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1.
Chem Sci ; 9(29): 6313, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123486

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1039/C7SC05421A.].

2.
Microfluid Nanofluidics ; 22(5): 52, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720926

RESUMO

Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) play a significant role in the climate and hydrological cycle by triggering ice formation in supercooled clouds, thereby causing precipitation and affecting cloud lifetimes and their radiative properties. However, despite their importance, INP often comprise only 1 in 103-106 ambient particles, making it difficult to ascertain and predict their type, source, and concentration. The typical techniques for quantifying INP concentrations tend to be highly labour-intensive, suffer from poor time resolution, or are limited in sensitivity to low concentrations. Here, we present the application of microfluidic devices to the study of atmospheric INPs via the simple and rapid production of monodisperse droplets and their subsequent freezing on a cold stage. This device offers the potential for the testing of INP concentrations in aqueous samples with high sensitivity and high counting statistics. Various INPs were tested for validation of the platform, including mineral dust and biological species, with results compared to literature values. We also describe a methodology for sampling atmospheric aerosol in a manner that minimises sampling biases and which is compatible with the microfluidic device. We present results for INP concentrations in air sampled during two field campaigns: (1) from a rural location in the UK and (2) during the UK's annual Bonfire Night festival. These initial results will provide a route for deployment of the microfluidic platform for the study and quantification of INPs in upcoming field campaigns around the globe, while providing a benchmark for future lab-on-a-chip-based INP studies.

3.
Chem Sci ; 9(17): 4142-4151, 2018 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780544

RESUMO

Heterogeneous nucleation of ice from aqueous solutions is an important yet poorly understood process in multiple fields, not least the atmospheric sciences where it impacts the formation and properties of clouds. In the atmosphere ice-nucleating particles are usually, if not always, mixed with soluble material. However, the impact of this soluble material on ice nucleation is poorly understood. In the atmospheric community the current paradigm for freezing under mixed phase cloud conditions is that dilute solutions will not influence heterogeneous freezing. By testing combinations of nucleators and solute molecules we have demonstrated that 0.015 M solutions (predicted melting point depression <0.1 °C) of several ammonium salts can cause suspended particles of feldspars and quartz to nucleate ice up to around 3 °C warmer than they do in pure water. In contrast, dilute solutions of certain alkali metal halides can dramatically depress freezing points for the same nucleators. At 0.015 M, solutes can enhance or deactivate the ice-nucleating ability of a microcline feldspar across a range of more than 10 °C, which corresponds to a change in active site density of more than a factor of 105. This concentration was chosen for a survey across multiple solutes-nucleant combinations since it had a minimal colligative impact on freezing and is relevant for activating cloud droplets. Other nucleators, for instance a silica gel, are unaffected by these 'solute effects', to within experimental uncertainty. This split in response to the presence of solutes indicates that different mechanisms of ice nucleation occur on the different nucleators or that surface modification of relevance to ice nucleation proceeds in different ways for different nucleators. These solute effects on immersion mode ice nucleation may be of importance in the atmosphere as sea salt and ammonium sulphate are common cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for cloud droplets and are internally mixed with ice-nucleating particles in mixed-phase clouds. In addition, we propose a pathway dependence where activation of CCN at low temperatures might lead to enhanced ice formation relative to pathways where CCN activation occurs at higher temperatures prior to cooling to nucleation temperature.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(4): 1817-1826, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370515

RESUMO

Organic matter in the sea surface microlayer (SML) may be transferred to the atmosphere as sea spray and hence influence the composition and properties of marine aerosol. Recent work has demonstrated that the SML contains material capable of heterogeneously nucleating ice, but the nature of this material remains largely unknown. Water-soluble organic matter was extracted from SML and underlying seawater from the Arctic and analyzed using a combination of mass spectrometric approaches. High performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-IT-MS), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS (FT-ICR-MS), showed seawater extracts to be compositionally similar across all stations, whereas microlayer extracts had a different and more variable composition. LC-IT-MS demonstrated the enrichment of particular ions in the microlayer. Ice nucleation ability (defined as the median droplet freezing temperature) appeared to be related to the relative abundances of some ions, although the extracts themselves did not retain this property. Molecular formulas were assigned using LC-quadrupole time-of-flight MS (LC-TOF-MS2) and FT-ICR-MS. The ice nucleation tracer ions were associated with elevated biogenic trace gases, and were also observed in atmospheric aerosol collected during the summer, but not early spring suggesting a biogenic source of ice nuclei in the Arctic microlayer.


Assuntos
Gelo , Água , Aerossóis , Regiões Árticas , Água do Mar
5.
Nature ; 525(7568): 234-8, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354482

RESUMO

The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Gelo , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Ar , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Regiões Árticas , Diatomáceas/química , Congelamento , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Fitoplâncton/química , Água do Mar/química
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