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1.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642834

RESUMO

In this mixed-methods study, we examine the relationship between provider communication and patient health literacy on HIV continuum of care outcomes among women living with HIV in the United States. We thematically coded qualitative data from focus groups and interviews (N = 92) and conducted mediation analyses with quantitative survey data (N = 1455) collected from Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Four qualitative themes related to provider communication emerged: importance of respect and non-verbal cues; providers' expressions of condescension and judgement; patient health literacy; and unclear, insufficient provider communication resulting in diminished trust. Quantitative mediation analyses suggest that higher health literacy is associated with higher perceived patient-provider interaction quality, which in turn is associated with higher levels of trust in HIV providers, improved antiretroviral medication adherence, and reduced missed clinical visits. Findings indicate that enhancing provider communication and bolstering patient health literacy could have a positive impact on the HIV continuum of care.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Epidemiology ; 32(6): 877-885, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest neighborhood poverty and deprivation are associated with adverse health outcomes including death, but evidence is limited among persons with HIV, particularly women. We estimated changes in mortality risk from improvement in three measures of area-level socioeconomic context among participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. METHODS: Starting in October 2013, we linked geocoded residential census block groups to the 2015 Area Deprivation Index (ADI) and two 2012-2016 American Community Survey poverty variables, categorized into national tertiles. We used parametric g-computation to estimate, through March 2018, impacts on mortality of improving each income or poverty measure by one and two tertiles maximum versus no improvement. RESULTS: Of 1596 women with HIV (median age 49), 91 (5.7%) were lost to follow-up and 83 (5.2%) died. Most women (62%) lived in a block group in the tertile with the highest proportions of individuals with income:poverty <1; 13% lived in areas in the tertile with the lowest proportions. Mortality risk differences comparing a one-tertile improvement (for those in the two highest poverty tertiles) in income:poverty <1 versus no improvement increased over time; the risk difference was -2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.7, -0.64) at 4 years. Estimates from family income below poverty level (-1.0%; 95% CI = -2.7, 0.62) and ADI (-1.5%; 95% CI = -2.8, -0.21) exposures were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent results from three distinct measures of area-level socioeconomic environment support the hypothesis that interventions to ameliorate neighborhood poverty or deprivation reduce mortality risk for US women with HIV. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B863.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287753

RESUMO

Social support is associated with improved HIV care and quality of life. We utilized latent class analysis to identify three classes of baseline emotional and tangible perceived social support, termed "Strong", "Wavering" and "Weak". "Weak" vs. "Strong" perceived social support was associated over time with an 8% decreased risk of optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence for emotional and 6% decreased risk for tangible perceived social support. Importantly, "Wavering" vs "Strong" social support also showed a decreased risk of ART adherence of 6% for emotional and 3% for tangible support. "Strong" vs. "Weak" perceived support had a similar association with undetectable viral load, but the association for "Strong" vs. "Wavering" support was not statistically significant. Intensity of social support is associated with HIV care outcomes, and strong social support may be needed for some individuals. It is important to quantify the level or intensity of social support that is needed to optimize HIV outcomes.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507520

RESUMO

In the U.S., Black men are disproportionately affected by HIV, with some of the highest HIV incidence rates and lowest rates of HIV testing. We examined correlates of HIV testing and knowledge among participants of the Barbershop Talk with Brothers (BTWB) project, an HIV prevention program targeting high-risk sexual behaviors among Black heterosexual men in Brooklyn, New York. Specifically, we examined differences between U.S. vs. foreign-born status and HIV testing rates, HIV knowledge, and socio-demographic factors. Of the 855 men included, the mean age was 33 years and 35.0% were foreign-born. Lifetime HIV testing was reported at 84%, with greater proportion of U.S. vs foreign-born men reporting lifetime (88.6% vs. 75.0%) and recent testing (68.6% vs. 51.0%), p < 0.001. Among foreign-born men, recent HIV testing was associated with lower stigma and greater HIV transmission knowledge than those un-tested. The authors recommend tailored approaches to increasing HIV testing in Black communities, based on nativity and social factors.

