a Pa-peroxo cluster, A6(Pa4O(O2)6F12) [A = Rb, Cs, (CH3)4N], formed in pursuit of an actinide polyoxometalate. Quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory level demonstrate equal 5f and 6d orbital participation in the chemistry of Pa and increasing 5f orbital participation for the heavier actinides. Periodic changes in orbital character to the bonding in the early actinides highlights the influence of the 5f orbitals in their reactivity and chemical structure.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 56(6): 3686-3694, 2017 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276685

RESUMO

The synthesis, reactivity, structures, and bonding in gas-phase binary and complex oxide anion molecules of protactinium and uranium have been studied by experiment and theory. The oxalate ions, AnVO2(C2O4)-, where An = Pa or U, are essentially actinyl ions, AnVO2+, coordinated by an oxalate dianion. Both react with water to yield the pentavalent hydroxides, AnVO(OH)2(C2O4)-. The chemistry of Pa and U becomes divergent for reactions that result in oxidation: whereas PaVI is inaccessible, UVI is very stable. The UVO2(C2O4)- complex exhibits a remarkable spontaneous exothermic replacement of the oxalate ligand by O2 to yield UO4- and two CO2 molecules. The structure of the uranium tetroxide anion is computed to correspond to distorted uranyl, UVIO22+, coordinated in the equatorial plane by two equivalent O atoms each having formal charges of -1.5 and U-O bond orders intermediate between single and double. The unreactive nature of PaVO2(C2O4)- toward O2 is a manifestation of the resistance toward oxidation of PaV, and clearly reveals the disparate chemistries of Pa and U. The uranium tetroxide anion, UO4-, reacts with water to yield UO5H2-. Infrared spectra obtained for UO5H2- confirm the computed lowest-energy structure, UO3(OH)2-.

7.
Chemistry ; 21(44): 15575-82, 2015 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26493880

RESUMO

The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, vibrational and optical spectroscopy for the eight-coordinate thiocyanate compounds, [Et4 N]4 [Pu(IV) (NCS)8 ], [Et4 N]4 [Th(IV) (NCS)8 ], and [Et4 N]4 [Ce(III) (NCS)7 (H2 O)] are reported. Thiocyanate was found to rapidly reduce plutonium to Pu(III) in acidic solutions (pH<1) in the presence of NCS(-) . The optical spectrum of [Et4 N][SCN] containing Pu(III) solution was indistinguishable from that of aquated Pu(III) suggesting that inner-sphere complexation with [Et4 N][SCN] does not occur in water. However, upon concentration, the homoleptic thiocyanate complex [Et4 N]4 [Pu(IV) (NCS)8 ] was crystallized when a large excess of [Et4 N][NCS] was present. This compound, along with its U(IV) analogue, maintains inner-sphere thiocyanate coordination in acetonitrile based on the observation of intense ligand-to-metal charge-transfer bands. Spectroscopic and crystallographic data do not support the interaction of the metal orbitals with the ligand π system, but support an enhanced An(IV) -NCS interaction, as the Lewis acidity of the metal ion increases from Th to Pu.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 54(15): 7474-80, 2015 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26203499

RESUMO

It is demonstrated that the gas-phase oxo-exchange of PaO2(+) with water is substantially faster than that of UO2(+), indicating that the Pa-O bonds are more susceptible to activation and formation of the bis-hydroxide intermediate, PaO(OH)2(+). To elucidate the nature of the water adduct of PaO2(+), hydration of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), as well as collision induced dissociation (CID) and ligand-exchange of the water adducts of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), was studied. The results indicate that, in contrast to UO2(H2O)(+), the protactinium oxo bis-hydroxide isomer, PaO(OH)2(+), is produced as a gas-phase species close in energy to the hydrate isomer, PaO2(H2O)(+). CID behavior similar to that of Th(OH)3(+) supports the assignment as PaO(OH)2(+). The gas-phase results are consistent with the spontaneous hydrolysis of PaO2(+) in aqueous solution, this in contrast to later AnO2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), which forms stable hydrates in both solution and gas phase. In view of the known propensity for Th(IV) to hydrolyze, and previous gas-phase studies of other AnO2(+), it is concluded that the stabilities of oxo-hydroxides relative to oxide hydrates decreases in the order: Th(IV) > Pa(V) > U(V) > Np(V) > Pu(V). This trend suggests increasing covalency and decreasing ionicity of An-O bonds upon proceeding across the actinide series.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 54(21): 10208-13, 2015 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26225472

