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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported discrimination is a source of psychosocial stress that has been previously associated with poor cognitive function in older African Americans without dementia. OBJECTIVE: Here, we examine the association of discrimination with dementia and cognitive impairment in racially diverse older Brazilians. METHODS: We included 899 participants 65 years or older (34.3% Black) from the Pathology, Alzheimer's and Related Dementias Study (PARDoS), a community-based study of aging and dementia. A structured interview with informants of the deceased was conducted. The interview included the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale for the diagnosis of dementia and cognitive impairment proximate to death and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) as a second measure of cognitive impairment. Informant-reported discrimination was assessed using modified items from the Major and Everyday Discrimination Scales. RESULTS: Discrimination was reported by informants of 182 (20.2%) decedents and was more likely reported by informants of Blacks than Whites (25.3% versus 17.6%, p = 0.006). Using the CDR, a higher level of informant-reported discrimination was associated with higher odds of dementia (OR: 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 -1.42, p = 0.002) and cognitive impairment (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06 -1.39, p = 0.004). Similar results were observed using the IQCODE (estimate: 0.07, SE: 0.02, p = 0.003). The effects were independent of race, sex, education, socioeconomic status, major depression, neuroticism, or comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Higher level of informant-reported discrimination was associated with higher odds of dementia and cognitive impairment in racially diverse older Brazilians.

2.
Gerontology ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests that older Black adults are frequent victims of financial fraud and exploitation. This study aims to identify the factors associated with scam susceptibility in older Black adults. METHODS: Participants were 383 older Black adults living in the Chicago metropolitan area (mean age = 78 years and 82% female). A scam susceptibility measure assessed perceptions and behaviors that predispose older adults to fraud and scams. Categories of age-associated factors, including cognition, physical health, psychosocial factors, personality, and behavioral economics, were measured using uniform systematic assessments. For each category separately, measures associated with scam susceptibility were identified via stepwise variable selection. RESULTS: Older age was associated with greater scam susceptibility. Further, the analysis revealed a robust association of cognitive health with scam susceptibility, particularly the domains of semantic and working memory. Psychological well-being was associated with susceptibility, as was neuroticism. Behavioral economic measures including financial and health literacy and financial and health decision-making ability were also implicated. In a final model that included all the measures initially retained by variable selection, semantic memory, psychological well-being, and financial and health literacy were independently associated with scam susceptibility. Moreover, the association of age was attenuated and no longer significant after adjusting for these correlates. DISCUSSION: Age-associated vulnerabilities, rather than age itself, predispose older Black adults to financial fraud and scams. The correlates of scam susceptibility in community-living older Black adults primarily involve cognitive health, psychological, and behavioral economic factors.

3.
Brain ; 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742668

RESUMO

The aging brain is vulnerable to a wide array of neuropathologies. Prior work estimated that the three most studied of these, Alzheimer's disease (AD), infarcts, and Lewy bodies, account for about 40% of the variation in late life cognitive decline. However, that estimate did not incorporate many other diseases that are now recognized as potent drivers of cognitive decline (e.g. limbic predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy [LATE-NC], hippocampal sclerosis, other cerebrovascular conditions). We examined the degree to which person-specific cognitive decline in old age is driven by a wide array of neuropathologies. 1,164 deceased participants from two longitudinal clinical-pathologic studies, the Rush Memory and Aging Project and Religious Orders Study, completed up to 24 annual evaluations including 17 cognitive performance tests and underwent brain autopsy. Neuropathologic examinations provided 11 pathologic indices, including markers of AD, non-AD neurodegenerative diseases (i.e. LATE-NC, hippocampal sclerosis, Lewy bodies), and cerebrovascular conditions (i.e. macroscopic infarcts, microinfarcts, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, atherosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis). Mixed effects models examined the linear relation of pathologic indices with global cognitive decline, and random change point models examined the relation of the pathologic indices with the onset of terminal decline and rates of preterminal and terminal decline. Cognition declined an average of about 0.10 unit per year (estimate = -0.101, SE = 0.003, p < 0.001) with considerable heterogeneity in rates of decline (variance estimate for the person-specific slope of decline was 0.0094, p < 0.001). When considered separately, 10 of the 11 pathologic indices were associated with faster decline and accounted for between 2 and 34% of the variation in decline, respectively. When considered simultaneously, the 11 pathologic indices together accounted for a total of 43% of the variation in decline; AD-related indices accounted for 30-36% of the variation, non-AD neurodegenerative indices 4-10%, and cerebrovascular indices 3-8%. Finally, the 11 pathologic indices combined accounted for less than a third of the variation in the onset of terminal decline (28%) and rates of preterminal (32%) and terminal decline (19%). Although age-related neuropathologies account for a large proportion of the variation in late life cognitive decline, considerable variation remains unexplained even after considering a wide array of neuropathologies. These findings highlight the complexity of cognitive aging and have important implications for the ongoing effort to develop effective therapeutics and identify novel treatment targets.

