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1.
Br J Cancer ; 121(10): 869-876, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS:  Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 145(12): 3207-3217, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771221

RESUMO

Our aim was to estimate how long-term mortality following breast cancer diagnosis depends on age at diagnosis, tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status, and the time already survived. We used the population-based Australian Breast Cancer Family Study which followed-up 1,196 women enrolled during 1992-1999 when aged <60 years at diagnosis with a first primary invasive breast cancer, over-sampled for younger ages at diagnosis, for whom tumor pathology features and ER status were measured. There were 375 deaths (median follow-up = 15.7; range = 0.8-21.4, years). We estimated the mortality hazard as a function of time since diagnosis using a flexible parametric survival analysis with ER status a time-dependent covariate. For women with ER-negative tumors compared with those with ER-positive tumors, 5-year mortality was initially higher (p < 0.001), similar if they survived to 5 years (p = 0.4), and lower if they survived to 10 years (p = 0.02). The estimated mortality hazard for ER-negative disease peaked at ~3 years post-diagnosis, thereafter declined with time, and at 7 years post-diagnosis became lower than that for ER-positive disease. This pattern was more pronounced for women diagnosed at younger ages. Mortality was also associated with lymph node count (hazard ratio (HR) per 10 nodes = 2.52 [95% CI:2.11-3.01]) and tumor grade (HR per grade = 1.62 [95% CI:1.34-1.96]). The risk of death following a breast cancer diagnosis differs substantially and qualitatively with diagnosis age, ER status and time survived. For women who survive >7 years, those with ER-negative disease will on average live longer, and more so if younger at diagnosis.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380125

RESUMO

Background: The risk of cancers is well characterized in Lynch syndrome (LS) families but has been less studied in familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) families. Methods: In this article, we compare the risk estimates of first and second colorectal cancers (CRCs) in 168 FCTTX and 780 LS families recruited through the Colon Cancer Family Registry as well as the risk of cancer-related deaths and disease-free survival (DFS) after a first CRC. Our methodology is based on a survival analysis approach, developed specifically to model the occurrence of successive cancers (ie, first and second CRCs) in the presence of competing risk events (ie, death from any causes). Results: We found an excess risk of first and second CRC in individuals with LS compared to FCCTX family members. However, for an average age at first CRC of 60 years in FCCTX families and 50 years in LS families, the DFS rates were comparable in men but lower in women from FCCTX vs LS families, eg , 75.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 69.0% to 80.9%) vs 78.9% (95% CI = 76.3% to 81.3%) for the 10-year DFS. The 10-year risk of cancer-related death was higher in FCCTX families vs LS families, eg, 15.4% in men (95% CI = 10.9% to 19.8%) and 19.3% in women (95% CI = 13.6% to 24.7%) vs 8.9% (95% CI = 7.5% to 11.4%) and 8.7% (95% CI = 7.1% to 10.8%), respectively. Conclusions: Individuals with CRCs arising in the context of FCCTX do not experience the same improved DFS and overall survival of those with LS, and that difference may be relevant in management decisions.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 143(9): 2250-2260, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904935

RESUMO

Greater physical activity is associated with a decrease in risk of colorectal cancer for the general population; however, little is known about its relationship with colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome, carriers of inherited pathogenic mutations in genes affecting DNA mismatch repair (MMR). We studied a cohort of 2,042 MMR gene mutations carriers (n = 807, diagnosed with colorectal cancer), from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Self-reported physical activity in three age-periods (20-29, 30-49 and ≥50 years) was summarized as average metabolic equivalent of task hours per week (MET-hr/week) during the age-period of cancer diagnosis or censoring (near-term exposure) and across all age-periods preceding cancer diagnosis or censoring (long-term exposure). Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between physical activity and colorectal cancer risk. Near-term physical activity was associated with a small reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer (HR ≥35 vs. <3.5 MET-hr/week, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.96). The strength and direction of associations were similar for long-term physical activity, although the associations were not nominally significant. Our results suggest that physical activity is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer for people with Lynch syndrome; however, further confirmation is warranted. The potential modifying effect of physical activity on colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome could be useful for risk prediction and support counseling advice for lifestyle modification to reduce cancer risk.

