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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(3): 3993-4001, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880909

RESUMO

The hydrogen uptake kinetics of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene, or DEB, mixed with palladium (Pd) on activated carbon in a rubber matrix coating on top of a porous silicone foam substrate are investigated. First, isothermal isobaric hydrogenation experiments were performed under different temperatures and H2 pressures to extract the uptake kinetics. The H2 uptake models based on the measured kinetic parameters were then employed to investigate/simulate the performance of the getter under dynamic application environments. The actual hydrogenation characteristics in this type of getter are multifaceted and involve actual H2 concentration in the getter matrix, micrometer-scale diffusion of atomic hydrogen away from Pd sites, precipitation of hydrogenated DEB crystals at the coating surfaces, and mobility of fresh DEB molecules. The kinetic analysis/modeling methodology described in this report can serve as a template for other gas-solid reactions as well. Besides possessing a good hydrogen capacity and excellent performance, this type of rubberized getter also offers some unique advantages over traditional solid getter: flexible structure and protection of the Pd catalyst from exposure to the environment.

2.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 39(4)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210493

RESUMO

Silicone elastomers have broad versatility within a variety of potential advanced materials applications, such as soft robotics, biomedical devices, and metamaterials. A series of custom 3D printable silicone inks with tunable stiffness is developed, formulated, and characterized. The silicone inks exhibit excellent rheological behavior for 3D printing, as observed from the printing of porous structures with controlled architectures. Herein, the capability to tune the stiffness of printable silicone materials via careful control over the chemistry, network formation, and crosslink density of the ink formulations in order to overcome the challenging interplay between ink development, post-processing, material properties, and performance is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Elastômeros/química , Silicones/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Elastômeros/síntese química , Tinta , Porosidade , Impressão Tridimensional , Reologia , Silicones/síntese química
3.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4664, 2017 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680078

RESUMO

Direct ink writing enables the layer-by-layer manufacture of ordered, porous structures whose mechanical behavior is driven by architecture and material properties. Here, we incorporate two different gas filled microsphere pore formers to evaluate the effect of shell stiffness and Tg on compressive behavior and compression set in siloxane matrix printed structures. The lower Tg microsphere structures exhibit substantial compression set when heated near and above Tg, with full structural recovery upon reheating without constraint. By contrast, the higher Tg microsphere structures exhibit reduced compression set with no recovery upon reheating. Aside from their role in tuning the mechanical behavior of direct ink write structures, polymer microspheres are good candidates for shape memory elastomers requiring structural complexity, with potential applications toward tandem shape memory polymers.

4.
Sci Rep ; 6: 27933, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27301435

RESUMO

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. The ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices.

5.
Polym Adv Technol ; 27(2): 195-203, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034202

RESUMO

Shape memory polymer (SMP) foams have been developed for use in neurovascular occlusion applications. These materials are predominantly polyurethanes that are known for their biocompatibility and tunable properties. However, these polymers inherently lack X-ray visibility, which is a significant challenge for their use as implantable materials. Herein, low density, highly porous shape memory polyurethane foams were developed with tungsten nanoparticles dispersed into the foam matrix, at increasing concentrations, to serve as a radiopaque agent. Utilizing X-ray fluoroscopy sufficient visibility of the foams at small geometries was observed. Thermal characterization of the foams indicated altered thermal response and delayed foam actuation with increasing nanoparticle loading (because of restricted network mobility). Mechanical testing indicated decreased toughness and strength for higher loading because of disruption of the SMP matrix. Overall, filler addition imparted x-ray visibility to the SMP foams and allowed for tuned control of the transition temperature and actuation kinetics for the material.

6.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 4(9): 1386-98, 2015 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925212

RESUMO

Polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) with tunable thermomechanical properties and advanced processing capabilities are synthesized, characterized, and implemented in the design of a microactuator medical device prototype. The ability to manipulate glass transition temperature (Tg ) and crosslink density in low-molecular weight aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs is demonstrated using a synthetic approach that employs UV catalyzed thiol-ene "click" reactions to achieve postpolymerization crosslinking. Polyurethanes containing varying C=C functionalization are synthesized, solution blended with polythiol crosslinking agents and photoinitiator and subjected to UV irradiation, and the effects of number of synthetic parameters on crosslink density are reported. Thermomechanical properties are highly tunable, including glass transitions tailorable between 30 and 105 °C and rubbery moduli tailorable between 0.4 and 20 MPa. This new SMP system exhibits high toughness for many formulations, especially in the case of low crosslink density materials, for which toughness exceeds 90 MJ m(-3) at select straining temperatures. To demonstrate the advanced processing capability and synthetic versatility of this new SMP system, a laser-actuated SMP microgripper device for minimally invasive delivery of endovascular devices is fabricated, shown to exhibit an average gripping force of 1.43 ± 0.37 N and successfully deployed in an in vitro experimental setup under simulated physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Poliuretanos/química
7.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 40: 102-114, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25222869