4.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(6): 901-908, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to negative life events (NLEs) and neuroticism are associated with dementia. It is unknown whether neuroticism explains or modifies the association of NLEs with dementia in older Black and White Brazilians. METHODS: A total of 1747 decedents 65 years and older White and Black (11% Black and 23% Mixed) Brazilians, 53% women, were included in the analyses. Data were obtained in a face-to-face interview with an informant (71% their children) who knew the decedents for 47 years on average. Dementia was classified using the Clinical Dementia Rating. NLEs were assessed with a 10-item scale involving common problems (e.g., death, illness, alcoholism, and financial). Neuroticism was assessed with a 6-item neuroticism scale adapted from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Models adjusted for age, sex, and education. Black and mixed-race were combined in the analyses. RESULTS: NLEs (median of 2) were more common in Blacks than Whites (2.04 vs. 1.82, p = 0.007). More NLEs increased the odds of dementia (OR = 1.112, ß = 0.106, p = 0.002), similarly in Blacks and Whites (ß interaction  = 0.046, p = 0.526). More NLEs were also associated with higher neuroticism (ß = 0.071, p < 0.0001), in Whites but not in Blacks (ß interaction  = -0.048, p = 0.006). Neuroticism was associated with higher odds of dementia (OR = 1.658, ß = 0.506, p=<0.001), in Whites but not in Blacks (ß interaction  = -0.420, p = 0.040). Overall, 34% of the effect of NLEs on dementia was associated with the underlying neuroticism trait in Whites (65%, Indirect OR = 1.060, p < 0.001) but no association was evident in Blacks (6%, Indirect OR = 1.008, p = 0.326). Neuroticism did not moderate the association of NLEs with dementia (OR = 0.979, ß = -0.021, p = 0.717). CONCLUSION: The association of NLEs and dementia is partially explained by neuroticism in older White but not in Blacks Brazilians.

5.
Ethn Dis ; 30(Suppl 2): 709-718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250618

RESUMO

Background: A small number of older adults in the United States who agree to brain donation for clinical research belong to diverse racial, ethnic, and economic groups. Those who agree, however, are less likely to have completed brain autopsies compared with older non-Latino Whites of higher socioeconomic status. As such, our understanding of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias remains limited in these underrepresented and understudied populations. Here, we examine perceived impediments to completed brain autopsies among diverse older adults who have agreed to brain donation for clinical research. Methods: Participants (N=22) were older adults (mean age=77 years) who self-identified as African American (n=8), Latino (n=6), or White of lower income (n=8). All participants had previously agreed to brain donation via the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. Each participant took part in a one-time, semi-structured focus group. Data were analyzed using a Grounded Theory Approach with both Open Coding and Constant Comparative Coding. Results: Perceived impediments to completed brain autopsies varied by group. Older African Americans and older Latinos expressed concern about a lack of follow-through by family members regarding their brain donation wishes. Older Whites of lower income indicated that their own uncertainty surrounding the processes of brain donation and brain autopsy might serve as an impediment. Discussion: Diverse older adults expressed different perceived impediments to having brain autopsies completed upon their death. Continuous education for diverse older adults and their family members regarding brain donation for clinical research, including clear guidelines and processes, may facilitate completed brain autopsies among diverse older adults.