8.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1299, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388942

RESUMO

The abstract to this article contained errors in the Results and Conclusions section. The corrected sections are shown below.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425227

RESUMO

Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Variation in aspirin's chemoprevention efficacy has been attributed to the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a meta-analysis using two large population-based case-control datasets, the UK-Leeds Colorectal Cancer Study Group and the NIH-Colon Cancer Family Registry, having a combined total of 3325 cases and 2262 controls. The aim was to assess 42 candidate SNPs in 15 genes whose association with colorectal cancer risk was putatively modified by aspirin use, in the literature. Log odds ratios (ORs) and standard errors were estimated for each dataset separately using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex and study site, and dataset-specific results were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed association between SNPs rs6983267, rs11694911 and rs2302615 with CRC risk reduction (All P<0.05). Association for SNP rs6983267 in the CCAT2 gene only was noteworthy after multiple test correction (P = 0.001). Site-specific analysis showed association between SNPs rs1799853 and rs2302615 with reduced colon cancer risk only (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively), however neither reached significance threshold following multiple test correction. Meta-analysis of SNPs rs2070959 and rs1105879 in UGT1A6 gene showed interaction between aspirin use and CRC risk (Pinteraction = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively); stratification by aspirin use showed an association for decreased CRC risk for aspirin users having a wild-type genotype (rs2070959 OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.68-0.86; rs1105879 OR = 0.77 95% CI = 0.69-0.86) compared to variant allele cariers. The direction of the interaction however is in contrast to that published in studies on colorectal adenomas. Both SNPs showed potential site-specific interaction with aspirin use and colon cancer risk only (Pinteraction = 0.006 and 0.008, respectively), with the direction of association similar to that observed for CRC. Additionally, they showed interaction between any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including aspirin) use and CRC risk (Pinteraction = 0.01 for both). All gene x environment (GxE) interactions however were not significant after multiple test correction. Candidate gene investigation indicated no evidence of GxE interaction between genetic variants in genes involved in aspirin pathways, regular aspirin use and colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Aspirina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Genet Med ; 20(8): 890-895, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germ-line mutations in the exonuclease domains of the POLE and POLD1 genes are associated with an increased, but yet unquantified, risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: We identified families with POLE or POLD1 variants by searching PubMed for relevant studies prior to October 2016 and by genotyping 669 population-based CRC cases diagnosed in patients under 60 years of age, from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry. We estimated the age-specific cumulative risks (penetrance) using a modified segregation analysis. RESULTS: We observed 67 CRCs (mean age at diagnosis = 50.2 (SD = 13.8) years) among 364 first- and second-degree relatives from 41 POLE families, and 6 CRCs (mean age at diagnosis = 39.7 (SD = 6.83) years) among 69 relatives from 9 POLD1 families. We estimated risks of CRC up to the age of 70 years (95% confidence interval) for males and females, respectively, to be 28% (95% CI, 10­42%) and 21% (95% CI, 7­33%) for POLE mutation carriers and 90% (95% CI, 33­99%) and 82% (95% CI, 26­99%) for POLD1 mutation carriers. CONCLUSION: CRC risks for POLE mutation carriers are sufficiently high to warrant consideration of colonoscopy screening and implementation of management guidelines recommended for MSH6 mutation carriers in cases of Lynch syndrome. Refinement of estimates of CRC risk for POLD1 carriers is needed; however, clinical management recommendations could follow those made for POLE carriers.

