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Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 48(1-2): 83-92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578031


BACKGROUND: Cognitive abilities decline with aging, leading to a higher risk for the development of postoperative delirium or postoperative neurocognitive disorders after general anesthesia. Since frontal α-band power is known to be highly correlated with cognitive function in general, we hypothesized that preoperative cognitive impairment is associated with lower baseline and intraoperative frontal α-band power in older adults. METHODS: Patients aged ≥65 years undergoing elective surgery were included in this prospective observational study. Cognitive function was assessed on the day before surgery using six age-sensitive cognitive tests. Scores on those tests were entered into a principal component analysis to calculate a composite "g score" of global cognitive ability. Patient groups were dichotomized into a lower cognitive group (LC) reaching the lower 1/3 of "g scores" and a normal cognitive group (NC) consisting of the upper 2/3 of "g scores." Continuous pre- and intraoperative frontal electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded. EEG spectra were analyzed at baseline, before start of anesthesia medication, and during a stable intraoperative period. Significant differences in band power between the NC and LC groups were computed by using a frequency domain (δ 0.5-3 Hz, θ 4-7 Hz, α 8-12 Hz, ß 13-30 Hz)-based bootstrapping algorithm. RESULTS: Of 38 included patients (mean age 72 years), 24 patients were in the NC group, and 14 patients had lower cognitive abilities (LC). Intraoperative α-band power was significantly reduced in the LC group compared to the NC group (NC -1.6 [-4.48/1.17] dB vs. LC -6.0 [-9.02/-2.64] dB), and intraoperative α-band power was positively correlated with "g score" (Spearman correlation: r = 0.381; p = 0.018). Baseline EEG power did not show any associations with "g." CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative cognitive impairment in older adults is associated with intraoperative absolute frontal α-band power, but not baseline α-band power.

Minerva Anestesiol ; 85(11): 1201-1210, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486622


BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia frequently occurs during major surgery and is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the influence of intraoperative hyperglycemia on incidences of postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). METHODS: Eighty-seven patients aged ≥65 years undergoing elective surgery were included in this prospective observational subproject of the BioCog study. Blood glucose (BG) levels were measured every 20 minutes intraoperatively. Hyperglycemia was defined as BG levels ≥150 mg·dL-1. Patients were assessed for POD twice daily until postoperative day 7. The occurrence of POCD was determined three months after surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between hyperglycemia and POD as well as POCD. Secondary endpoints comprised duration of hyperglycemia, maximum glucose level (Glucosemax) and differences between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. RESULTS: POD occurred in 41 (47.1%), POCD in five (15.2%) patients. In two separate multivariable logistic regression models, hyperglycemia was significantly associated with POD (OR 3.86 [CI 95% 1.13, 39.49], P=0.044) but not POCD (3.59 [NaN, NaN], P=0.157). Relative duration of hyperglycemia was higher in POD patients compared to patients without POD (20 [0; 71] % versus 0 [0; 55] %, P=0.075), whereas the maximum glucose levels during surgery were similar between the two groups. Considering only non-diabetic patients, relative duration of hyperglycemia (P=0.003) and Glucosemax (P=0.015) were significantly higher in patients with POD. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative hyperglycemia was independently associated with POD but not POCD. Relative duration of hyperglycemia appeared thereby to also play a role. Especially hyperglycemic non-diabetic patients might be at high risk for POD.

Clin Neurophysiol ; 130(9): 1673-1681, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351371


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of midazolam premedication on the EEG-spectrum before and during general anesthesia in elderly patients. METHODS: Patients aged ≥65 years, undergoing elective surgery were included in this prospective observational study. A continuous pre- and intraoperative frontal EEG was recorded in patients who received premedication with midazolam (Mid, n = 15) and patients who did not (noMid, n = 30). Absolute power within the delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-25 Hz) frequency-bands was analyzed in EEG-sections before (pre-induction), and after induction of anesthesia with propofol (post-induction), as well as during general anesthesia with either propofol or volatile-anesthetics (intra-operative). RESULTS: Pre-induction, α-power of Mid patients was lower compared with noMid-patients (α-power: Mid: -10.75 dB vs. noMid: -9.20 dB; p = 0.036). After induction of anesthesia Mid-patients displayed a stronger increase of frontal α-power resulting in higher absolute α-power at post-induction state, (α-power: Mid -3.56 dB vs. noMid: -6.69 dB; p = 0.004), which remained higher intraoperatively (α-power: Mid: -2.12 dB vs. noMid: -6.10 dB; p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Midazolam premedication alters the intraoperative EEG-spectrum in elderly patients. SIGNIFICANCE: This finding provides further evidence for the role of GABAergic activation in the induction of elevated, frontal α-power during general anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: NCT02265263. 23 September 2014. Principal investigator: Prof. Dr. med. Claudia Spies. (

Int J Med Sci ; 16(5): 665-674, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217734