RESUMO

The single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 is presented for the first time, resolving long-standing confusion and speculation regarding the structure of this compound in the literature. A temperature-dependent study of this compound shows that the structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 undergoes no fewer than two phase transitions between 100 and 360 K. The phase of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 at room temperature is Fd3̅c a = 26.012(3) Å. At 360 K, the structure is in space group Fm3̅m, with a = 13.088(1) Å. The plutonium octahedra and tetramethylammonium cations undergo a rotative displacement, and the degree of rotation varies with temperature, giving rise to the phase transition from Fm3̅m to Fd3̅c as the crystal is cooled. Synthesis and structural studies of the deuterated salt [(CD3)4N]2PuCl6 suggest that there is an isotopic effect associated with this phase transition, as revealed by a changing transition temperature in the deuterated versus protonated compound, indicating that the donor-acceptor interactions between the tetramethylammonium cations and the hexachloroplutonate anions are driving the phase transformation.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 53(23): 12643-9, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25389749

RESUMO

The speciation of protactinium(V) in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements were performed on an aqueous solution of 0.05 M protactinium(V) with various HF concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 27 M in order to probe the protactinium coordination sphere with respect to the identity and number of coordinating ligands. The resulting fits to the spectra suggest the presence of an eight-coordinate homoleptic fluoro complex in highly concentrated fluoride solutions (27 M), with equilibrium between seven- and eight-coordinate fluoro complexes at moderate acidities, and in more dilute solutions, results indicate that one water molecule is likely to replace a fluoride in the first coordination sphere, at a distance of 2.54-2.57 Å. Comparisons of this chemistry with group V metals, niobium and tantalum, are presented, and the potential implications for these results on the hydrolytic behavior of protactinium in aqueous systems are discussed.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 53(20): 11036-45, 2014 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25299307

RESUMO

We present the structural and spectroscopic characterization of six uranyl tetrachloride compounds along with a quantified analysis showing the influence of both the crystallographic phase and the lattice solvent upon the vibrational properties of the uranyl moiety. From the uranyl symmetric and asymmetric stretching frequencies we use a valence bond potential model to calculate the stretching and interaction force constants of the uranyl moiety in each compound. Quantifying these second-sphere influences provides insight into the vibrational properties, and indirectly the electronic structure, of the uranyl ion in its ground state. These data provide a better guide for assessing the validity of future comparisons with respect to bond strength, length, and electronic properties among series of actinyl compounds where non-actinide variables may be at play.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 53(3): 1750-5, 2014 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24437929

RESUMO

Seven protactinium(V) fluoride compounds have been synthesized, and their crystal structures and Raman spectra are reported. (NH4)2PaF7, K2PaF7, Rb2PaF7, and Cs2PaF7 were found to crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/c for the ammonium compound and C2/c for the K(+)-, Rb(+)-, and Cs(+)-containing compounds, with nine-coordinate Pa forming infinite chains through fluorine bridges. Na3PaF8 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4/mmm with eight-coordinate Pa in tetragonal geometry, while tetramethylammonium fluoroprotactinate shows two different structures: (Me4N)2(H3O)PaF8, an eight-coordinate molecular compound crystallizing in the monoclinic space group C2/c, and (Me4N)PaF6, an eight-coordinate Pa compound forming infinite chains and crystallizing in the orthorhombic space group Pnnm. A comparison of solid- and solution-state Raman data indicates that the PaF8(-) anion could be the predominant Pa(V) complex in concentrated solutions of aqueous HF.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 53(1): 383-92, 2014 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24328217

RESUMO

The synthesis, crystal structures, and Raman spectra of seven plutonium chloride compounds are presented. The materials are based upon Pu(VI)O2Cl4(2-) and Pu(IV)Cl6(2-) anions that are charge balanced by protonated pyridinium cations. The single crystal X-ray structures show a variety of donor-acceptor interactions between the plutonium perhalo anions and the cationic pyridine groups. Complementary Raman spectra show that these interactions can be probed through the symmetric vibrational mode of the plutonyl moiety. Unlike previously reported studies in similar uranyl(VI) systems, the facile redox chemistry of plutonium in aqueous solution has demonstrated the feasibility of using not only the An(VI)O2Cl4(2-) anion with approximate D4h symmetry but also the approximately Oh An(IV)Cl6(2-) anion in order to manipulate both the structure and dimensionality of such hybrid materials.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(24): 14178-84, 2013 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24266655