6.
Neurology ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serial position scores in verbal memory differentiate hippocampal-related neuropathologic outcomes, we examined these associations in a sample of nondemented older adults who underwent autopsy. METHODS: We used data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project; a longitudinal clinical-pathologic cohort study of community-dwelling adults. Seven hundred one participants (mean age = 82.7, 71.2% female) completed baseline cognitive evaluations and underwent brain autopsy to identify pathologic AD, TDP-43 inclusions (defining limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy [LATE]), and hippocampal sclerosis. The CERAD Word List Memory test immediate recall trials provided serial position scores, which index the proportion of words recalled from the beginning (primacy scores) and end (recency scores) of a word list. Binary and ordinal logistic regressions examined associations between serial position scores and neuropathologic outcomes. Secondary outcomes included Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment proximate to death. RESULTS: Primacy and recency scores were uncorrelated (r = 0.07). Each standard deviation of better primacy score was associated with lower likelihood of neuropathologic changes (24% lower LATE, 31% lower pathologic AD, 37% lower hippocampal sclerosis). For pathologic AD, better baseline primacy scores were associated with a 36% lower likelihood of comorbidity with LATE or hippocampal sclerosis. Primacy scores better discriminated between clinical diagnoses proximate to death, including those with mild cognitive impairment compared to no impairment. Recency scores showed weaker or no associations. CONCLUSIONS: Primacy scores may be particularly sensitive markers of AD and related hippocampal neuropathologies. The differential predictive value of serial position scores suggests they offer complementary information about disease outcomes in addition to the routinely used total recall scores.

7.
Ann Neurol ; 88(6): 1065-1076, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The longitudinal association of the blood biomarkers total tau (t-tau), neurofilament light (Nf-L), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with common sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) and cognitive decline is not established. METHODS: Using a single molecule array technology, ultrasensitive immunoassays for serum concentrations of t-tau, Nf-L, and GFAP were measured in a population sample of 1,327 participants (60% African Americans and women) who had a clinical evaluation for AD, had completed in-home cognitive assessments, and had undergone 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of serum biomarkers were associated with the development of clinical AD; especially, the time-specific associations were notable: t-tau 8 to 16 years, and Nf-L and GFAP 4 to 8 years prior to clinical AD. Serum biomarkers were associated with faster cognitive decline over 16 years; baseline t-tau > 0.40pg/ml had 30% faster decline, Nf-L > 25.5pg/ml had 110% faster decline, and GFAP > 232pg/ml had 130% faster decline compared to those in the lowest quartile. Participants with baseline GFAP > 232pg/ml showed 160% faster decline in hippocampal volume compared to those with values < 160pg/ml. Additionally, higher baseline t-tau was associated with faster increase in 3rd ventricular volume, and baseline Nf-L and GFAP were associated with faster decline in cortical thickness. INTERPRETATION: Serum t-tau, Nf-L, and GFAP predict the development of sporadic AD and cognitive decline, and changes in structural brain characteristics, suggesting their usefulness not only as screening and predictive biomarkers, but also in capturing the pathogenesis of Alzheimer dementia. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:1065-1076.

8.
Neurology ; 95(15): e2056-e2064, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association of limbic-predominant age-related transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 encephalopathy neuropathologic change (LATE-NC) with cognition and dementia was assessed in community-dwelling Black elders, and racial differences in these associations were tested. METHODS: Black (n = 76) and White (n = 152) decedents from 4 longitudinal clinical pathologic studies of aging were matched 2 to 1 by age at death, sex, years of education, dementia status, and follow-up time. LATE-NC detected by immunohistochemistry was dichotomized into none/mild and moderate/severe groups. Distribution and clinical and pathologic characteristics of LATE-NC and its association with cognitive profiles and odds of dementia were determined in Black decedents, and racial differences in these associations were assessed. RESULTS: The overall frequency of LATE-NC in Black and White decedents was similar (40.8% vs 45.4%). Black decedents with moderate/severe LATE-NC were older, had significantly lower global cognition scores, particularly in memory domains, and had higher frequency of Alzheimer disease, hippocampal sclerosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy than the LATE-NC none/mild group. LATE-NC in Black decents was independently associated with impaired global cognition, episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial abilities. There were no racial differences in clinical features or pathologic distribution of LATE-NC except for a significant increase in the mean cytoplasmic inclusions in the entorhinal and mid temporal cortices in White compared to Black decedents. In addition, no racial differences in the cognitive profiles or the odds of dementia were observed in Black vs White decedents. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with findings in White decedents, LATE-NC in Black decedents is associated with impaired cognition, including memory domains.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that late life cognitive activity is associated with decision-making in older adults and to examine whether this association varies by level of cognitive function. DESIGN: This study employed a cross-sectional design. SETTING: All data were collected in participants' community-based residences. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 1,084 older adults (mean age = 81.05 years, standard deviation = 7.53) without dementia (median Mini-Mental State Examination score = 29, interquartile range = 27.86-30.00). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed assessments of late life cognitive activity, cognitive function, and decision-making. We used linear regression models to examine the associations of late life cognitive activity and cognitive function with decision-making. RESULTS: In a regression model adjusted for age, gender, and education, more frequent late life cognitive activity was associated with better decision-making, as was higher cognitive function. Furthermore, in an additional model that included the interaction of late life cognitive activity and cognitive function, the interaction was significant, such that late life cognitive activity was most strongly associated with decision-making among participants with lower levels of cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Frequent engagement in late life cognitive activity may help maintain decision-making among older persons, particularly among those with lower levels of cognitive function.

