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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e010881, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311438

RESUMO

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.

3.
Pharmacotherapy ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332815

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and safety of ticagrelor versus prasugrel in preventing recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major bleeding events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. DATA SOURCE: Truven Commercial and Medicare Supplemental claims database (2011-2016). PATIENTS: Study consisted of adults with ACS who newly initiated ticagrelor or prasugrel within 7 days of their first ACS diagnosis and had no prior use for at least 12 months; after propensity score matching, 10,073 patients were in each group. METHODS: The primary study outcomes, first occurrence of a recurrent nonfatal CVD event (composite of myocardial infarction and stroke) and occurrence of a major bleeding event, were compared between the ticagrelor and prasugrel groups. Secondary outcomes included occurrence of minor bleeding events, defined based on the presence of bleeding events in outpatient claims. Cox proportional hazards models after propensity score matching were used to obtain the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). In the Cox proportional hazards model, the use of ticagrelor was associated with a decreased risk of recurrent nonfatal CVD events (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.92) and major bleeding events (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41-0.70) compared with prasugrel. Additionally, the use of ticagrelor was associated with a lower risk of minor bleeding events compared with prasugrel (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.65-0.78). CONCLUSION: In this population-based cohort of incident ACS patients, ticagrelor was associated with a reduced rate of recurrent nonfatal CVD events, major and minor bleeding events compared with prasugrel.

4.
South Med J ; 112(5): 295-300, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac troponin (cTn) measurement is useful for diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI), particularly in the inpatient setting. A growing body of literature suggests that cTn may be useful for evaluating chronic conditions in the outpatient environment; however, little is known regarding cTn ordering patterns in this setting. We sought to investigate patterns of care and outcomes for patients evaluated with cTn in the outpatient setting. We hypothesized that a majority of outpatient cTn orders would be for the purpose of diagnosing possible MI. METHODS: We analyzed 228 patients who had outpatient orders for standard-sensitivity troponin T assays placed at our institution between January 1, 2013 and December 18, 2015. Data were divided into two cohorts based on the intended utility of cTn measurement: orders placed to evaluate for possible MI versus orders placed for some other purpose. RESULTS: Of the 228 patients, 161 were evaluated for possible MI and 67 for other reasons. Risk factors (hypertension P = 0.32, diabetes mellitus P = 0.41, coronary disease P = 0.38, heart failure P = 0.098, and chronic kidney disease P = 0.70) were similar between the cohorts. In the suspected MI cohort, an electrocardiogram was obtained in only 77% of patients, and only 13.1% were sent to the emergency department (ED) for further evaluation. Within the suspected MI cohort, 10.5% (n = 17) had elevated cTn and the majority of these patients (n = 10) were not sent to the ED. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of outpatient cTn orders were intended to evaluate for MI, although electrocardiograms were frequently not ordered and few patients were sent for further ED evaluation. Providers should be encouraged to use cTn testing in a manner that minimizes the potential risk to patients with possible MI.

5.
Am J Manag Care ; 25(5): 250-253, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We adopted e-consults within an active referral management (ARM) process for our Veterans Health Administration (VHA) outpatient cardiology clinic to reduce clinic wait times. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective multiphase cohort study. METHODS: Our ARM process consisted of reviewing all incoming consult requests for our outpatient clinic and triaging the requests to either an e-consult or a clinic visit. The primary outcome was wait time for an appointment in our clinic. RESULTS: Median wait time prior to the ARM process was 24 days. After implementation of the ARM process, wait times decreased to 13 days (46% reduction). Approximately 60% of incoming consults could be triaged into e-consults, predominantly by managing stable diseases or minor symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: E-consults and ARM of clinical referrals were effective at reducing wait times for our outpatient VHA cardiology clinic. The majority of clinical referrals could be handled through an e-consult and did not require an in-person clinic visit.

