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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648061

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the impact of exercise and mind-body prehabilitation interventions on changes in quality of life and cancer treatment-related symptoms in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. METHODS: The following describes a secondary analysis of a randomized window of opportunity trial (The Pre-Operative Health and Body Study). Forty-nine women were randomized to participate in either an exercise prehabilitation intervention or a mind-body prehabilitation intervention from the time of enrollment to surgery. Participants (N = 47) completed measures of quality of life, anxiety, depression, and stress at the time of enrollment (T1), post-intervention/surgery (T2), and one-month post-surgery (T3). Changes in outcome measures between groups were compared over time using longitudinal models. RESULTS: Mind-body group participants experienced significant improvements in cognitive functioning in comparison to exercise group participants between T1 and T3 (difference in average change: -9.61, p = 0.04, d = 0.31), otherwise, there were no significant differences between groups. Within group comparisons demonstrated that both groups experienced improvements in anxiety (exercise: average change = -1.18, p = 0.03, d = 0.34; mind-body: average change = -1.69, p = 0.006, d = 0.43) and stress (exercise: average change = -2.33, p = 0.04, d = 0.30; mind-body: average change = -2.59, p = 0.05, d = 0.29), while mind-body group participants experienced improvements in insomnia (average change = -10.03, p = 0.04, d = 0.30) and cognitive functioning (average change = 13.16, p = 0.0003, d = 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Both prehabilitation interventions impacted cancer treatment-related symptoms. Further work in larger groups of patients is needed to evaluate the efficacy of prehabilitation interventions on quality of life in women with breast cancer. Pre-operative exercise and mind-body interventions may impact physical and/or psychological effects of cancer diagnosis and treatment in women with breast cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01516190. Registered January 24, 2012.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5563, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548479

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have minimal therapeutic effect in hormone receptor-positive (HR+ ) breast cancer. We present final overall survival (OS) results (n = 88) from a randomized phase 2 trial of eribulin ± pembrolizumab for patients with metastatic HR+ breast cancer, computationally dissect genomic and/or transcriptomic data from pre-treatment tumors (n = 52) for molecular associations with efficacy, and identify cytokine changes differentiating response and ICI-related toxicity (n = 58). Despite no improvement in OS with combination therapy (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.59-1.55, p = 0.84), immune infiltration and antigen presentation distinguished responding tumors, while tumor heterogeneity and estrogen signaling independently associated with resistance. Moreover, patients with ICI-related toxicity had lower levels of immunoregulatory cytokines. Broadly, we establish a framework for ICI response in HR+ breast cancer that warrants diagnostic and therapeutic validation. ClinicalTrials.gov Registration: NCT03051659.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Cetonas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heterogeneidade Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Oncologist ; 26(11): 927-933, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In early trials, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to paclitaxel were common, thus prompting the administration of antihistamines and corticosteroids before every paclitaxel dose. We tested the safety of omitting corticosteroids after cycle 2 during the paclitaxel portion of the dose-dense (DD) doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC)-paclitaxel regimen. PATIENTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: In this prospective, single-arm study, patients who completed four cycles of DD-AC for stage I-III breast cancer received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 every 2 weeks for four cycles. Patients received a standard premedication protocol containing dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, and a histamine H2 blocker prior to the first two paclitaxel cycles. Dexamethasone was omitted in cycles three and four if there were no HSRs in previous cycles. We estimated the rate of grade 3-4 HSRs. RESULTS: Among 127 patients enrolled, 125 received more than one dose of protocol therapy and are included in the analysis. Fourteen (11.2%; 90% confidence interval, 6.9%-20.0%) patients had any-grade HSRs, for a total of 22 (4.5%; 3.1%-6.4%) HSRs over 486 paclitaxel cycles. Any-grade HSRs occurred in 1.6% (0.3%-5.0%), 6.5% (3.3%-11.3%), 7.4% (3.9%-12.5%), and 2.6% (0.7%-6.6%) of patients after paclitaxel cycles 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Dexamethasone use was decreased by 92.8% in cycles 3 and 4. Only one patient experienced grade 3 HSR in cycles 3 or 4, for a rate of grade 3/4 HSR 0.4% (0.02%-2.0%) (1/237 paclitaxel infusions). That patient had grade 2 HSR during cycle 2, and the subsequent grade 3 event occurred despite usual dexamethasone premedication. A sensitivity analysis restricted to patients not known to have received dexamethasone in cycles 3 and 4 found that any-grade HSRs occurred in 2.7% (3/111; 0.7%-6.8%) and 0.9% (1/109; 0.05%-4.3%) of patients in cycle 3 and 4, respectively. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroid premedication can be safely omitted in cycles 3 and 4 of dose-dense paclitaxel if HSRs are not observed during cycles 1 and 2. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Because of the potential for hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to paclitaxel, corticosteroids are routinely prescribed prior to each dose, on an indefinite basis. This prospective study, including 125 patients treated with 486 paclitaxel cycles, demonstrates that corticosteroids can be safely omitted in future cycles if HSRs did not occur during cycles 1 and 2 of paclitaxel and that this strategy reduces the use of corticosteroids in cycles 3 and 4 by 92.8% relative to current standard of care.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(32): 3648-3649, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506210
5.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 110, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433812