11.
Cancer ; 123(23): 4701-4708, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and survival, but to the authors' knowledge, the impact of long-term postdiagnostic weight change is unclear. Herein, the authors investigated whether weight change over the 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC is associated with survival. METHODS: CRC cases diagnosed from 1997 to 2008 were identified through 4 population-based cancer registry sites. Participants enrolled within 2 years of diagnosis and reported their height and weight 2 years prior. Follow-up questionnaires were administered approximately 5 years after diagnosis. Associations between change in weight (in kg) or body mass index (BMI) with overall and CRC-specific survival were estimated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage of disease, baseline BMI, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, time between diagnosis and enrollment, and study site. RESULTS: At the 5-year postdiagnostic survey, 2049 participants reported higher (53%; median plus 5 kg), unchanged (12%), or lower (35%; median -4 kg) weight. Over a median of 5.1 years of subsequent follow-up (range, 0.3-9.9 years), 344 participants died (91 of CRC). Long-term weight loss (per 5 kg) was found to be associated with poorer overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.21) and CRC-specific survival (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.39). Significantly lower survival was similarly observed for relative weight loss (>5% vs ≤5% change), BMI reduction (per 1 unit), or BMI category change (overweight to normal vs remaining overweight). CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC was found to be significantly associated with decreased long-term survival, suggesting the importance of avoiding weight loss in survivors of CRC. Future research should attempt to further evaluate this association, accounting for whether this weight change was intentional or represents a marker of declining health. Cancer 2017;123:4701-4708. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Perda de Peso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(6): 487-500, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399571