7.
Am J Med Qual ; : 1062860619851561, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113208

RESUMO

As physicians strive to provide evidence-based care, challenges arise if different entities disseminate divergent Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) or clinical guidelines on the same topic. To characterize these challenges in one field, this study reviews the literature on comparisons of clinical recommendations regarding medical imaging. The PubMed database was searched for the years 2013-2018 for studies describing discordance among clinical recommendations regarding the performance of imaging. Of the 406 articles identified, 15 met the selection criteria: 8 qualitative and 7 quantitative. Reasons for discordance varied, with lack of evidence often cited. Quantitative studies often found that different decisions would be reached depending on the clinical recommendation followed. Nonetheless, quantitative studies also tended not to consider one set of recommendations superior to another. The findings of this review might help clinicians seek guidance more thoughtfully and could inform use of guidelines and AUC for quality improvement and clinical decision support.

10.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(5): 553-579, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744922

RESUMO

This document is the second of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. The first document1 addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas this document addresses this topic with regard to structural (nonvalvular) heart disease. While dealing with different subjects, the 2 documents do share a common structure and feature some clinical overlap. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of structural and valvular heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities. Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Clinical Practice Guidelines. A separate, independent rating panel scored the 102 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario. The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will improve and standardize physician decision making. AUC publications reflect an ongoing effort by the American College of Cardiology to critically and systematically create, review, and categorize clinical situations in which diagnostic tests and procedures are utilized by physicians caring for patients with cardiovascular diseases. The process is based on the current understanding of the technical capabilities of the imaging modalities examined.

11.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 157(4): e153-e182, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635178
12.
Simul Healthc ; 13(6): 413-419, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520805

RESUMO

STATEMENT: We identified 24 studies of high-fidelity simulation being used to teach echocardiography. A variety of study designs were used with outcomes ranging from reports of learner self-confidence up to improvement in organizational practice. Most studies were carried out in graduate medical populations, specifically in anesthesia trainees. The substantial majority of studies (91.6%) concluded that simulation has positive outcomes for teaching echocardiography. Future investigations would benefit from application of educational theory and should focus on demonstrating whether simulation can improve care delivery and patient outcomes.

13.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 30(11): 603-605, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sudden cardiac death occurs predominantly at home where cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is often not provided. We tested the hypothesis that a self-teaching kit distributed to patients would effectively increase self-confidence in CPR. METHODS: Patients seen by an advanced registered nurse practitioner in a general cardiology clinic were offered a self-teaching kit to learn CPR. Four-point scale survey questions were assessed at distribution and via phone call at 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Kits were distributed to 21 patients; of whom, 17 (81%) patients used the kit. Patients reported greater self-confidence of performing CPR (2.6 before versus 3.2 after, p < .05) and greater comfort if someone needed CPR (2.4 before versus 3.1 after, p < .05). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Self-teaching CPR kits were used by the substantial majority of patients and were effective at increasing both self-confidence and willingness to perform CPR. Similar nurse-run programs could increase awareness and impact of CPR in communities.

14.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 11(6): 571-579, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781322

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the past few years, medical community, including doctors, have become increasingly aware of the fact that chronic kidney disease (CKD) and heart failure (HF) have common risk factors which impact one another in terms of choice of therapy. Areas covered: Management of these two diseases has been a challenge for physicians. The treatment goals for HF patients with CKD are very important. They serve as the end point in using a specific treatment for management and treatment of CKD patients, hence decreasing mortality rates. In this review, we discuss the pharmacological approaches to managing patients with HF and CKD, discussing current evidence-based up-to-date management strategies and guidelines in the general population with HF and CKD. Expert commentary: Newer novel drugs targeting specific signaling pathways are approaching the stages of clinical investigation including the direct renin inhibitors. They have been a highly attractive concept for the future in the management of these patients. However, while advances in technology elucidated many aspects of these diseases, many mysteries still remain. With continued research, we can expect more cost-effective and patient-friendly drug therapies to be developed in the near future.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Open Heart ; 5(1): e000713, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531759