10.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597941

RESUMO

Importance: Indicators of early-life cognitive enrichment (ELCE) have been associated with slower cognitive decline and decreased dementia in late life. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been elucidated. Objective: To examine the association of ELCE with late-life Alzheimer disease (AD) and other common dementia-related pathological changes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This clinical-pathological community-based cohort study, the Rush Memory and Aging Project, followed up participants before death for a mean (SD) of 7.0 (3.8) years with annual cognitive and clinical assessments. From January 1, 1997, through June 30, 2019, 2044 participants enrolled, of whom 1018 died. Postmortem data were leveraged from 813 participants. Data were analyzed from April 12, 2019, to February 20, 2020. Exposures: Four indicators of ELCE (early-life socioeconomic status, availability of cognitive resources at 12 years of age, frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activities, and early-life foreign language instruction) were obtained by self-report at the study baseline, from which a composite measure of ELCE was derived. Main Outcomes and Measures: A continuous global AD pathology score derived from counts of diffuse plaques, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Results: The 813 participants included in the analysis had a mean (SD) age of 90.1 (6.3) years at the time of death, and 562 (69%) were women. In a linear regression model controlled for age at death, sex, and educational level, a higher level of ELCE was associated with a lower global AD pathology score (estimate, -0.057; standard error, 0.022; P = .01). However, ELCE was not associated with any other dementia-related pathological changes. In addition, a higher level of ELCE was associated with less cognitive decline (mean [SD], -0.13 [0.19] units per year; range, -1.74 to 0.85). An indirect effect through AD pathological changes constituted 20% of the association between ELCE and the rate of late-life cognitive decline, and 80% was a direct association. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that ELCE was associated with better late-life cognitive health, in part through an association with fewer AD pathological changes.

11.
Gerontologist ; 60(8): 1476-1484, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognition is a known determinant of healthcare and financial decision making in old age. Social vulnerabilities also might play a role in such decisions; however, the evidence for this is less clear. Here, we examined the association of loneliness with decision making and tested the hypothesis that loneliness is associated with decision making via its interaction with global cognition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 1,121 nondemented older adults from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Healthcare and financial decision making was assessed via a performance-based measure; loneliness was assessed via the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale; and cognition was assessed via a 19-test neuropsychological battery. RESULTS: In a regression model adjusted for age, sex, and education, global cognition was associated with decision making (B = 2.43, SE = 0.14, p < .001) but loneliness was not (B = -0.04, SE = 0.11, p = .72). However, in a model including the interaction of loneliness with global cognition, the interaction was significant (B = 0.44, SE = 0.20, p = .03), such that the detrimental effect of loneliness on decision making was stronger when cognition was low. In secondary analyses examining the interaction of loneliness with 5 specific cognitive domains, the interaction between loneliness and working memory with decision making was significant (B = 0.35, SE = 0.15, p = .02). DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our results suggest that loneliness compromises healthcare and financial decision making among older adults with lower global cognition and, more specifically, lower working memory.