RESUMO

The formation of Pu(IV)-oxo-nanoparticles from Pu(III) solutions by a surface-enhanced redox/polymerization reaction at the muscovite (001) basal plane is reported, with a continuous increase in plutonium coverage observed in situ over several hours. The sorbed Pu extends >70 Å from the surface with a maximum concentration at 10.5 Å and a total coverage of >9 Pu atoms per unit cell area of muscovite (0.77 µg Pu/cm(2)) (determined independently by in situ resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity and by ex-situ alpha-spectrometry). The presence of discrete nanoparticles is confirmed by high resolution atomic force microscopy. We propose that the formation of these Pu(IV) nanoparticles from an otherwise stable Pu(III) solution can be explained by the combination of a highly concentrated interfacial Pu-ion species, the Pu(III)-Pu(IV) redox equilibrium, and the strong proclivity of tetravalent Pu to hydrolyze and form polymeric species. These results are the first direct observation of such behavior of plutonium on a naturally occurring mineral, providing insights into understanding the environmental transport of plutonium and other contaminants capable of similar redox/polymerization reactions.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Eletrólitos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Plutônio/química , Adsorção , Elétrons , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Oxirredução , Soluções , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
15.
Inorg Chem ; 52(24): 14138-47, 2013 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24256199

RESUMO

In actinide chemistry, it has been shown that equatorial ligands bound to the metal centers of actinyl ions have a strong influence on the chemistry and therefore the electronic structure of the O═An═O moiety. While this influence has received a significant amount of attention, considerably less research has been done to investigate how the identity of the actinide metal itself (U, Np, Pu, Am) affects the actinyl stretching frequencies. Herein, we present the structural and spectroscopic characterization of six actinyl tetrachloride compounds (M2AnO2Cl4: M = Rb, Cs, Me4N; An = U, Pu) as well as the stretching and interactive force constants of the actinyl moiety in each species. Our results show a decrease in the stretching force constant and a weakening of the An═O bond when traversing the actinides from uranyl to plutonyl, which is interesting because the solid state molecular structures show a slight contraction of the An═O bond length when uranium is replaced with plutonium. Additionally, the interaction force constants for both the uranyl and plutonyl compounds were found to be negative, which corresponds to a reduction of the force constant for the symmetric stretching mode.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 52(16): 9487-95, 2013 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23909845

RESUMO

Three uranium(VI)-bearing materials were synthesized hydrothermally using the organic ligand 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid: (UO2)(C14O4H8) (1); [(UO2)2(C14O4H8)2(OH)]·(NH4)(H2O) (2); (UO2)2(C14O4H8)(OH)2 (3). Compound 1 was formed after 1 day at 180 °C in an acidic environment (pH(i) = 4.03), and compounds 2 and 3 coformed after 3 days under basic conditions (pH(i) = 7.95). Coformation of all three compounds was observed at higher pH(i) (9.00). Ex situ Raman spectra of single crystals of 1-3 were collected and analyzed for signature peaks. In situ hydrothermal Raman data were also obtained and compared to the ex situ Raman spectra of the title compounds in an effort to acquire formation mechanism details. At pH(i) = 4.00, the formation of 1 was suggested by in situ Raman spectra. At an increased pH(i) (7.90), the in situ data implied the formation of compounds 1 and 3. The most basic conditions (pH(i) = 9.00) yielded a complex mixture of phases consistent with that of increased uranyl hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/síntese química , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/química , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/síntese química , Temperatura , Urânio/química , Cátions/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Análise Espectral Raman
17.
Inorg Chem ; 51(17): 9481-90, 2012 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22908990

RESUMO

Chemical trends within the periodic table are frequently used as guides for predicting reactivity, structure, and electronic properties of the elements. While these trends have been rigorously investigated for the transition metals, the understanding of trends within the actinide series is elementary in comparison. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of five new U(IV) sulfate compounds and discuss their relationship to previously reported An(IV) sulfate species, an analysis that allows for the elucidation of solid state trends across the actinides. One such trend suggests the increase in Lewis acidity that occurs when traversing the actinides from thorium to plutonium promotes bidentate binding of the sulfate ligand as long as complexation can outcompete the resulting increase in steric pressure. This hypothesis correlates well with the experimental results previously reported for the solution phase speciation in An(IV) sulfate systems.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 51(16): 8942-7, 2012 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22845677