RESUMO

This single-arm phase II study investigated the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib combined with nivolumab in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST 1.1. Biopsies at baseline and after cycle 1 were analyzed for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), PD-L1, and whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing. Only 1/18 patients achieved a partial response (ORR 6%), and the trial was stopped early. Toxicity led to cabozantinib dose reduction in 50% of patients. One patient had a PD-L1-positive tumor, and three patients had TILs > 10%. The responding patient had a PD-L1-negative tumor with low tumor mutational burden but high TILs and enriched immune gene expression. High pretreatment levels of plasma immunosuppressive cytokines, chemokines, and immune checkpoint molecules were associated with rapid progression. Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, immunostaining, genomic, and proteomic studies indicated a high degree of tumor immunosuppression in this mTNBC cohort.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(3): 641-651, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417675

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of poly-(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2 inhibitor veliparib and temozolomide in metastatic breast cancer patients with and without germline BRCA1/2 mutations. METHODS: In this single-arm phase II trial, patients with metastatic breast cancer received veliparib 30 to 40 mg twice daily on days 1 to 7 with concurrent temozolomide 150 mg/m2 on days 1 to 5 of a 28-day cycle. The primary cohort was unselected for BRCA mutation status, and an expansion cohort enrolled only BRCA1/2 carriers. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) in each cohort. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and evaluation of safety and tolerability. RESULTS: In the primary cohort of 41 unselected patients, which included 9 BRCA mutation carriers, the ORR was 10% and clinical benefit rate at 4 months (CBR) was 27%. In the expansion cohort of 21 BRCA1/2 carriers, the ORR was 14% and CBR was 43%. Among all 30 BRCA1/2 carriers, the ORR was 23% versus 0% among non-carriers. In the subset of BRCA1/2 carriers, the ORR was 32% among platinum-naïve patients versus 9% among platinum-exposed patients. The median PFS was 3.3 months among BRCA1/2 carriers compared to 1.8 months among non-carriers (HR: 0.48, p = 0.006). A longer median PFS of 6.2 months was observed among BRCA1/2 carriers who had no prior platinum therapy. The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities were thrombocytopenia (32%) and neutropenia (21%) that generally improved with dose modifications. CONCLUSION: Veliparib and temozolomide demonstrated clinical activity in platinum-naïve BRCA-associated metastatic breast cancer with manageable toxicity at doses of veliparib well below the single-agent active dose. Although the study did not meet its primary endpoint in unselected nor BRCA-associated breast cancer, this regimen was further evaluated in the BROCADE 2 study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01009788 (ClinicalTrials.gov), November 9, 2009.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Benzimidazóis , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mutação , Temozolomida/efeitos adversos
8.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(1): 103-110, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120223