12.
Exp Aging Res ; 46(4): 311-322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267801

RESUMO

Brain donation in studies on aging remains a critical pathway to discovering and improving preventive measures and treatments for Alzheimer's dementia and related disorders. Brain donation for research is almost exclusively obtained from non-Latinx Whites of higher socioeconomic status in the United States. Despite persistent efforts, it has been difficult to obtain consent for brain donation among diverse participants. Hence, our understanding of Alzheimer's dementia and related disorders remains incomplete. The purpose of this methodological paper was to propose and outline a two-phase sequential mixed-methods research study design to identify barriers and facilitators of brain donation among diverse older adults. The first phase will consist of qualitative focus groups using a three (participant minority status: African American, Latinx, or White of lower income) by two (participant brain donation decision: consented or declined) design. The second phase will include statistical analyses of quantitative measures of existing data representing categories of variables that may be associated with decision making regarding brain donation. Next steps must include conducting qualitative focus groups and subsequent data analyses, resulting in overarching themes. Afterward, qualitative themes will be operationalized using quantitative variables for statistical analyses. This proposed study design can provide the foundation for developing and implementing effective and culturally competent survey instruments, educational tools, and intervention strategies in an effort to facilitate brain donation among diverse older adults.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 87(6): 816-829, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize trajectories of normative cognitive aging. METHODS: Older persons without dementia at study enrollment (n = 1,010) had annual cognitive testing for up to 24 years (mean = 9.9 years, standard deviation = 5.0), died, and underwent a neuropathologic examination to quantify 9 postmortem markers of common neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular conditions. To accommodate the heterogeneity in cognitive trajectories, we used functional mixed effects models, which allow individuals to have different patterns of cognitive decline under a unified model structure. RESULTS: In a functional mixed effects model, postmortem markers (Alzheimer disease pathology, Lewy bodies, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 pathology, hippocampal sclerosis, atherosclerosis, gross infarcts) were associated with global cognitive decline. Residual global cognitive decline after adjustment for neuropathologic burden was weakly related to age at death; it occurred in only about one-third of participants, mostly proximate to death. Results were comparable after eliminating the initial cognitive assessments to minimize retest learning or controlling for frailty proximate to death. Analyses were also conducted with composite measures of episodic memory and perceptual speed. Residual decline not attributable to neuropathologic burden was confined to a subset for each outcome and was most evident proximate to death. Age at death was unrelated to residual decline in episodic memory but was related to residual decline in perceptual speed. INTERPRETATION: Late life cognitive loss mainly reflects non-normative pathologic and mortality-related processes rather than normative age-related processes. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:816-829.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/psicologia , Morte , Escolaridade , Feminino , Fragilidade/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/psicologia , Exame Neurológico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação , Valores de Referência
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083676

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects cognitive function in late life, particularly in women. But longitudinal research is scarce on associations of MetS with cognitive function during midlife. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between MetS exposure and cognitive function trajectories in midlife women. DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a 17-year prospective, longitudinal study of multiracial/ethnic women in 7 US communities, with annual/biennial assessments. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 2149 US women traversing menopause. EXPOSURE: Exposure consisted of MetS assessments (median 4 assessments over 4 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were assessments of cognitive function in 3 domains: perceptual speed (symbol digit modalities test, SDMT), episodic memory (East Boston Memory Test, EBMT), and working memory (Digit Span Backward Test, DSB). RESULTS: By their first cognitive assessment (age 50.7 ± 2.9 years), 29.5% met the criteria for MetS. Women completed a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 6 (IQR 4-7) follow-up cognitive assessments over 11.2 (IQR 9.2-11.5) years. Women with MetS, compared with those without, had a larger 10-year decline in SDMT z-score (estimate -0.087, 95% confidence interval, -0.150 to -0.024; P = 0.007), after adjustment for cognitive testing practice effects, sociodemographics, lifestyle, mood, and menopause factors. As such, MetS accelerated the 10-year loss of perceptual speed by 24%. MetS did not differentially affect the rate of decline in either immediate (P = 0.534) or delayed (P = 0.740) episodic memory or in working memory (P = 0.584). CONCLUSIONS: In midlife women MetS exposure was associated with accelerated decline in perceptual speed, but not episodic or working memory.