6.
AIDS Care ; 33(2): 229-238, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449377

RESUMO

To explore the associations of urbanicity with clinical/behavioral outcomes and sociodemographic factors among women living with HIV in the Southern United States, 523 participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study were classified into population density quartiles. Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes revealed that 7% resided in areas where >30% commute to urban areas, 2% resided in small towns or rural areas, and 91% resided in varying densities of urban areas. Although women in lower density, mostly suburban areas reported higher socioeconomic indicators such as advanced education and greater annual household income, larger proportions of women in the lowest density quartile perceived discrimination in health care settings and agreed with several internalized HIV stigma scale items. Women in the lower quartiles had higher CD4 counts, while those in the lowest quartile were more likely to have a suppressed HIV viral load, report being employed, and not report a history of drug use or current heavy alcohol use. More research is needed to understand the interplay between population density and mechanisms contributing to HIV control as well as increased internalized stigma and perceived discrimination, along with how to target interventions to improve outcomes for individuals with HIV across urban, suburban, and rural areas.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Densidade Demográfica , População Rural , Estigma Social , População Urbana , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233937

RESUMO

Our objective was to examine the association between healthcare payer type and missed HIV care visits among 1,366 US women living with HIV (WLWH) enrolled in the prospective Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). We collected secondary patient-level data (October 1, 2017-September 30, 2018) from WLWH at nine WIHS sites. We used bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression to examine the relationship between healthcare payer type (cross-classification of patients' ADAP and health insurance enrollment) and missed visits-based retention in care, defined as no-show appointments for which patients did not reschedule. Our sample included all WLWH who self-reported having received HIV care at least once during the two consecutive biannual WIHS visits a year prior to October 1, 2017-September 30, 2018. In the bivariate model, compared to uninsured WLWH without ADAP, WLWH with private insurance + ADAP were more likely to be retained in care, as were WLWH with Medicaid only and private insurance only. In the adjusted model, WLWH with private insurance only were more likely to be retained in care compared to uninsured WLWH without ADAP. Private health insurance and ADAP are associated with increased odds of retention in care among WLWH.

8.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(10): 425-435, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941054

RESUMO

Food insecurity (FI) contributes to HIV-related morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms whereby FI negatively impacts HIV health are untested. We tested the hypothesis that FI leads to poor HIV clinical outcomes through nutritional, mental health, and behavioral paths. We analyzed data from Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) among 1803 women living with HIV (WLWH) (8225 person-visits) collected from 2013 to 2015 biannually from nine sites across the United States participating in the WIHS. FI was measured with the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes included HIV viral nonsuppression, CD4 cell counts, and physical health status (PHS). We used longitudinal logistic and linear regression models with random effects to examine associations adjusting for covariates and path analysis to test nutritional, mental health, and behavioral paths. Increasing severity of FI was associated with unsuppressed viral load, lower CD4 counts, and worse PHS (all p < 0.05). Report of FI 6 months earlier was independently associated with most outcomes after adjusting for concurrent FI. For viral nonsuppression, the nutritional and behavioral paths accounted for 2.09% and 30.66% of the total effect, with the mental health path operating via serial mediation through the behavioral path. For CD4 count, the mental health and behavioral paths accounted for 15.21% and 17.0% of the total effect, respectively. For PHS, depressive symptoms accounted for 60.2% of the total effect. In conclusion, FI is associated with poor health among WLWH through different paths depending on the outcome. Interventions should target FI and its behavioral and mental health mechanisms to improve HIV outcomes.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Health Psychol ; 39(9): 767-775, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe development of the Positive Affect, Promoting Positive Engagement, and Adherence for Life (APPEAL) program. METHOD: APPEAL is intended to increase HIV medication adherence through promotion of positive affect, and was developed through an iterative process involving 6 focus groups (N = 34) that elicited feedback on intervention content, followed by an individually administered prepilot of the entire intervention (N = 7). RESULTS: Participants provided feedback on important potential moderator variables, including depression, on mode of intervention administration, and on anticipated barriers and benefits to participation. Insights gained were used to finalize study procedures in preparation for a feasibility trial. For the feasibility trial, a total of 80 participants who, in the past 6 months have had at least one plasma HIV RNA >200 copies/mL, will be randomized to receive APPEAL or standard of care (N = 40 per group). Intervention group participants will receive 3 monthly, individually administered sessions, and all participants will have their medication adherence monitored and complete structured interviews at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. CONCLUSION: The APPEAL program is innovative in that it focuses on promoting self-regulation of positive emotions, an understudied approach to promoting chronic disease self-management behaviors such as HIV medication adherence. Findings from the feasibility trial will gauge suitability of the APPEAL intervention and evaluation methods for subsequent testing in a confirmatory trial and will examine changes in positive affect, the primary mechanism of change targeted in the intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(8): 356-366, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757978