RESUMO

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements have been conducted on solutions of Pu(IV) with varying concentrations of sulfate anion in aqueous solution. Data support the periodic progression to primarily bidentate sulfate coordination about An(IV) centers when moving heavier in the actinides. This observation is attributed to the increase in Lewis acidity of the tetravalent actinides across the series, a consequence of the filling of the 5f orbitals and the actinide contraction. Though the changes in the chemical formation energies of the An(IV) complexes between Th and Pu are small, it is these small energetic differences that are critical to understanding how to effect more efficient and effective chemical separations among isovalent metal ions.

19.
Langmuir ; 28(5): 2620-7, 2012 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22216888

RESUMO

Adsorption of monodisperse cubic plutonium oxide nanoparticles ("Pu-NP", [Pu(38)O(56)Cl(x)(H(2)O)(y)]((40-x)+), with a fluorite-related lattice, approximately 1 nm in edge size) to the muscovite (001) basal plane from aqueous solutions was observed in situ (in 100 mM NaCl background electrolyte at pH 2.6). Uptake capacity of the surface quantified by α-spectrometry was 0.92 µg Pu/cm(2), corresponding to 10.8 Pu per unit cell area (A(UC)). This amount is significantly larger than that of Pu(4+) needed for satisfying the negative surface charge (0.25 Pu(4+) for 1 e(-)/A(UC)). The adsorbed Pu-NPs cover 17% of the surface area, determined by X-ray reflectivity (XR). This correlates to one Pu-NP for every 14 unit cells of muscovite, suggesting that each particle compensates the charge of the unit cells onto which it adsorbs as well as those in its direct proximity. Structural investigation by resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity distinguished two different sorption states of Pu-NPs on the surface at two different regimes of distance from the surface. A fraction of Pu is distributed within 11 Å from the surface. The distribution width matches the Pu-NP size, indicating that this species represents Pu-NPs adsorbed directly on the surface. Beyond the first layer, an additional fraction of sorbed Pu was observed to extend more broadly up to more than 100 Å from the surface. This distribution is interpreted as resulting from "stacking" or aggregation of the nanoparticles driven by sorption and accumulation of Pu-NPs at the interface although these Pu-NPs do not aggregate in the solution. These results are the first in situ observation of the interaction of nanoparticles with a charged mineral-water interface yielding information important to understanding the environmental transport of Pu and other nanophase inorganic species.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Óxidos/química , Plutônio/química , Adsorção , Modelos Moleculares , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Inorg Chem ; 50(19): 9696-704, 2011 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21902191

RESUMO

Three polynuclear thorium(IV) molecular complexes have been synthesized under ambient conditions from reactions of an amorphous Th precipitate, obtained via hydrolysis, with carboxylate functionalized ligands. The structures of Th(6)(OH)(4)O(4)(H(2)O)(6)(HCO(2))(12)·nH(2)O (1), Th(6)(OH)(4)O(4)(H(2)O)(6)(CH(3)CO(2))(12)·nH(2)O (2), Th(6)(OH)(4)O(4)(H(2)O)(6)(ClCH(2)CO(2))(12)·4H(2)O (3) each consist of a hexanuclear Th core wherein six 9-coordinate Th(IV) cations are bridged by four µ(3)-hydroxo and four µ(3)-oxo groups. Each Th(IV) center is additionally coordinated to one bound "apical" water molecule and four oxygen atoms from bridging carboxylate functionalized organic acid units. "Decoration" of the cationic [Th(6)(µ(3)-O)(4)(µ(3)-OH)(4)](12+) cores by anionic shells of R-COO(-) ligands (R = H, CH(3), or CH(2)Cl) terminates the oligomers and results in the formation of discrete, neutral molecular clusters. Electronic structure calculations at the density functional theory level predicted that the most energetically favorable positions for the protons on the hexanuclear core result in the cluster with the highest symmetry with the protons separated as much as possible. The synthesis, structure, and characterization of the materials are reported.

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