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) is a surrogate for ovarian toxicity and associated risk of infertility and premature menopause. Here, we compare CRA rate with paclitaxel (T)-trastuzumab (H) to that with ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). METHODS: Patients with T1N0 HER2 + early-stage breast cancer (eBC) enrolled on the ATEMPT trial and were randomized 3:1 to T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg IV every (q) 3 weeks (w) × 17 vs. T 80 mg/m2 with H IV qw × 12 (4 mg/kg load → 2 mg/kg), followed by H (6 mg/kg IV q3w × 13). Enrollees who self-reported as premenopausal were asked to complete menstrual surveys at baseline and every 6-12 months for 60 months. 18-month CRA (no periods reported during prior 6 months on 18-month survey) was the primary endpoint of this analysis. RESULTS: Of 512 ATEMPT enrollees, 123 who began protocol therapy and answered baseline and at least one follow-up menstrual survey were premenopausal at enrollment. 76 had menstrual data available at 18 months without having received a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or undergone hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy. Median age was 45 (range 23-53) among 18 who had received TH and 46 (range 34-54) among 58 who had received T-DM1. The 18-month rate of CRA was 50% after TH and 24% after T-DM1 (p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Amenorrhea at 18 months was less likely in recipients of adjuvant T-DM1 than TH. Future studies are needed to understand how T-DM1 impacts risk of infertility and permanent menopause, and to assess amenorrhea rates when T-DM1 is administered after standard HER2-directed chemotherapy regimens.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Maitansina , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Amenorreia/induzido quimicamente , Amenorreia/epidemiologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Maitansina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(21): 2375-2385, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077270

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The ATEMPT trial was designed to determine if treatment with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) caused less toxicity than paclitaxel plus trastuzumab (TH) and yielded clinically acceptable invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) among patients with stage I human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer (BC). METHODS: Patients with stage I centrally confirmed HER2+ BC were randomly assigned 3:1 to T-DM1 or TH and received T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks for 17 cycles or T 80 mg/m2 IV with H once every week × 12 weeks (4 mg/kg load →2 mg/kg), followed by H × 39 weeks (6 mg/kg once every 3 weeks). The co-primary objectives were to compare the incidence of clinically relevant toxicities (CRTs) in patients treated with T-DM1 versus TH and to evaluate iDFS in patients receiving T-DM1. RESULTS: The analysis population includes all 497 patients who initiated protocol therapy (383 T-DM1 and 114 TH). CRTs were experienced by 46% of patients on T-DM1 and 47% of patients on TH (P = .83). The 3-year iDFS for T-DM1 was 97.8% (95% CI, 96.3 to 99.3), which rejected the null hypothesis (P < .0001). Serially collected patient-reported outcomes indicated that patients treated with T-DM1 had less neuropathy and alopecia and better work productivity compared with patients on TH. CONCLUSION: Among patients with stage I HER2+ BC, one year of adjuvant T-DM1 was associated with excellent 3-year iDFS, but was not associated with fewer CRT compared with TH.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Trastuzumab/farmacologia
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Phase III IMpassion130 study, atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel (A+nP) showed clinical benefit in advanced/metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients who were programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) + (tumor-infiltrating immune cells [IC] ≥1%) using the SP142 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. Here we evaluate 2 other PD-L1 assays for analytical concordance with SP142 and patient-associated clinical outcomes. METHODS: Samples from 614 patients (68.1% of intention-to-treat population) were centrally evaluated by IHC for PD-L1 status on IC (VENTANA SP142, SP263, Dako 22C3) or as a combined positive score (CPS; 22C3). RESULTS: Using SP142, SP263, and 22C3 assays, PD-L1 IC ≥ 1% prevalence was 46.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 42.5-50.4%), 74.9% (95% CI = 71.5-78.3%), and 73.1% (95% CI = 69.6-76.6%), respectively; 80.9% were 22C3 at CPS ≥1. At IC ≥ 1% (+), the analytical concordance between SP142 and SP263 and 22C3 was 69.2% and 68.7%, respectively. Almost all SP142+ cases were captured by other assays (double positive), but several SP263 + (29.6%) or 22C3 + (29.0%) cases were SP142- (single positive). A+nP clinical activity vs placebo+nP in SP263+ and 22C3+ patients (progression-free survival [PFS] hazard ratios [HRs] = 0.64-0.68; overall survival [OS] HRs = 0.75-0.79) was driven by double-positive (PFS HRs = 0.60-0.61; OS HRs = 0.71-0.75) rather than single-positive cases (PFS HRs = 0.68-0.81; OS HRs = 0.87-0.95). Concordance for harmonized cutoffs for SP263 (IC ≥ 4%) and 22C3 (CPS ≥10) to SP142 IC ≥ 1% was subpar (approximately 75%). CONCLUSIONS: 22C3 and SP263 assays identified more patients as PD-L1 + (IC ≥ 1%) than SP142. No inter-assay analytical equivalency was observed. Consistent improved A+nP efficacy was captured by the SP142 PD-L1 IC ≥ 1% subgroup nested within 22C3 and SP263 PD-L1 + (IC ≥ 1%) populations.