RESUMO

Resilience is defined as the ability and process to transform adversity into opportunities for growth and adaptation. Resilience may be especially important for people living with HIV (PLWH), who are susceptible to anxiety and depressive disorders, which are commonly linked to risk behaviors (i.e., alcohol and drug abuse), poor adherence to medical regimens, increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and related stigma and discrimination. To date, few studies have examined the impact of resilience on health-related behaviors and outcomes among PLWH, particularly among minority women living with HIV (WLWH) who are dealing with multiple stressors impacting their health. This study used a convergent parallel mixed-methods design to collect, analyze, and integrate qualitative and quantitative data from a subsample of WLWH enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The aims of the study were to (1) qualitatively examine the resilience perspectives of 76 marginalized WLWH, and; (2) quantitatively assess the associations of resilience with HIV health outcomes-adherence to antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression-in the context of differing levels of internalized HIV-related stigma and depressive symptoms (n = 420). Findings from this mixed-methods study suggest that resilience is an important resource that can aid WLWH in coping constructively with adversity by capitalizing on intrapersonal traits and states, interpersonal and institutional resources, and spiritual and/or religious practices. Given the complex medical and social needs of marginalized WLWH, intervention strategies should focus on mitigating psychosocial burdens of stigma and depression, in addition to building resilience.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Discriminação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estigma Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 115, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ending the HIV epidemic requires that women living with HIV (WLWH) have access to structurally competent HIV-related and other health care. WLWH may not regularly engage in care due to inadequate quality; however, women's perspectives on the quality of care they receive are understudied. METHODS: We conducted 12 focus groups and three in-depth interviews with Black (90%) and Latina (11%) WLWH enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study in Atlanta, GA, Birmingham, AL, Brooklyn, NY, Chapel Hill, NC, Chicago, IL, and Jackson, MS from November 2017 to May 2018 (n = 92). We used a semi-structured format to facilitate discussions about satisfaction and dissatisfaction with health care engagement experiences, and suggestions for improvement, which were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Themes emerged related to women's health care satisfaction or dissatisfaction at the provider, clinic, and systems levels and across Institute of Medicine-defined quality of care domains (effectiveness, efficiency, equity, patient-centeredness, safety and timeliness). Women's degree of care satisfaction was driven by: 1) knowledge-based care resulting in desired outcomes (effectiveness); 2) coordination, continuity and necessity of care (efficiency); 3) perceived disparities in care (equity); 4) care delivery characterized by compassion, nonjudgment, accommodation, and autonomous decision-making (patient-centeredness); 5) attention to avoiding side effects and over-medicalization (safety); and 6) limited wait time (timeliness). CONCLUSIONS: Quality of care represents a key changeable lever affecting engage in care among WLWH. The communities most proximally affected by HIV should be key stakeholders in HIV-related quality assurance. Findings highlight aspects of the health care experience valued by WLWH, and potential participatory, patient-driven avenues for improvement.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Equidade em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , New England , Participação do Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher
12.
AIDS Behav ; 24(12): 3482-3490, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418165