15.
Neurology ; 94(3): e292-e298, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the temporal changes in the likelihood of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) between 1993 and 2012 using a short battery of cognitive tests. METHODS: A cohort of 10,342 participants underwent a short battery of cognitive tests collected during triennial in-home interviews with 2,794 of those evaluated for the clinical diagnosis of dementia and MCI. We used a generalized logit regression model to estimate the likelihood of dementia and MCI, and a quasibinomial regression model to examine the temporal changes in those likelihood scores. RESULTS: A short battery of cognitive tests-delayed story recall test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and the Mini-Mental State Examination-were associated with the clinical diagnosis of dementia and MCI. The classification accuracy of likelihood scores was 0.92 for dementia and 0.85 for MCI. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and education, the likelihood of dementia in the population decreased from 21.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.9%-22.3%) to 18.9% (95% CI 18.1%-19.7%) between 1993-1996 and 2000-2002 and showed no significant decline between 2000-2002 and 2009-2012 (-0.2%, 95% CI -1.1% to 0.7%). The estimated likelihood of MCI remained similar between 1993-1996 and 2009-2012 (29.0%, 95% CI 27.9%-30.1%), but showed a nonsignificant decrease in 2000-2002. CONCLUSION: The likelihood scores based on a short battery of cognitive tests can serve as a measure of dementia and MCI in epidemiologic studies. The decline in the likelihood of dementia and MCI over earlier years was not sustained in later years.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Neuropatologia/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Neurology ; 94(1): e42-e50, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of late-life cognitive loss attributable to impending death. METHODS: Older persons (n = 1,071) in a longitudinal cohort study without dementia at enrollment underwent annual cognitive assessments (mean 10.6 years, SD 4.6, range 4-24) prior to death. We estimated the onset of terminal acceleration in cognitive decline and rates of decline before and after this point in change point models that allowed calculation of the percent of cognitive loss attributable to terminal decline. Outcomes were composite measures of global and specific cognitive functions. We also estimated dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) incidence before and during the terminal period. RESULTS: A mean of 3.7 years before death (95% credible interval [CI] -3.8 to -3.5), the rate of global cognitive decline accelerated to -0.313 unit per year (95% CI -0.337 to -0.290), a more than 7-fold increase indicative of terminal decline. The mean global cognitive score dropped 0.377 unit (SD 0.516) assuming no terminal decline and 1.192 units (SD 1.080) with terminal decline. As a result, 71% (95% bootstrapped CI 0.70, 0.73) of overall global cognitive loss was terminal. In subsequent analyses, terminal decline accounted for 70% of episodic memory loss, 65% of semantic memory loss, 57% of working memory loss, 52% of perceptual speed loss, and 53% of visuospatial loss. MCI incidence in the preterminal and terminal periods was similar, but dementia incidence was more than 6-fold higher in the terminal period than preterminal. CONCLUSION: Most late-life cognitive loss is driven by terminal decline.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Morte , Demência/patologia , Demência/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Percepção Espacial
17.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(7): e81-e92, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate associations of early-life residence and school segregation with cognitive change in the Minority Aging Research Study. METHODS: Four hundred ninety-eight blacks (age ~ 73.5; 75% = women) without dementia at baseline self-reported State of birth, residence at age 12, and school segregation status. Census Bureau definitions of South and Northeast/Midwest were used to categorize early-life residence. We evaluated global cognition and five cognitive domains at baseline and annually for ~7.5 years. Linear mixed effects models examined the associations of region of birth and residence at age 12 with baseline level and longitudinal change in cognition. Additional models examined school segregation experience. RESULTS: ~65% of Southern-born participants still lived in the South at age 12. Southern birth was associated with lower baseline global cognition and all cognitive domains (p-values ≤ .02) compared to Northern birth, but not cognitive change. A similar profile was seen for Southern residence at age 12. Segregation experience significantly modified associations of residence at age 12 on levels of cognition. Participants residing in the South attending a legally desegregated school demonstrated lower baseline levels of cognition (global, semantic, and working memory) than their Northeast/Midwest counterparts attending a legally desegregated or segregated school as well as their Southern counterparts attending a legally segregated school. This profile for participants attending a desegregated school in the South held for processing speed and visuospatial ability in comparisons to Northeast/Midwest counterparts, particularly those attending a legally desegregated school. CONCLUSION: Baseline cognition was poorer in individuals born and residing in the South, particularly those attending desegregated schools at age 12.