RESUMO

The ability to classify people according to their underlying genetic susceptibility to a disease is increasing with new knowledge, better family data, and more sophisticated risk prediction models, allowing for more effective prevention and screening. To do so, however, we need to know whether risk associations are the same for people with different genetic susceptibilities. To illustrate one way to estimate such gene-environment interactions, we used prospective data from 3 Australian family cancer cohort studies, 2 enriched for familial risk of breast cancer. There were 288 incident breast cancers in 9,126 participants from 3,222 families. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate whether associations of breast cancer with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at age 18-21 years, BMI at baseline, and change in BMI differed according to genetic risk based on lifetime breast cancer risk from birth, as estimated by BOADICEA (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm) software, adjusted for age at baseline data collection. Although no interactions were statistically significant, we have demonstrated the power with which gene-environment interactions can be investigated using a cohort enriched for persons with increased genetic risk and a continuous measure of genetic risk based on family history.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , História Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 17(1): 56, 2017 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28424049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed at <50 years is predominantly located in the distal colon and rectum. Little is known about which lesion subtypes may serve as CRC precursors in young adults. The aim of this work was to document the prevalence and histological subtype of lesions seen in patients aged <50 years, and any associated clinical features. METHODS: An audit of the colonoscopy database at The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Adelaide, South Australia over a 12-month period was undertaken. Findings were recorded from both colonoscopy reports and corresponding histological examination of excised lesions. RESULTS: Data were extracted from colonoscopies in 2064 patients. Those aged <50 comprised 485 (24%) of the total. CRC precursor lesions (including sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/P), traditional serrated adenomas, tubular adenomas ≥10 mm or with high-grade dysplasia, and conventional adenomas with villous histology) were seen in 4.3% of patients aged <50 and 12.9% of patients aged ≥50 (P <0.001). Among colonoscopies yielding CRC precursor lesions in patients under 50 years, SSA/P occurred in 52% of procedures (11/21), compared with 27% (55/204) of procedures in patients aged 50 and older (P = 0.02). SSA/P were proximally located in (10/11) 90% of patients aged under 50, and 80% (43/54) of those aged 50 and older (P = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: SSA/P were the most frequently observed CRC precursor lesions in patients aged <50. Most CRCs in this age group are known to arise in the distal colon and rectum suggesting that lesions other than SSA/P may serve as the precursor for the majority of early-onset CRC.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Adenoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/patologia , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Reto/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Austrália do Sul , Adulto Jovem
14.
N Z Med J ; 130(1451): 57-67, 2017 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and an evolving management approach. The aims of this study were to assess the polyp burden reduction over time, and the incidence of CRC in serrated polyposis patients undergoing community surveillance. METHODS: This is an observational study based on prospectively collected data. A total of 96 SPS patients with no personal history of CRC were prospectively enrolled in a surveillance program under the guidance of a tertiary center. Patients underwent surveillance colonoscopy in multiple centres across New Zealand. RESULTS: Patients underwent a median of four colonoscopies with a median interval of 15 months over a median follow-up period of 4.8 years. Five of 96 patients (5%) were referred for surgery, and the remaining 91 were managed by colonoscopy alone. In patients referred for surgery, 92% of the surveillance intervals to the fourth colonoscopy had been ≤12 months compared to 33% (P<0.001) in the colonoscopy only group, and all five (100%) had ≥20 pancolonic polyps after four procedures compared with only 5/91 (5%) in those managed by colonoscopy alone. In patients successfully managed by colonoscopy, 86% had <10 pancolonic polyps, >75% no longer had polyps ≥10mm and >90% no longer had proximal serrated polyps ≥10mm after the fourth colonoscopy. No patients were found to develop CRC during the study time period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SPS were managed by proactive surveillance colonoscopy in wider hospital settings under tertiary centre guidance, with only 5% requiring surgical management. No CRC was diagnosed in any patient during surveillance.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/terapia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(2): 301-326, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27356122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify personal, lifestyle, and tumor-related risk factors for metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyp. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register through 15 May 2016. Estimates for associations were summarized using random effects models. RESULTS: Fifty-five studies were included in the review. For individuals who had a CRC resection, having a synchronous polyp was a risk factor for metachronous CRC or polyp (relative risk [RR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-2.82) and having a synchronous CRC (RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.25-2.91) and proximally located CRC (RR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.24-3.64) were risk factors for metachronous CRC. For individuals who had a polypectomy, larger size (RR, 4.26; 95% CI, 2.11-8.57) or severe dysplasia of the initial polyp (RR, 5.15; 95% CI, 2.02-13.14), and having a synchronous polyp (RR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.35-4.73) were risk factors for metachronous CRC; and a family history of CRC (RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.26-2.87), having a synchronous polyp (RR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.74-3.50) and a larger size (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.03-2.15) and proximal location of the initial polyp (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.40) were risk factors for metachronous polyp. Meta-regression showed duration of follow-up was not a source of heterogeneity for most associations. There was no evidence that lifestyle factors were associated with metachronous CRC or polyp risk. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive list of risk factors identified for metachronous CRC or polyp may have important clinical implications.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Idoso , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(2): 427-438, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tumor testing of colorectal cancers (CRC) for mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency is an effective approach to identify carriers of germline MMR gene mutation (Lynch syndrome). The aim of this study was to identify MMR gene mutation carriers in two cohorts of population-based CRC utilizing a combination of tumor and germline testing approaches. METHODS: Colorectal cancers from 813 patients diagnosed with CRC < 60 years of age from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) and from 826 patients from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) were tested for MMR protein expression using immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability (MSI), BRAFV600E somatic mutation, and for MLH1 methylation. MMR gene mutation testing (Sanger sequencing and Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification) was performed on germline DNA of patients with MMR-deficient tumors and a subset of MMR-proficient CRCs. RESULTS: Of the 813 ACCFR probands, 90 probands demonstrated tumor MMR deficiency (11.1%), and 42 had a MMR gene germline mutation (5.2%). For the MCCS, MMR deficiency was identified in the tumors of 103 probands (12.5%) and seven had a germline mutation (0.8%). All the mutation carriers were diagnosed prior to 70 years of age. Probands with a MMR-deficient CRC without MLH1 methylation and a gene mutation were considered Lynch-like and comprised 41.1% and 25.2% of the MMR-deficient CRCs for the ACCFR and MCCS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of MMR gene mutation carriers in Australian CRC-affected patients is optimized by immunohistochemistry screening of CRC diagnosed before 70 years of age. A significant proportion of MMR-deficient CRCs will have unknown etiology (Lynch-like) proving problematic for clinical management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer ; 123(6): 1035-1043, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27861761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have noted an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among moderate to heavy alcohol consumers in comparison with nondrinkers, the relation between alcohol consumption and CRC survival remains unclear. METHODS: Cases of incident invasive CRC diagnosed between 1997 and 2007 were identified via population-based cancer registries at 4 study sites in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Study participants completed a risk-factor questionnaire on prediagnostic behaviors, including wine, beer, and liquor consumption, at the baseline. Prospective follow-up for survival was conducted for 4966 CRC cases. Cox regression was used to compare nondrinkers with individuals who consumed, on average, 1 or more servings of alcohol per day in the years preceding their CRC diagnosis with respect to overall and disease-specific survival. Separate analyses by beverage type, stratified by patient and tumor attributes, were also performed. All models were adjusted for the age at diagnosis, sex, study site, year of diagnosis, smoking history, body mass index, and education. RESULTS: Prediagnostic beer and liquor consumption was not associated with CRC survival; however, higher levels of wine consumption were modestly associated with a better prognosis overall (CRC-specific hazard ratio [HR], 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.03; overall HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53-0.94). Similar patterns were noted in stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that prediagnostic wine consumption is modestly associated with more favorable survival after CRC. Cancer 2017;123:1035-43. © 2016 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(3): 404-412, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799157