RESUMO

Pain is common in women with HIV, though little research has focused on psychosocial experiences contributing to pain in this population. In the present study we examined whether internalized HIV stigma predicts pain, and whether depressive symptoms mediate this relationship among women with HIV. Data were drawn from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), for 1,364 women with HIV who completed three study visits between 2015 and 2016. We used a sequential longitudinal design to assess the relationship between internalized HIV stigma at time 1 on pain at time 3 through depressive symptoms at time 2. Analyses revealed internalized HIV stigma was prospectively associated with greater pain, B = 5.30, 95% CI [2.84, 7.60]. The indirect effect through depressive symptoms supported mediation, B = 3.68, 95% CI [2.69, 4.79]. Depression is a modifiable risk factor that can be addressed to improve pain prevention and intervention for women with HIV.


Assuntos
Depressão , Infecções por HIV , Estigma Social , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e113, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248873

RESUMO

AIMS: Psychotropic prescription rates continue to increase in the United States (USA). Few studies have investigated whether social-structural factors may play a role in psychotropic medication use independent of mental illness. Food insecurity is prevalent among people living with HIV in the USA and has been associated with poor mental health. We investigated whether food insecurity was associated with psychotropic medication use independent of the symptoms of depression and anxiety among women living with HIV in the USA. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a nationwide cohort study. Food security (FS) was the primary explanatory variable, measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. First, we used multivariable linear regressions to test whether FS was associated with symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CESD] score), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7 score) and mental health-related quality of life (MOS-HIV Mental Health Summary score; MHS). Next, we examined associations of FS with the use of any psychotropic medications, including antidepressants, sedatives and antipsychotics, using multivariable logistic regressions adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education and alcohol and substance use. In separate models, we additionally adjusted for symptoms of depression (CESD score) and anxiety (GAD-7 score). RESULTS: Of the 905 women in the sample, two-thirds were African-American. Lower FS (i.e. worse food insecurity) was associated with greater symptoms of depression and anxiety in a dose-response relationship. For the psychotropic medication outcomes, marginal and low FS were associated with 2.06 (p < 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-3.13) and 1.99 (p < 0.01; 95% CI = 1.26-3.15) times higher odds of any psychotropic medication use, respectively, before adjusting for depression and anxiety. The association of very low FS with any psychotropic medication use was not statistically significant. A similar pattern was found for antidepressant and sedative use. After additionally adjusting for CESD and GAD-7 scores, marginal FS remained associated with 1.93 (p < 0.05; 95% CI = 1.16-3.19) times higher odds of any psychotropic medication use. Very low FS, conversely, was significantly associated with lower odds of antidepressant use (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; p < 0.05; 95% CI = 0.19-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Marginal FS was associated with higher odds of using psychotropic medications independent of depression and anxiety, while very low FS was associated with lower odds. These complex findings may indicate that people experiencing very low FS face barriers to accessing mental health services, while those experiencing marginal FS who do access services are more likely to be prescribed psychotropic medications for distress arising from social and structural factors.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
AIDS Behav ; 24(10): 2811-2818, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170507

