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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 355, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Induction of labour (IOL), or starting labour artificially, can be a lifesaving intervention for pregnant women and their babies, and rates are rising significantly globally. As rates increase, it becomes increasingly important to fully evaluate all available data, especially that from low income settings where the potential benefits and harms are greater. The goal of this paper is to describe the datasets collected as part of the Induction with Foley OR Misoprostol (INFORM) Study, a randomised trial comparing two of the recommended methods of cervical ripening for labour induction, oral misoprostol and Foley catheter, in women being induced for hypertension in pregnancy, at two sites in India during 2013-15. DATA DESCRIPTION: This dataset includes comprehensive data on 602 women who underwent IOL for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Women were randomly assigned to cervical ripening with oral misoprostol or a transcervical Foley catheter in two government hospitals in India. The main dataset has 367 variables including monitoring during the induction of labour, medications administered, timing and mode of delivery, measures of neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal mortality and morbidity, maternal satisfaction and health economic data. The dataset is anonymised and available on ReShare.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Cateteres , Maturidade Cervical , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez
2.
Contraception ; 104(5): 484-491, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a minimum data set, known as a core outcome set, for future abortion randomized controlled trials. STUDY DESIGN: We extracted outcomes from quantitative and qualitative systematic reviews of abortion studies to assess using a modified Delphi method. Via email, we invited researchers, clinicians, patients, and healthcare organization representatives with expertise in abortion to rate the importance of the outcomes on a 9-point Likert scale. After 2 rounds, we used descriptive analyses to determine which outcomes met the predefined consensus criteria. We finalized the core outcome set during a series of consensus development meetings. RESULTS: We entered 42 outcomes, organized in 15 domains, into the Delphi survey. Two-hundred eighteen of 251 invitees (87%) provided responses (203 complete responses) for round 1 and 118 of 218 (42%) completed round2. Sixteen experts participated in the development meetings. The final outcome set includes 15 outcomes: 10 outcomes apply to all abortion trials (successful abortion, ongoing pregnancy, death, hemorrhage, uterine infection, hospitalization, surgical intervention, pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, and patients' experience of abortion); 2 outcomes apply to only surgical abortion trials (uterine perforation and cervical injury), one applies only to medical abortion trials (uterine rupture); and 2 apply to trials evaluating abortions with anesthesia (over-sedation/respiratory depression and local anesthetic systemic toxicity). CONCLUSION: Using robust consensus science methods we have developed a core outcome set for future abortion research. IMPLICATIONS: Standardized outcomes in abortion research could decrease heterogeneity among trials and improve the quality of systematic reviews and clinical guidelines. Researchers should select, collect, and report these core outcomes in future abortion trials. Journal editors should advocate for core outcome set reporting.

3.
Contraception ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes among patients who did or did not have pre-abortion ultrasound or pelvic exam before obtaining medication abortion (MA) via direct-to-patient telemedicine and mail. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from participants screened for enrollment into the TelAbortion study at five sites from March 25 to September 15, 2020. We compared participants who had preabortion ultrasound or pelvic exam ("test-MA") to those who did not ("no-test MA"). Outcomes were: abortion not complete with pills alone (i.e., had procedure intervention or ongoing pregnancy), ongoing pregnancy separately, ectopic pregnancy, hospitalization and/or blood transfusion, and unplanned clinical encounters. We used propensity score weighting and multivariable logistic regression to adjust for baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Our analysis included 287 participants who had no-test MA and 125 who had test-MA. Abortion was not complete with pills alone in 16of 287 (5.6%) no-test MA patients compared to 2of 123 (1.9%) test-MA patients (adjusted risk difference [aRD] = 4.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4%-7.1%). No ectopic pregnancies were detected. Groups did not differ regarding hospitalization and/or blood transfusion (p = 0.76) or ongoing pregnancy diagnosis (p = 0.59). Unplanned clinical encounters were more common in no-test MA patients (35of 287, 12.5%) than test-MA patients (10of 125, 8.0%, aRD = 6.7%, 95% CI: 0.5%-13.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to patients who had pre-abortion ultrasound, patients who had no-test MA via telemedicine were more likely to have abortions that were not complete with pills alone and/or unplanned clinical encounters. However, both no-test and test-MA patients had similar and very low rates of ongoing pregnancy and hospitalization or blood transfusion. IMPLICATIONS: Omitting pre-abortion ultrasound before provision of medication abortion via telemedicine does not appear to compromise safety or result in more ongoing pregnancies. However, compared to patients who have preabortion ultrasound, patients who do not have pre-abortion tests may be more likely to seek post-treatment care and have procedural interventions.