12.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3): pkab025, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981951

RESUMO

Background: Obesity and inactivity are associated with increased risk of cancer-related and overall mortality in breast cancer, but there are few data in metastatic disease. Methods: Cancer and Leukemia Group B 40502 was a randomized trial of first-line taxane-based chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Height and weight were collected at enrollment. After 299 patients enrolled, the study was amended to assess recreational physical activity (PA) at enrollment using the Nurses' Health Study Exercise Questionnaire. Associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using stratified Cox modeling (strata included hormone receptor status, prior taxane, bevacizumab use, and treatment arm). All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: A total of 799 patients were enrolled, and at the time of data lock, median follow-up was 60 months. At enrollment, median age was 56.7 years, 73.1% of participants had hormone receptor-positive cancers, 42.6% had obesity, and 47.6% engaged in less than 3 metabolic equivalents of task (MET) hours of PA per week (<1 hour of moderate PA). Neither baseline body mass index nor PA was statistically significantly associated with PFS or OS, although there was a marginally statistically significant increase in PFS (hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 1.02; P = .08) and OS (hazard ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.65 to 1.02; P = .07) in patients who reported PA greater than 9 MET hours per week vs 0-9 MET hours per week. Conclusions: In a trial of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer, rates of obesity and inactivity were high. There was no statistically significant relationship between body mass index and outcomes. More information is needed regarding the relationship between PA and outcomes.