RESUMO

Identifying structural determinants affecting HIV outcomes is important for informing interventions across heterogeneous geographies. Longitudinal hierarchical generalized mixed-effects models were used to quantify the associations between changes in certain structural-level factors on HIV care engagement, medication adherence, and viral suppression. Among women living with HIV in the WIHS, ten-unit increases in census-tract level proportions of unemployment, poverty, and lack of car ownership were inversely associated with viral suppression and medication adherence, while educational attainment and owner-occupied housing were positively associated with both outcomes. Notably, increased residential stability (aOR 5.68, 95% CI 2.93, 9.04) was positively associated with HIV care engagement, as were unemployment (aOR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.57, 1.60), lack of car ownership (aOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.13, 1.15), and female-headed households (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.22, 1.23). This underscores the importance of understanding neighborhood context, including factors that may not always be considered influential, in achieving optimal HIV-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
15.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 83(4): 340-344, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression plays a key role in suboptimal HIV outcomes, possibly mediated by adherence self-efficacy beliefs and antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence behavior. Applying social-cognitive theory, we examined a longitudinal sequential path model of the association between depressive symptoms and viral nonsuppression in women with HIV (WWH) through these mediating mechanisms. METHODS: This was an observational longitudinal study using data from the Women's Adherence and Visit Engagement substudy of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. WWH (N = 375) completed measures of depressive symptoms, adherence self-efficacy, and ART adherence. Viral load was measured through blood draw. We examined a longitudinal sequential path model spanning 3 time points at least 6 months apart between 2015 and 2017. Indirect effects were assessed of depressive symptoms at time 1 (T1) on viral nonsuppression at T3 through adherence self-efficacy at T2 and ART adherence at T3. Covariates included age, income, recreational drug use, race, and months on ART. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were associated with subsequent viral nonsuppression through its association with adherence self-efficacy and ART adherence [indirect effect: adjusted odds ratio = 1.004, 95% confidence interval: (1.001 to 1.008)]. Months on ART and recreational drug use were also significantly associated with viral nonsuppression at T3. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support depressive symptoms' association with adherence self-efficacy that in turn lead to suboptimal ART adherence and ultimately to viral nonsuppression for WWH. Tailoring of interventions aimed at addressing depressive symptoms, substance use, and adherence self-efficacy among WWH is needed to help close the gap between ART prescription and viral suppression on the HIV care continuum.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral
16.
AIDS Behav ; 24(7): 2033-2044, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907676

RESUMO

Neighborhoods with high poverty rates have limited resources to support residents' health. Using census data, we calculated the proportion of each Women's Interagency HIV Study participant's census tract (neighborhood) living below the poverty line. We assessed associations between neighborhood poverty and (1) unsuppressed viral load [VL] in HIV-seropositive women, (2) uncontrolled blood pressure among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative hypertensive women, and (3) uncontrolled diabetes among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative diabetic women using modified Poisson regression models. Neighborhood poverty was associated with unsuppressed VL in HIV-seropositive women (> 40% versus ≤ 20% poverty adjusted prevalence ratio (PR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.92). In HIV-seronegative diabetic women, moderate neighborhood poverty was associated with uncontrolled diabetes (20-40% versus ≤ 20% poverty adjusted PR, 1.75; 95% CI 1.02-2.98). Neighborhood poverty was associated with neither uncontrolled diabetes among HIV-seropositive diabetic women, nor uncontrolled hypertension in hypertensive women, regardless of HIV status. Women living in areas with concentrated poverty may need additional resources to control health conditions effectively.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Áreas de Pobreza , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga Viral
17.
Health Promot Pract ; 21(4): 544-551, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943792

RESUMO

Barbershop-based interventions have been increasingly implemented as a means to support culturally relevant and community-accessible health promotion and disease prevention efforts. Specifically, in neighborhoods of Brooklyn, New York, with high HIV seroprevalence rates, barbers have volunteered to support an initiative to help reduce sexual risk behavior. After implementing the Barbershop Talk With Brothers program for 5 years, we explored how program participation has affected barbers' HIV prevention and counseling skills to promote their clients' health, and assessed their views of next stages of the community-academic partnership, once the specific project ended. Through employing rigorous qualitative research methods with personnel at participating barbershops, key results include that although barbers self-identify as community leaders and even as health educators, they want ongoing support in educating customers about other topics like nutrition and physical activity, including upstream social determinants of health, such as housing and employment. They are also concerned regarding how best to support continuity of efforts and maintenance of partnerships between projects. These findings provide insight toward adjourning community-based participatory research projects, which can inform other academic researchers, organizations, and businesses that partner with community members.