18.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(5): 951-957, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health and financial literacy are central to older adults' well-being and financial standing, but the relation of literacy with mortality in advanced age remains unclear. AIMS: To determine whether lower literacy, as reflected in measures of total literacy and subscales of health and financial literacy, was associated with an increased risk of mortality. METHODS: Participants were 931 community-based older adults from the Rush Memory and Aging Project [age: mean (SD) = 80.9 (7.6), range 58.8-100.8], an ongoing, prospective observational cohort study of aging. Participants were without dementia at the time literacy was assessed. Proportional hazards models were used to determine whether literacy measures were associated with mortality. RESULTS: During up to 8 years of follow-up, 224 (24.1% of 931) participants died. In models that adjusted for age, sex, and education, lower total, health, and financial literacy were each associated with an increased risk of mortality (total literacy: HR = 1.020, 95% CI 1.010-1.031, p < 0.001; health literacy: HR = 1.015, 95% CI 1.008-1.023, p < 0.001; financial literacy: HR = 1.013, 95% CI 1.003-1.023, p = 0.014). These associations persisted after additionally adjusting for income and indices of health status; however, only the association of lower health literacy with mortality persisted after further adjusting for a robust measure of global cognition. DISCUSSION: We suspect that the current associations of lower literacy with mortality reflect the detrimental effect of early pathologic brain aging on literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Lower literacy, particularly lower health literacy, is associated with mortality in advanced age.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Cognição , Demência , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde/economia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 59-64, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Decision making, key to successful aging, has implications for financial success, physical health, and well being. While poor decision making has been linked with increased risk of mortality, age-related cognitive decline, and dementia, less is known regarding its associations with chronic disease indicators. We investigated the associations of decision making with blood pressure (BP) values [i.e., SBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), separately] in a community-based cohort study of aging. METHODS: Participants were 908 nondemented older adults (age ∼81 years; 75% women) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Decision making was measured using questions designed to simulate materials used in financial and healthcare settings in the real world and yielded a total score and domain-specific health and financial decision making scores. Two seated and one standing BP measurement were taken with all three contributing to average SBP, MAP that is, [SBP + (2 × DBP)]/3, and PP, that is, SBP - DBP. Participants were queried about hypertension status and antihypertension medications were visually inspected and coded. Participants also underwent medical history and cognitive assessments. RESULTS: In separate multivariable linear regression models, total decision making scores were inversely associated with SBP, MAP, and PP after adjusting for age, sex, education, antihypertension medication use, diabetes, and cumulative cardiovascular disease burden (P values = 0.03). Decision making remained associated with these BP values after additional adjustment for global cognition. CONCLUSION: Poorer decision making is associated with higher BP values in nondemented older adults.

20.
Ann Neurol ; 86(6): 844-852, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease and related neuropathologies contribute to the association between hospitalization and cognitive decline in old age. METHODS: As part of a longitudinal clinical-pathologic cohort study, 526 older persons (mean age at death = 90.9 years, 71% female) without dementia at baseline completed annual cognitive testing and were autopsied at death. Hospitalization information was obtained from linked Medicare claims records. Neuropathologic examination assessed ß-amyloid burden, tau tangle density, neocortical Lewy bodies, hippocampal sclerosis, chronic gross and microscopic cerebral infarcts, and transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa. RESULTS: Over a mean of 5.1 years, a total of 1,383 hospitalizations occurred, and the mean annual rate of hospitalization was 0.5 (standard deviation = 0.6, median = 0.4). Higher rate of hospitalization was not directly related to higher burden for any of the neuropathologic markers. Higher rate of hospitalization was associated with more rapid cognitive decline (estimate = -0.042, standard error [SE] = 0.012, p < 0.001), and after controlling for all 7 neuropathologic markers, the association was essentially the same (estimate = -0.040, SE = 0.013, p = 0.002). In a multivariable model with 3-way interactions of neuropathologic markers with hospitalization rate and time, the association between hospitalization rate and faster cognitive decline was greater in persons with more tangle pathology (estimate for interaction = -0.007, SE = 0.002, p = 0.002) and in persons with neocortical Lewy bodies (estimate for interaction = -0.117, SE = 0.042, p = 0.005). INTERPRETATION: Older persons with more hospitalizations experienced faster rates of cognitive decline, and this association was more pronounced in persons with more tau tangle density and with neocortical Lewy body pathologies. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:844-852.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Medicare/tendências , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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