13.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 568, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease and we have previously shown that rapid relapse of TNBC is associated with distinct sociodemographic features. We hypothesized that rapid versus late relapse in TNBC is also defined by distinct clinical and genomic features of primary tumors. METHODS: Using three publicly-available datasets, we identified 453 patients diagnosed with primary TNBC with adequate follow-up to be characterized as 'rapid relapse' (rrTNBC; distant relapse or death ≤2 years of diagnosis), 'late relapse' (lrTNBC; > 2 years) or 'no relapse' (nrTNBC: > 5 years no relapse/death). We explored basic clinical and primary tumor multi-omic data, including whole transcriptome (n = 453), and whole genome copy number and mutation data for 171 cancer-related genes (n = 317). Association of rapid relapse with clinical and genomic features were assessed using Pearson chi-squared tests, t-tests, ANOVA, and Fisher exact tests. We evaluated logistic regression models of clinical features with subtype versus two models that integrated significant genomic features. RESULTS: Relative to nrTNBC, both rrTNBC and lrTNBC had significantly lower immune signatures and immune signatures were highly correlated to anti-tumor CD8 T-cell, M1 macrophage, and gamma-delta T-cell CIBERSORT inferred immune subsets. Intriguingly, lrTNBCs were enriched for luminal signatures. There was no difference in tumor mutation burden or percent genome altered across groups. Logistic regression mModels that incorporate genomic features significantly outperformed standard clinical/subtype models in training (n = 63 patients), testing (n = 63) and independent validation (n = 34) cohorts, although performance of all models were overall modest. CONCLUSIONS: We identify clinical and genomic features associated with rapid relapse TNBC for further study of this aggressive TNBC subset.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Mastectomia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Adulto , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(24): 2720-2731, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Standardized Definitions for Efficacy End Points (STEEP) criteria, established in 2007, provide standardized definitions of adjuvant breast cancer clinical trial end points. Given the evolution of breast cancer clinical trials and improvements in outcomes, a panel of experts reviewed the STEEP criteria to determine whether modifications are needed. METHODS: We conducted systematic searches of ClinicalTrials.gov for adjuvant systemic and local-regional therapy trials for breast cancer to investigate if the primary end points reported met STEEP criteria. On the basis of common STEEP deviations, we performed a series of simulations to evaluate the effect of excluding non-breast cancer deaths and new nonbreast primary cancers from the invasive disease-free survival end point. RESULTS: Among 11 phase III breast cancer trials with primary efficacy end points, three had primary end points that followed STEEP criteria, four used STEEP definitions but not the corresponding end point names, and four used end points that were not included in the original STEEP manuscript. Simulation modeling demonstrated that inclusion of second nonbreast primary cancer can increase the probability of incorrect inferences, can decrease power to detect clinically relevant efficacy effects, and may mask differences in recurrence rates, especially when recurrence rates are low. CONCLUSION: We recommend an additional end point, invasive breast cancer-free survival, which includes all invasive disease-free survival events except second nonbreast primary cancers. This end point should be considered for trials in which the toxicities of agents are well-known and where the risk of second primary cancer is small. Additionally, we provide end point recommendations for local therapy trials, low-risk populations, noninferiority trials, and trials incorporating patient-reported outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Determinação de Ponto Final/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Feminino , Humanos
15.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(20): 2247-2256, 2021 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999652

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Predictive biomarkers to identify patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer who may benefit from targeted therapy alone are required. We hypothesized that early measurements of tumor maximum standardized uptake value corrected for lean body mass (SULmax) on 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) would predict pathologic complete response (pCR) to pertuzumab and trastuzumab (PT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage II or III, estrogen receptor-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer received four cycles of neoadjuvant PT. 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography was performed at baseline and 15 days after PT initiation (C1D15). Eighty evaluable patients were required to test the null hypothesis that the area under the curve of percent change in SULmax by C1D15 predicting pCR is ≤ 0.65, with a one-sided type I error rate of 10%. RESULTS: Eighty-eight women were enrolled (83 evaluable), and 85% (75 of 88) completed all four cycles of PT. pCR after PT alone was 22%. Receiver operator characteristic analysis of percent change in SULmax by C1D15 yielded an area under the curve of 0.72 (80% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; one-sided P = .12), which did not reject the null hypothesis. However, between patients who obtained pCR and who did not, a significant difference in median percent reduction in SULmax by C1D15 was observed (63.8% v 41.8%; P = .004) and SULmax reduction ≥ 40% was more prevalent (83% v 52%; P = .03; positive predictive value, 31%). Participants not obtaining a 40% reduction in SULmax by C1D15 were unlikely to obtain pCR (negative predictive value, 91%). CONCLUSION: Although the primary objective was not met, early changes in SULmax predict response to PT in estrogen receptor-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. Once optimized, this quantitative imaging strategy may facilitate tailoring of therapy in this setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
16.
Cancer Discov ; 11(10): 2474-2487, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941592