4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 537, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 30,000 women die from hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Magnesium sulphate and anti-hypertensives reduce morbidity, but delivery is the only cure. Low dose oral misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is a highly effective method for labour induction. Usually, once active labour has commenced, the misoprostol is replaced with an intravenous oxytocin infusion if ongoing stimulation is required. However, some studies have shown that oral misoprostol can be continued into active labour, a simpler and potentially more acceptable protocol for women. To date, these two protocols have never been directly compared. METHODS: This pragmatic, open-label, randomised trial will compare a misoprostol alone labour induction protocol with the standard misoprostol plus oxytocin protocol in three Indian hospitals. The study will recruit 520 pregnant women being induced for hypertensive disease in pregnancy and requiring augmentation after membrane rupture. Participants will be randomised to receive either further oral misoprostol 25mcg every 2 h, or titrated intravenous oxytocin. The primary outcome will be caesarean birth. Secondary outcomes will assess the efficacy of the induction process, maternal and fetal/neonatal complications and patient acceptability. This protocol (version 1.04) adheres to the SPIRIT checklist. A cost-effectiveness analysis, situational analysis and formal qualitative assessment of women's experience are also planned. DISCUSSION: Avoiding oxytocin and continuing low dose misoprostol into active labour may have a number of benefits for both women and the health care system. Misoprostol is heat stable, oral medication and thus easy to store, transport and administer; qualities particularly desirable in low resource settings. An oral medication protocol requires less equipment (e.g. electronic infusion pumps) and may free up health care providers to assist with other aspects of the woman's care. The simplicity of the protocol may also help to reduce human errors associated with the delivery of intravenous infusions. Finally, women may prefer to be mobile during labour and not restricted by an intravenous infusion. There is a need, therefore, to assess whether augmentation using oral misoprostol is superior clinically and economically to the standard protocol of intravenous oxytocin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov, NCT03749902 , registered on 21st Nov 2018.

5.
J Appl Lab Med ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate pregnancy dating is critical for maternal and child health and for counseling on safe and effective abortion methods. While last menstrual period and first trimester ultrasound are often used together to determine gestational age (GA), they have limited accuracy and availability, respectively. Prior studies have shown that pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) increases exponentially during pregnancy and has the potential to serve as a biochemical marker of GA. We aimed to analyze the relationship between sonographically determined GA and serum PAPP-A concentration measured by different immunoassays and to derive cutoff levels informative for the 70 days GA commonly recommended limit for medical abortion in outpatient settings. METHODS: We compared technical characteristics of 4 commercially available PAPP-A immunoassays and tested 120 maternal serum samples (GA range: 34-231 days) along with contrived pool samples and traceable quality controls. These characteristics included area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) plot, sensitivity and specificity based on cutoffs defined by the Youden Index, and likelihood ratios. RESULTS: All 4 immunoassays had sensitivities and specificities ≥80%, and AUROC values ranging from 0.948 to 0.968. Marked differences among absolute PAPP-A values were noted depending on immunoassay. PAPP-A cutoff values at 70 days GA for each individual immunoassay were established along with procedural recommendations that increase equivalence among immunoassays. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal serum PAPP-A levels correlated strongly with GA despite differences in immunoassay formats and absolute data output. Serum PAPP-A has biomarker potential for future development of a point-of-care test aimed at increasing access to medical abortion.