BACKGROUNDː Dysglycemia is associated with adverse outcome including increased morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Acute insulin resistance due to the surgical stress response is seen as a major cause of so-called stress hyperglycemia. However, understanding of factors determining blood glucose (BG) during surgery is limited. Therefore, we investigated risk factors contributing to intraoperative dysglycemia. METHODSː In this subgroup investigation of the BIOCOG study, we analyzed 87 patients of ≥ 65 years with tight intraoperative BG measurement every 20 min during elective surgery. Dysglycemia was defined as at least one intraoperative BG measurement outside the recommended target range of 80-150 mg/dL. Additionally, all postoperative BG measurements in the ICU were obtained. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, diabetes, type and duration of surgery, minimum Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean intraoperative norepinephrine use was performed to identify risk factors of intraoperative dysglycemia. RESULTSː 46 (52.9%) out of 87 patients developed intraoperative dysglycemia. 31.8% of all intraoperative BG measurements were detected outside the target range. Diabetes [OR 9.263 (95% CI 2.492, 34.433); p=0.001] and duration of surgery [OR 1.005 (1.000, 1.010); p=0.036] were independently associated with the development of intraoperative dysglycemia. Patients who experienced intraoperative dysglycemia had significantly elevated postoperative mean (p<0.001) and maximum BG levels (p=0.001). Length of ICU (p=0.007) as well as hospital stay (p=0.012) were longer in patients with dysglycemia. CONCLUSIONSː Diabetes and duration of surgery were confirmed as independent risk factors for intraoperative dysglycemia, which was associated with adverse outcome. These patients, therefore, might require intensified glycemic control. Increased awareness and management of intraoperative dysglycemia is warranted.

Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/cirurgia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Complicações do Diabetes/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperglicemia/cirurgia , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/patologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/cirurgia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218411, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199858


BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) occur in the context of cerebral small vessel disease. Other brain MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease are associated with the occurrence of postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), but for CMB this is unknown. We aimed to study the association between CMB and the occurrence of POD and POCD in older individuals. METHODS: The current study consists of 65 patients (72±5 years) from the BIOCOG study, which is a prospective, observational study of patients who underwent an elective surgery of at least 60 minutes. Patients in the current study received a preoperative cerebral MRI scan including a 3D susceptibility-weighted imaging sequence to detect CMB. The occurrence of POD was screened for twice a day until postoperative day 7 by using the DSM-5, NuDesc, CAM, and CAM-ICU. The occurrence of POCD was determined by the reliable change index model at 7 days after surgery or discharge, respectively, and 3 months after surgery. Statistical analyses consisted of logistic regression adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: A total of 39 CMB were detected in 17 patients (26%) prior to surgery. POD occurred in 14 out of 65 patients (22%). POCD at 7 days after surgery occurred in 11 out of 54 patients (20%) and in 3 out of 40 patients at the 3 month follow-up (8%). Preoperative CMB were not associated with the occurrence of POD (OR (95%-CI): 0.28 (0.05, 1.57); p = 0.147) or POCD at 7 days after surgery (0.76 (0.16, 3.54); p = 0.727) or at 3 months follow-up (0.61 (0.03, 11.64); p = 0.740). CONCLUSION: We did not find an association between preoperative CMB and the occurrence of POD or POCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (NCT02265263) on 23 September 2014.

Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/etiologia , /etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
J Neuroimaging ; 29(2): 260-267, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468268


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In hyperglycemic patients, who succumbed to septic shock, an increased rate of apoptosis of microglial cells and damaged neurons of the hippocampus were found. However, the influence of perioperative glucose levels on hippocampal brain structures has not yet been investigated. METHODS: As part of the ongoing BIOCOG project, a subgroup of N = 65 elderly nondemented patients were analyzed who underwent elective surgery of ≥60 minutes. In these patients, at least one intraoperative blood glucose (BG) measurement was available from the medical charts. Intraoperative glucose maximum was determined in each patient. Preoperatively and at 3 months follow-up, structural neuroimaging was performed with T1-weighted magnetization prepared rapid gradient-echo sequence (MP-Rage) and a dedicated high-resolution hippocampus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI scans were analyzed to assess pre- or postoperative volume changes of the hippocampus as a whole and hippocampal subfields. We also assessed changes of frontal lobe volume and cortical thickness. RESULTS: Overall, 173 intraoperative BG levels were obtained in 65 patients (median 2 per patient). A total of 18 patients showed intraoperative hyperglycemia (glucose maximum ≥150 mg/dL). Controlling for age and diabetes status, no significant impact of intraoperative hyperglycemia was found on the pre-post volume change of the hippocampus as a whole, hippocampal subfields, frontal lobe, and frontal cortical thickness. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no effect of intraoperative hyperglycemia on postoperative brain structures and volumes including volumes of hippocampus and hippocampal subfields, frontal lobe, and frontal cortical thickness. Further studies investigating the impact of intraoperatively elevated glucose levels should consider a tighter or even continuous glycemic measurement and the determination of central microglial activation.