RESUMO

Intratumor heterogeneity is postulated to cause therapeutic resistance. To prospectively assess the impact of HER2 (ERBB2) heterogeneity on response to HER2-targeted therapy, we treated 164 patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer with neoadjuvant trastuzumab emtansine plus pertuzumab. HER2 heterogeneity was assessed on pretreatment biopsies from two locations of each tumor. HER2 heterogeneity, defined as an area with ERBB2 amplification in >5% but <50% of tumor cells, or a HER2-negative area by FISH, was detected in 10% (16/157) of evaluable cases. The pathologic complete response rate was 55% in the nonheterogeneous subgroup and 0% in the heterogeneous group (P < 0.0001, adjusted for hormone receptor status). Single-cell ERBB2 FISH analysis of cellular heterogeneity identified the fraction of ERBB2 nonamplified cells as a driver of therapeutic resistance. These data suggest HER2 heterogeneity is associated with resistance to HER2-targeted therapy and should be considered in efforts to optimize treatment strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: HER2-targeted therapies improve cure rates in HER2-positive breast cancer, suggesting chemotherapy can be avoided in a subset of patients. We show that HER2 heterogeneity, particularly the fraction of ERBB2 nonamplified cancer cells, is a strong predictor of resistance to HER2 therapies and could potentially be used to optimize treatment selection.See related commentary by Okines and Turner, p. 2369.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2355.

17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of patients with low-risk Recurrence Score (RS) results in the context of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th-edition pathologic prognostic staging has not been investigated. We evaluated if expanded RS criteria can be considered for downstaging in AJCC pathologic prognostic staging. METHODS: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data we identified patients with T1-3N0-3M0 HR-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer treated from 2010-2015 with follow-up data through 2016. We evaluated TNM categories, grade, and RS result. The primary outcome measured was 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) of patients with low-risk RS results not already pathologic prognostic stage IA, determined by T and N categories per AJCC 8th edition. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Of 154,050 patients with median follow-up of 49 months (range = 0-83), RS results were obtained in 60,886 (39.5%): RS was <11 in 13,570 (22.3%), 11-17 in 22,719 (37.3%), 18-25 in 16,521 (27.1%), and ≥ 26 in 8,076 (13.3%). Five-year DSS for pathologic prognostic stage IA patients (n = 114,910, 74.6%) was 98.8%. Among N0-1 patients with RS < 18 not staged as pathologic prognostic stage IA by current criteria, 5-year DSS was excellent and not statistically significantly different than for pathologic prognostic stage IA patients (97.2%-99.7%, P > .05). For those with RS 18-25, there was a small decrease in DSS for T2N0 (2.3%) and modest decrease for T1-2N1 (4.2%-6.4%) compared to pathologic prognostic stage IA patients (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Patients with RS < 18 have excellent 5-year DSS regardless of T category for N0-1 disease suggesting further modification of the AJCC staging system using this cutoff.

18.
Oncologist ; 26(8): 685-693, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early reports suggested increased mortality from COVID-19 in patients with cancer but lacked rigorous comparisons to patients without cancer. We investigated whether a current cancer diagnosis or cancer history is an independent risk factor for death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified patients with a history of cancer admitted to two large hospitals between March 13, 2020, and May 10, 2020, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and matched them 1:2 to patients without a history of cancer. RESULTS: Men made up 56.2% of the population, with a median age of 69 years (range, 30-96). The median time since cancer diagnosis was 35.6 months (range, 0.39-435); 80% had a solid tumor, and 20% had a hematologic malignancy. Among patients with cancer, 27.8% died or entered hospice versus 25.6% among patients without cancer. In multivariable analyses, the odds of death/hospice were similar (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-1.82). The odds of intubation (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28-0.78), shock (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.91), and intensive care unit admission (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.81) were lower for patients with a history of cancer versus controls. Patients with active cancer or who had received cancer-directed therapy in the past 6 months had similar odds of death/hospice compared with cancer survivors (univariable OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.66-2.60; multivariable OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.69-3.16). CONCLUSION: Patients with a history of cancer hospitalized for COVID-19 had similar mortality to matched hospitalized patients with COVID-19 without cancer, and a lower risk of complications. In this population, patients with active cancer or recent cancer treatment had a similar risk for adverse outcomes compared with survivors of cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study investigated whether a current cancer diagnosis or cancer history is an independent risk factor for death or hospice admission in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Active cancer, systemic cancer therapy, and a cancer history are not independent risk factors for death from COVID-19 among hospitalized patients, and hospitalized patients without cancer are more likely to have severe COVID-19. These findings provide reassurance to survivors of cancer and patients with cancer as to their relative risk of severe COVID-19, may encourage oncologists to provide standard anticancer therapy in patients at risk of COVID-19, and guide triage in future waves of infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JCI Insight ; 6(11)2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886505