6.
Contraception ; 104(1): 43-48, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present updated evidence on the safety, efficacy and acceptability of a direct-to-patient telemedicine abortion service and describe how the service functioned during the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: We offered the study at 10 sites that provided the service in 13 states and Washington DC. Interested individuals obtained any needed preabortion tests locally and had a videoconference with a study clinician. Sites sent study packages containing mifepristone and misoprostol by mail and had remote follow-up consultations within one month by telephone (or by online survey, if the participant could not be reached) to evaluate abortion completeness. The analysis was descriptive. RESULTS: We mailed 1390 packages between May 2016 and September 2020. Of the 83% (1157/1390) of abortions for which we obtained outcome information, 95% (1103/1157) were completed without a procedure. Participants made 70 unplanned visits to emergency rooms or urgent care centers for reasons related to the abortion (6%), and 10 serious adverse events occurred, including 5 transfusions (0.4%). Enrollment increased substantially with the onset of COVID-19. Although a screening ultrasound was required, sites determined in 52% (346/669) of abortions that occurred during COVID that those participants should not get the test to protect their health. Use of urine pregnancy test to confirm abortion completion increased from 67% (144/214) in the 6 months prior to COVID to 90% (602/669) in the 6 months during COVID. Nearly all satisfaction questionnaires (99%, 1013/1022) recorded that participants were satisfied with the service. CONCLUSIONS: This direct-to-patient telemedicine service was safe, effective, and acceptable, and supports the claim that there is no medical reason for mifepristone to be dispensed in clinics as required by the Food and Drug Administration. In some cases, participants did not need to visit any facilities to obtain the service, which was critical to protecting patient safety during the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPLICATIONS: Medical abortion using telemedicine and mail is effective and can be safely provided without a pretreatment ultrasound. This method of service delivery has the potential to greatly improve access to abortion care in the United States.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Abortivos Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aborto Induzido/métodos , COVID-19 , Serviços Postais , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the risk of postpartum infection and increased pain associated with use of condom-catheter uterine balloon tamponade (UBT) among women diagnosed with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in three low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We also sought women's opinions on their overall experience of PPH care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study compared women diagnosed with PPH who received and did not receive UBT (UBT group and no-UBT group, respectively) at 18 secondary level hospitals in Uganda, Egypt, and Senegal that participated in a stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial assessing UBT introduction. Key outcomes were reported pain (on a scale 0-10) in the immediate postpartum period and receipt of antibiotics within four weeks postpartum (a proxy for postpartum infection). Outcomes related to satisfaction with care and aspects women liked most and least about PPH care were also reported. RESULTS: Among women diagnosed with PPH, 58 were in the UBT group and 2188 in the no-UBT group. Self-reported, post-discharge antibiotic use within four weeks postpartum was similar in the UBT (3/58, 5.6%) and no-UBT groups (100/2188, 4.6%, risk ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45-3.35). A high postpartum pain score of 8-10 was more common among women in the UBT group (17/46, 37.0%) than in the no-UBT group (360/1805, 19.9%, relative risk ratio = 3.64, 95% CI:1.30-10.16). Most women were satisfied with their care (1935/2325, 83.2%). When asked what they liked least about care, the most common responses were that medications (580/1511, 38.4%) and medical supplies (503/1511, 33.3%) were unavailable. CONCLUSION: UBT did not increase the risk of postpartum infection among this population. Women who receive UBT may experience higher degrees of pain compared to women who do not receive UBT. Women's satisfaction with their care and stockouts of medications and other supplies deserve greater attention when introducing new technologies like UBT.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/psicologia , Cateteres , Dor/complicações , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Infecção Puerperal , Tamponamento com Balão Uterino/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 31: 100678, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385127

RESUMO

Background: Misfolded proteins in the urine of women with preeclampsia bind to Congo Red dye (urine congophilia). We evaluated a beta prototype of a point-of-care test for the identification of urine congophilia in preeclamptic women. Methods: Prospective diagnostic case-control study conducted in 409 pregnant women (n = 204 preeclampsia; n = 205 uncomplicated pregnancies) presenting for delivery in two tertiary level hospitals located in Bangladesh and Mexico. The GV-005, a beta prototype of a point-of-care test for detecting congophilia, was performed on fresh and refrigerated urine samples. The primary outcome was the prevalence of urine congophilia in each of the two groups. Secondary outcome was the likelihood of the GV-005 (index test) to confirm and rule-out preeclampsia based on an adjudicated diagnosis (reference standard). Findings: The GV-005 was positive in 85% of clinical cases (83/98) and negative in 81% of clinical controls (79/98) in the Bangladesh cohort. In the Mexico cohort, the GV-005 test was positive in 48% of clinical cases (51/106) and negative in 77% of clinical controls (82/107). Adjudication confirmed preeclampsia in 92% of Bangladesh clinical cases (90/98) and 61% of Mexico clinical cases (65/106). The odds ratio of a urine congophilia in adjudicated cases versus controls in the Bangladesh cohort was 34.5 (14.7 - 81.1) (p<0.001) compared to 4.2 (2.1 - 8.4; p<0.001) in the Mexico cohort. Interpretation: The GV-005, a beta prototype of a point-of-care test for detection of urine congophilia, is a promising tool for rapid identification of preeclampsia. Funding: Saving Lives at Birth.

9.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(1): 118-126, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of a Family First Aid approach whereby women and their families are provided misoprostol in advance to manage postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in home births. METHODS: A 12-month prospective, pre-post intervention study was conducted from February 2017 to February 2018. Women in their second and third trimesters were enrolled at home visits. Participants and their families received educational materials and were counseled on how to diagnose excessive bleeding and the importance of seeking care at a facility if PPH occurs. In the intervention phase, participants were also given misoprostol and counselled on how to administer the four 200 mcg tablets for first aid in case of PPH. Participants were followed-up postpartum to collect data on use of misoprostol for Family First Aid at home deliveries (primary outcome) and record maternal and perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 4008 participants enrolled, 97% were successfully followed-up postpartum. Half of the participants in each phase delivered at home. Among home deliveries, the odds of reporting PPH almost doubled among in the intervention phase (OR 1.98; CI 1.43, 2.76). Among those reporting PPH, women in the intervention phase were significantly more likely to have received PPH treatment (OR 10.49; CI 3.37, 32.71) and 90% administered the dose correctly. No maternal deaths, invasive procedures or surgery were reported in either phase after home deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: The Family First Aid approach is a safe and feasible model of care that provides timely PPH treatment to women delivering at home in rural communities.