RESUMO

Background: Although high-risk mutations in identified major susceptibility genes (DNA mismatch repair genes and MUTYH) account for some familial aggregation of colorectal cancer, their population prevalence and the causes of the remaining familial aggregation are not known.Methods: We studied the families of 5,744 colorectal cancer cases (probands) recruited from population cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia and screened probands for mutations in mismatch repair genes and MUTYH We conducted modified segregation analyses using the cancer history of first-degree relatives, conditional on the proband's age at diagnosis. We estimated the prevalence of mutations in the identified genes, the prevalence of HR for unidentified major gene mutations, and the variance of the residual polygenic component.Results: We estimated that 1 in 279 of the population carry mutations in mismatch repair genes (MLH1 = 1 in 1,946, MSH2 = 1 in 2,841, MSH6 = 1 in 758, PMS2 = 1 in 714), 1 in 45 carry mutations in MUTYH, and 1 in 504 carry mutations associated with an average 31-fold increased risk of colorectal cancer in unidentified major genes. The estimated polygenic variance was reduced by 30% to 50% after allowing for unidentified major genes and decreased from 3.3 for age <40 years to 0.5 for age ≥70 years (equivalent to sibling relative risks of 5.1 to 1.3, respectively).Conclusions: Unidentified major genes might explain one third to one half of the missing heritability of colorectal cancer.Impact: Our findings could aid gene discovery and development of better colorectal cancer risk prediction models. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 404-12. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Penetrância , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Mutação , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(3): 366-375, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811119

RESUMO

Background: People with germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes have increased colorectal cancer risk. For these high-risk people, study findings of the relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive.Methods: 1,925 MMR gene mutations carriers recruited into the Colon Cancer Family Registry who had completed a questionnaire on lifestyle factors were included. Weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer.Results: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 769 carriers (40%) at a mean (SD) age of 42.6 (10.3) years. Compared with abstention, ethanol consumption from any alcoholic beverage up to 14 g/day and >28 g/day was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.09-2.07 and 1.69; 95% CI, 1.07-2.65, respectively; Ptrend = 0.05), and colon cancer risk (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.27-2.49 and 1.94; 95% CI, 1.19-3.18, respectively; Ptrend = 0.02). However, there was no clear evidence for an association with rectal cancer risk. Also, there was no evidence for associations between consumption of individual alcoholic beverage types (beer, wine, spirits) and colorectal, colon, or rectal cancer risk.Conclusions: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption, particularly more than 28 g/day of ethanol (∼2 standard drinks of alcohol in the United States), is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for MMR gene mutation carriers.Impact: Although these data suggested that alcohol consumption in MMR carriers was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, there was no evidence of a dose-response, and not all types of alcohol consumption were associated with increased risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 366-75. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 56(3): 177-184, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636879

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate up to one-third of all protein-coding genes including genes relevant to cancer. Variants within miRNAs have been reported to be associated with prognosis, survival, response to chemotherapy across cancer types, in vitro parameters of cell growth, and altered risks for development of cancer. Five miRNA variants have been reported to be associated with risk for development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we evaluated germline genetic variation in 1,123 miRNAs in 899 individuals with CRCs categorized by clinical subtypes and in 204 controls. The role of common miRNA variation in CRC was investigated using single variant and miRNA-level association tests. Twenty-nine miRNAs and 30 variants exhibited some marginal association with CRC in at least one subtype of CRC. Previously reported associations were not confirmed (n = 4) or could not be evaluated (n = 1). The variants noted for the CRCs with deficient mismatch repair showed little overlap with the variants noted for CRCs with proficient mismatch repair, consistent with our evolving understanding of the distinct biology underlying these two groups. © 2016 The Authors Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
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