RESUMO

Despite the availability of multiple human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-targeted (HER2-targeted) treatments, therapeutic resistance in HER2+ breast cancer remains a clinical challenge. Intratumor heterogeneity for HER2 and resistance-conferring mutations in the PIK3CA gene (encoding PI3K catalytic subunit α) have been investigated in response and resistance to HER2-targeting agents, while the role of divergent cellular phenotypes and tumor epithelial-stromal cell interactions is less well understood. Here, we assessed the effect of intratumor cellular genetic heterogeneity for ERBB2 (encoding HER2) copy number and PIK3CA mutation on different types of neoadjuvant HER2-targeting therapies and clinical outcome in HER2+ breast cancer. We found that the frequency of cells lacking HER2 was a better predictor of response to HER2-targeted treatment than intratumor heterogeneity. We also compared the efficacy of different therapies in the same tumor using patient-derived xenograft models of heterogeneous HER2+ breast cancer and single-cell approaches. Stromal determinants were better predictors of response than tumor epithelial cells, and we identified alveolar epithelial and fibroblastic reticular cells as well as lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1-positive (Lyve1+) macrophages as putative drivers of therapeutic resistance. Our results demonstrate that both preexisting and acquired resistance to HER2-targeting agents involve multiple mechanisms including the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, our data suggest that intratumor heterogeneity for HER2 should be incorporated into treatment design.

20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(1): 203-212, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893907

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most reports describing the risk of late relapse in breast cancer (BC) have been based on selected patients enrolled into clinical trials. We examined population-based long-term risks of BC-specific mortality (BCSM), the risks of BCSM conditional on having survived 5 years, and factors associated with late BCSM. METHODS: Using SEER, we identified women diagnosed with BC (T1-T2, N0-N2, M0) between 1990 and 2005 with known hormone receptor (HR) status. Kaplan-Meier analyses determined cumulative risks of BCSM. We performed Fine and Gray regression stratified by HR status. RESULTS: We included 202,080 patients (median follow-up of 14.17 years). Of all BC deaths, the proportion that occurred after 5 years was 65% for HR-positive vs 28% for HR-negative (p < 0.001) BC. In HR-positive BC, the cumulative risks of BCSM during years 5-20 were 9.9%, 21.9%, and 38% for N0, N1, and N2 disease. For HR-negative BC, the risks were 7.9%, 12.2%, and 19.9%, respectively. For T1a/b, N0, HR-positive BC, the risk of BCSM was 6 times lower than the risk of non-BCSM. In N2, HR-positive BC, the risk of BCSM was 43% higher than the risk of non-BCSM. In adjusted Fine and Gray models stratified by HR status, the risks of BCSM conditional on having survived 5 years for both HR-positive and HR-negative depended on T-N status, age, and year of diagnosis. In HR-positive, the risks also depended on race and grade. CONCLUSION: The risks of BCSM beyond 5 years, although different, remain important for both HR-positive and HR-negative BC. Strategies to prevent early and late recurrences are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Programa de SEER
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