RESUMO

Predominantly closed-cell low density shape memory polymer (SMP) foam was recently reported to be an effective aneurysm filling device in a porcine model (Rodriguez et al., Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2013: (http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.34782)). Because healing involves blood clotting and cell migration throughout the foam volume, a more open-cell structure may further enhance the healing response. This research sought to develop a non-destructive reticulation process for this SMP foam to disrupt the membranes between pore cells. Non-destructive mechanical reticulation was achieved using a gravity-driven floating nitinol pin array coupled with vibratory agitation of the foam and supplemental chemical etching. Reticulation resulted in a reduced elastic modulus and increased permeability, but did not impede the shape memory behavior. Reticulated foams were capable of achieving rapid vascular occlusion in an in vivo porcine model.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Materiais , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Ligas/química , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/citologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade , Suínos
8.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 102(5): 1231-42, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23650278

RESUMO

Cerebral aneurysms treated by traditional endovascular methods using platinum coils have a tendency to be unstable, either due to chronic inflammation, compaction of coils, or growth of the aneurysm. We propose to use alternate filling methods for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using polyurethane-based shape memory polymer (SMP) foams. SMP polyurethane foams were surgically implanted in a porcine aneurysm model to determine biocompatibility, localized thrombogenicity, and their ability to serve as a stable filler material within an aneurysm. The degree of healing was evaluated via gross observation, histopathology, and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy imaging after 0, 30, and 90 days. Clotting was initiated within the SMP foam at time 0 (<1 h exposure to blood before euthanization), partial healing was observed at 30 days, and almost complete healing had occurred at 90 days in vivo, with minimal inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Aneurisma/patologia , Aneurisma/terapia , Implantes Experimentais , Teste de Materiais , Poliuretanos/farmacologia , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/ultraestrutura , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embolização Terapêutica , Inflamação/patologia , Neointima/patologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Coloração e Rotulagem , Sus scrofa , Suturas , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Acta Biomater ; 10(1): 67-76, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24090987

RESUMO

Low density shape memory polymer foams hold significant interest in the biomaterials community for their potential use in minimally invasive embolic biomedical applications. The unique shape memory behavior of these foams allows them to be compressed to a miniaturized form, which can be delivered to an anatomical site via a transcatheter process and thereafter actuated to embolize the desired area. Previous work in this field has described the use of a highly covalently crosslinked polymer structure for maintaining excellent mechanical and shape memory properties at the application-specific ultralow densities. This work is aimed at further expanding the utility of these biomaterials, as implantable low density shape memory polymer foams, by introducing controlled biodegradability. A highly covalently crosslinked network structure was maintained by use of low molecular weight, symmetrical and polyfunctional hydroxyl monomers such as polycaprolactone triol (PCL-t, Mn= 900 g), N,N,N0,N0-tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine. Control over the degradation rate of the materials was achieved by changing the concentration of the degradable PCL-t monomer and by varying the material hydrophobicity. These porous SMP materials exhibit a uniform cell morphology and excellent shape recovery, along with controllable actuation temperature and degradation rate. We believe that they form a new class of low density biodegradable SMP scaffolds that can potentially be used as "smart" non-permanent implants in multiple minimally invasive biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Embolia/terapia , Poliuretanos/uso terapêutico , Biodegradação Ambiental , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Vidro/química , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura de Transição
10.
Macromol Chem Phys ; 215(24): 2420-2429, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220825

RESUMO

Previously developed shape-memory polymer foams display fast actuation in water due to plasticization of the polymer network. The actuation presents itself as a depression in the glass-transition temperature when moving from dry to aqueous conditions; this effect limits the working time of the foam to 10 min when used in a transcatheter embolic device. Reproducible foams are developed by altering the chemical backbone, which can achieve working times of greater than 20 min. This is accomplished by incorporating isophorone diisocyanate into the foam, resulting in increased hydrophobicity, glass transitions, and actuation time. This delayed actuation, when compared with previous systems, allows for more optimal working time in clinical applications.

11.
Adv Mater ; 26(10): 1552-8, 2014 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24249666

RESUMO

Nanocomposite polymers are prepared using a new sustainable materials synthesis process in which d-Limonene functions simultaneously both as a solvent for recycling polystyrene (PS) waste and as a monomer that undergoes UV-catalyzed thiol-ene polymerization reactions with polythiol comonomers to afford polymeric products composed of precipitated PS phases dispersed throughout elastomeric poly(thioether) networks. These blended networks exhibit mechanical properties that greatly exceed those of either polystyrene or the poly(thioether) network homopolymers alone.