RESUMO

Background: The impact of cardiac troponin (cTn) testing on the downstream use of cardiovascular services is not well understood. We conducted this large-scale single centre cohort study to investigate the patterns of testing that result from the use of cTn. Methods: We conducted this investigation using data collected between 1 January 2013 and 18 December 2015 from an academically affiliated tertiary care centre. Data from all hospitalised patients evaluated with cTn (Roche Elecsys cTn-T) assay were collected from our integrated data repository and divided into two cohorts: all cTn assays negative (<0.03 µg/L) versus at least one elevated (≥0.03 µg/L). The main outcomes were the frequency of use cardiovascular services and mortality. Results: Among 26 663 subjects, 18.6% had at least one elevated cTn assay; acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 3.9% overall. More men received cardiac catheterisation and cardiology consultation (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.39 and OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.61) while African-American patients were less likely to have either catheterisation (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93) or consultation (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.82) performed. Mortality was associated with detectable cTn (HR 2.05, P<0.0001). Conclusions: Among hospitalised patients evaluated with cTn, we observed patterns of underuse and overuse of cardiovascular services. These patterns may have further relevance when high-sensitivity cTn assays are available in the USA. Sex and race-based disparities in cardiovascular services persist.

17.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 31(4): 381-404, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066081

RESUMO

This document is 1 of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This document addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas the second, companion document addresses this topic with regard to structural heart disease. Although there is clinical overlap, the documents addressing valvular and structural heart disease are published separately, albeit with a common structure. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of valvular and structural heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities. Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. A separate, independent rating panel scored the 92 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario. The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will improve and standardize physician decision making. AUC publications reflect an ongoing effort by the American College of Cardiology to critically and systematically create, review, and categorize clinical situations where diagnostic tests and procedures are utilized by physicians caring for patients with cardiovascular diseases. The process is based on the current understanding of the technical capabilities of the imaging modalities examined.

18.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 25(6): 2053-2055, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28653272
19.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 31(2): 117-147, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254695

RESUMO

The American College of Cardiology collaborated with the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Heart Valve Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons to develop and evaluate Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This is the first AUC to address the topic of AS and its treatment options, including surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). A number of common patient scenarios experienced in daily practice were developed along with assumptions and definitions for those scenarios, which were all created using guidelines, clinical trial data, and expert opinion in the field of AS. The 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines(1) and its 2017 focused update paper (2) were used as the primary guiding references in developing these indications. The writing group identified 95 clinical scenarios based on patient symptoms and clinical presentation, and up to 6 potential treatment options for those patients. A separate, independent rating panel was asked to score each indication from 1 to 9, with 1-3 categorized as "Rarely Appropriate," 4-6 as "May Be Appropriate," and 7-9 as "Appropriate." After considering factors such as symptom status, left ventricular (LV) function, surgical risk, and the presence of concomitant coronary or other valve disease, the rating panel determined that either SAVR or TAVR is Appropriate in most patients with symptomatic AS at intermediate or high surgical risk; however, situations commonly arise in clinical practice in which the indications for SAVR or TAVR are less clear, including situations in which 1 form of valve replacement would appear reasonable when the other is less so, as do other circumstances in which neither intervention is the suitable treatment option. The purpose of this AUC is to provide guidance to clinicians in the care of patients with severe AS by identifying the reasonable treatment and intervention options available based on the myriad clinical scenarios with which patients present. This AUC document also serves as an educational and quality improvement tool to identify patterns of care and reduce the number of rarely appropriate interventions in clinical practice.

20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20172017 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054937

RESUMO

An elderly man was transferred to our emergency department with reported ventricular tachycardia requiring intravenous amiodarone and intensive care unit admission. Device interrogation, the following day, revealed only frequent premature ventricular contractions and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a known history of these conditions. The patient underwent unnecessary invasive monitoring after being emergently transferred to our facility and admitted to the intensive care unit. Fortunately, our patient did not suffer any unwarranted side effects from intravenous amiodarone. This case reports on some negative consequences of inappropriate intensive care unit admissions and how they could have been avoided.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Sobremedicalização , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amiodarona/administração & dosagem , Amiodarona/efeitos adversos , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Dispneia/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Radiografia , Taquicardia Ventricular/tratamento farmacológico
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