Assuntos
Barbearia , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Afro-Americanos , Soroprevalência de HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
AIDS Behav ; 24(1): 151-164, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049811

RESUMO

Receiving regular HIV care is crucial for maintaining good health among persons with HIV. However, racial and gender disparities in HIV care receipt exist. Discrimination and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity and gender, contributing to disparities. Data from 1578 women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study ascertained from 10/1/2012 to 9/30/2016 were used to: (1) estimate the relationship between discrimination and missing any scheduled HIV care appointments and (2) assess whether this relationship is effect measure modified by race/ethnicity. Self-reported measures captured discrimination and the primary outcome of missing any HIV care appointments in the last 6 months. Log-binomial models accounting for measured sources of confounding and selection bias were fit. For the primary outcome analyses, women experiencing discrimination typically had a higher prevalence of missing an HIV care appointment. Moreover, there was no statistically significant evidence for effect measure modification by race/ethnicity. Interventions to minimize discrimination or its impact may improve HIV care engagement among women.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Estigma Social , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Agendamento de Consultas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(6): 1517-1523, 2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is a well-established determinant of suboptimal, self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but few studies have investigated this association using objective adherence measures. We examined the association of food insecurity with levels of ART concentrations in hair among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLHIV) in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed longitudinal data collected semiannually from 2013 through 2015 from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite, prospective, cohort study of WLHIV and controls not living with HIV. Our sample comprised 1944 person-visits from 677 WLHIV. Food insecurity was measured using the US Household Food Security Survey Module. ART concentrations in hair, an objective and validated measure of drug adherence and exposure, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection for regimens that included darunavir, atazanavir, raltegravir, or dolutegravir. We conducted multiple 3-level linear regressions that accounted for repeated measures and the ART medication(s) taken at each visit, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: At baseline, 67% of participants were virally suppressed and 35% reported food insecurity. In the base multivariable model, each 3-point increase in food insecurity was associated with 0.94-fold lower ART concentration in hair (95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.99). This effect remained unchanged after adjusting for self-reported adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity was associated with lower ART concentrations in hair, suggesting that food insecurity may be associated with suboptimal ART adherence and/or drug absorption. Interventions seeking to improve ART adherence among WLHIV should consider and address the role of food insecurity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Health Psychol Rev ; 14(1): 66-85, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856664

RESUMO

Adherence to chronic disease medication regimens depends in part on successful self-regulation. However, the overall benefit of interventions targeting self-regulatory mechanisms is not well-understood. Accordingly, we conducted a meta-review of meta-analyses assessing the effect of interventions targeting self-regulation on medication adherence. For this meta-review, meta-analyses appearing between January 2006 and March 2019 were eligible if they included experimental trials that assessed the effect of an intervention targeting self-regulation on adherence to chronic disease medication. A systematic literature search of multiple databases for published and unpublished literature identified 16,001 abstracts. Twelve meta-analyses met eligibility criteria and had variable quality according to AMSTAR 2 item completion (M = 50%; range: 31-66%). Overall, meta-reviews showed small to medium effect sizes for interventions that targeted self-monitoring, provided personalised feedback on adherence, or involved complete self-management. Other interventions, such as goal setting, barrier identification and problem solving, and stress management showed little evidence of improving adherence. Only a limited number of self-regulation intervention components were able to be evaluated. Additional research is needed to advance the understanding of the efficacy of adherence interventions focussed on self-regulation by expanding the scope of self-regulation elements targeted (e.g., emotion regulation).


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Doença Crônica/terapia , Adesão à Medicação , Metanálise como Assunto , Autocontrole , Autogestão , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Retroalimentação , Humanos
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