Assuntos
Cicloexenos/química , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Poliestirenos/química , Poliestirenos/isolamento & purificação , Sulfetos/química , Sulfetos/síntese química , Terpenos/química , Bebidas/análise , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Contaminação de Alimentos , Limoneno , Polimerização
12.
Polym Rev (Phila Pa) ; 53(1): 41-75, 2013 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23646038

RESUMO

Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use.

13.
Radiat Phys Chem Oxf Engl 1993 ; 83: 111-121, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23226930

RESUMO

The effects of free radical inhibitor on the electron beam crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of novel radiation crosslinkable polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) blended with acrylic radiation sensitizers have been determined. The SMPs in this study possess novel processing capabilities-that is, the ability to be melt processed into complex geometries as thermoplastics and crosslinked in a secondary step using electron beam irradiation. To increase susceptibility to radiation crosslinking, the radiation sensitizer pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) was solution blended with thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs made from 2-butene-1,4-diol and trimethylhexamethylene diisocyanate (TMHDI). Because thermoplastic melt processing methods such as injection molding are often carried out at elevated temperatures, sensitizer thermal instability is a major processing concern. Free radical inhibitor can be added to provide thermal stabilization; however, inhibitor can also undesirably inhibit radiation crosslinking. In this study, we quantified both the thermal stabilization and radiation crosslinking inhibition effects of the inhibitor 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) on polyurethane SMPs blended with PETA. Sol/gel analysis of irradiated samples showed that the inhibitor had little to no inverse effects on gel fraction at concentrations of 0-10,000 ppm, and dynamic mechanical analysis showed only a slight negative correlation between BQ composition and rubbery modulus. The 1,4-benzoquinone was also highly effective in thermally stabilizing the acrylic sensitizers. The polymer blends could be heated to 150°C for up to five hours or to 125°C for up to 24 hours if stabilized with 10,000 ppm BQ and could also be heated to 125°C for up to 5 hours if stabilized with 1000 ppm BQ without sensitizer reaction occurring. We believe this study provides significant insight into methods for manipulation of the competing mechanisms of radiation crosslinking and thermal stabilization of radiation sensitizers, thereby facilitating further development of radiation crosslinkable thermoplastic SMPs.

14.
Macromol Chem Phys ; 214(11): 1204-1214, 2013 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25530688

RESUMO

SMPs have been shown to actuate below their dry glass transition temperatures in the presence of moisture due to plasticization. This behavior has been proposed as a self-actuating mechanism of SMPs in water/physiological media. However, control over the SMP actuation rate, a critical factor for in vivo transcatheter device delivery applications, has not been previously reported. Here, a series of polyurethane SMPs with systematically varied hydrophobicity is described that permits control of the time for their complete shape recovery in water from under 2 min to more than 24 h. This control over the SMP actuation rate can potentially provide significant improvement in their delivery under conditions, which may expose them to high-moisture environments prior to actuation.

15.
Macromolecules ; 46(22): 8905-8916, 2013 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25411511

RESUMO

The synthetic design and thermomechanical characterization of shape memory polymers (SMPs) built from a new polyurethane chemistry that enables facile, bulk and tunable cross-linking of low-molecular weight thermoplastics by electron beam irradiation is reported in this study. SMPs exhibit stimuli-induced geometry changes and are being proposed for applications in numerous fields. We have previously reported a polyurethane SMP system that exhibits the complex processing capabilities of thermoplastic polymers and the mechanical robustness and tunability of thermomechanical properties that are often characteristic of thermoset materials. These previously reported polyurethanes suffer practically because the thermoplastic molecular weights needed to achieve target cross-link densities severely limit high-throughput thermoplastic processing and because thermally unstable radiation-sensitizing additives must be used to achieve high enough cross-link densities to enable desired tunable shape memory behavior. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to manipulate cross-link density in low-molecular weight aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs (Mw as low as ~1.5 kDa) without radiation-sensitizing additives by incorporating specific structural motifs into the thermoplastic polymer side chains that we hypothesized would significantly enhance susceptibility to e-beam cross-linking. A custom diol monomer was first synthesized and then implemented in the synthesis of neat thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs that were irradiated at doses ranging from 1 to 500 kGy. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated rubbery moduli to be tailorable between 0.1 and 55 MPa, and both DMA and sol/gel analysis results provided fundamental insight into our hypothesized mechanism of electron beam cross-linking, which enables controllable bulk cross-linking to be achieved in highly processable, low-molecular weight thermoplastic shape memory polymers without sensitizing additives.

16.
Macromol Chem Phys ; 214(11): 1258-1272, 2013 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25411531

RESUMO

Novel electron beam crosslinked polyurethane shape memory polymers with advanced processing capabilities and tunable thermomechanical properties have been synthesized and characterized. We demonstrate the ability to manipulate crosslink density in order to finely tune rubbery modulus, strain capacity, ultimate tensile strength, recovery stress, and glass transition temperature. This objective is accomplished for the first time in a low-molecular-weight polymer system through the precise engineering of thermoplastic resin precursors suitable for mass thermoplastic processing. Neurovascular stent prototypes were fabricated by dip-coating and laser machining to demonstrate processability.

17.
J Polym Sci B Polym Phys ; 50(10): 724-737, 2012 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22570509

RESUMO

We report the development of highly chemically crosslinked, ultra low density (~0.015 g/cc) polyurethane shape memory foams synthesized from symmetrical, low molecular weight and branched hydroxyl monomers. Sharp single glass transitions (Tg) customizable in the functional range of 45-70 °C were achieved. Thermomechanical testing confirmed shape memory behavior with 97-98% shape recovery over repeated cycles, a glassy storage modulus of 200-300 kPa and recovery stresses of 5-15 kPa. Shape holding tests under constrained storage above the Tg showed stable shape memory. A high volume expansion of up to 70 times was seen on actuation of these foams from a fully compressed state. Low in-vitro cell activation induced by the foam compared to controls demonstrates low acute bio-reactivity. We believe these porous polymeric scaffolds constitute an important class of novel smart biomaterials with multiple potential applications.

18.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 40(4): 883-97, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22101759

RESUMO

Shape memory polymer (SMP) foam possesses structural and mechanical characteristics that make them very promising as an alternative treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Our SMP foams have low densities, with porosities as high as 98.8%; favorable for catheter delivery and aneurysm filling, but unfavorable for attenuating X-rays. This lack of contrast impedes the progression of this material becoming a viable medical device. This paper reports on increasing radio-opacity by incorporating a high-Z element, tungsten particulate filler to attenuate X-rays, while conserving similar physical properties of the original non-opacified SMP foams. The minimal amount of tungsten for visibility was determined and subsequently incorporated into SMP foams, which were then fabricated into samples of increasing thicknesses. These samples were imaged through a pig's skull to demonstrate radio-opacity in situ. Quantification of the increase in image contrast was performed via image processing methods and standard curves were made for varying concentrations of tungsten doped solid and foam SMP. 4% by volume loading of tungsten incorporated into our SMP foams has proven to be an effective method for improving radio-opacity of this material while maintaining the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the original formulation.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Teste de Materiais , Polímeros/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Raios X
19.
Smart Mater Struct ; 20(8)2011 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21949469

RESUMO

The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams for use in blood contacting environments, we have investigated the effects of moisture exposure on the physical properties of polyurethane foams. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effects of moisture absorption at varying humidity levels (non-immersion and immersion) on the physical properties of polyurethane SMP foams. The SMP foams were exposed to differing humidity levels for varying lengths of time, and they exhibited a maximum water uptake of 8.0% (by mass) after exposure to 100% relative humidity for 96 h. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that water absorption significantly decreased the T(g) of the foam, with a maximum water uptake shifting the T(g) from 67 °C to 5 °C. Samples that were immersed in water for 96 h and immediately subjected to tensile testing exhibited 100% increases in failure strains and 500% decreases in failure stresses; however, in all cases of time and humidity exposure, the plasticization effect was reversible upon placing moisture-saturated samples in 40% humidity environments for 24 h.

20.
J Phys Chem B ; 114(30): 9729-36, 2010 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20617846

RESUMO

Radiation-induced degradation of polymeric materials occurs through numerous, simultaneous, competing chemical reactions. Although degradation is typically found to be linear in adsorbed dose, some silicone materials exhibit nonlinear dose dependence due to dose-dependent dominant degradation pathways. We have characterized the effects of radiative and thermal degradation on a model filled-PDMS system, Sylgard 184 (commonly used in electronic encapsulation and in biomedical applications), using traditional mechanical testing, NMR spectroscopy, and sample headspace analysis using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mechanical data and (1)H spin-echo NMR spectra indicated that radiation exposure leads to predominantly cross-linking over the cumulative dose range studied (0-250 kGy) with a rate roughly linear with dose. (1)H multiple-quantum NMR spectroscopy detected a bimodal distribution in the network structure, as expected from the proposed structure of Sylgard 184. The MQ NMR spectra further indicated that the radiation-induced structural changes were not linear in adsorbed dose and that competing chain scission mechanisms made a greater contribution to the overall degradation process in the range of 50-100 kGy (although cross-linking still dominated). The SPME-GC/MS data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), which identified subtle changes in the distributions of degradation products (the cyclic siloxanes and other components of the material) as a function of age that provide insight into the dominant degradation pathways at low and high adsorbed dose.

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