10.
Contraception ; 102(6): 414-420, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Missed period pills (MPP) are uterine evacuation medications used for treatment of delayed menses without prior pregnancy confirmation. This study explores potential interest in missed period pills in two US states. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled people seeking pregnancy test services at nine health centers in two US states between June 2015 and October 2017. Participants completed an anonymous questionnaire containing closed- and open-ended questions about background characteristics, reproductive practices, pregnancy feelings and intentions, abortion attitudes, and MPP interest. We used ordered logistic regression to identify factors associated with MPP interest and inductive content analysis to identify recurring qualitative themes related to MPP interest or disinterest. RESULTS: In all, 678 people completed the survey and 286/678 (42%) indicated interest in missed period pills. Interest was greatest (129/185 or 70%) among those who would be unhappy if pregnant. Variables associated with interest in the multivariate analyses were age ≥ 35, nulliparity, prior abortion and contraceptive use, recent use of emergency contraception, pregnancy feelings and intentions, and abortion attitudes (p < .05). Variables not associated with interest included state of residence, educational attainment, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and frequency of religious attendance. Key reasons for interest were to prevent, avoid or terminate pregnancy; and psychological or emotional benefits, including management of abortion stigma. Reasons for non-interest included concerns about safety or side effects, desire to be pregnant or have a baby, and not wanting to abort or hurt the fetus/baby. CONCLUSION: If missed period pills were available in the United States, demand might be substantial and wide-ranging across demographic groups. IMPLICATIONS: Our findings suggest that some people with missed periods do not desire pregnancy confirmation before taking medications that might disrupt a pregnancy. As a result, provision of missed period pills in the United States would expand reproductive service options and could improve the delivery of patient-centered care.

11.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 88, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. In Afghanistan, where most births take place at home without the assistance of a skilled birth attendant, there is a need for options to manage PPH in community-based settings. Misoprostol, a uterotonic that has been used as prophylaxis at the household level and has also been proven to be effective in treating PPH in hospital settings, is one possible option. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in six districts in Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan to test the effectiveness and safety of administering 800mcg sublingual misoprostol to women after a home birth for treatment of excessive blood loss. Consenting women were enrolled prior to delivery and given 600mcg misoprostol to self-administer orally as prophylaxis. Community health workers (CHW) were trained to observe for signs of PPH after delivery and if PPH was diagnosed, administer the study medication (misoprostol or placebo) and immediately refer the woman. A hemoglobin (Hb) decline of 2 g/dL or greater, measured pre- and post-delivery, served as the primary outcome; side effects, additional interventions, and transfer rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 1884 women who delivered at home, nearly all (98.7%) reported self-use of misoprostol for PPH prevention. A small fraction was diagnosed with PPH (4.4%, 82/1884) and was administered treatment. Hb outcomes, including the proportion of women with a Hb drop of 2 g/dL or greater, were similar between the study groups (misoprostol: 56.4% (22/39), placebo: 60.6% (20/33), p = 0.45). Significantly more women randomized to receive misoprostol experienced shivering (82.5% vs. placebo: 61.5%, p = 0.03). Other side effects were similar between study groups and none required treatment, including among the subset of 39 women, who received misoprostol for both of its PPH indications. CONCLUSIONS: While the study did not document a clinical benefit associated with misoprostol for treatment of PPH, study findings suggest that use of misoprostol for both prevention and treatment in the same birth as well as its use by lay level providers in home births does not result in any safety concerns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01508429 Registered on December 1, 2011.


Assuntos
Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Administração Sublingual , Adulto , Afeganistão , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Parto Domiciliar , Humanos , Tocologia , Placebos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/sangue , Gravidez , Autoadministração
12.
Contraception ; 102(3): 207-209, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore hCG patterns using multi-level urine pregnancy tests (MLPTs) among prenatal clients to evaluate the potential use of these tests for medical abortion follow-up after 63 days' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Prenatal clients with gestations 9-12 weeks were asked to administer an MLPT weekly for three weeks. We evaluated change in hCG range over one- and two-week intervals. RESULTS: Our analysis included 121 clients. Over one-week intervals, 26.5-43.1% of participants had a drop in hCG range. The proportion with a decline after two-weeks was 42.0-48.3%. CONCLUSION: This follow-up strategy would not work in gestations beyond 63 days.

13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 317, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous community-based research shows that secondary prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with misoprostol only given to women with above-average measured blood loss produces similar clinical outcomes compared to routine administration of misoprostol for prevention of PPH. Given the difficulty of routinely measuring blood loss for all deliveries, more operational models of secondary prevention are needed. METHODS: This cluster-randomized, non-inferiority trial included women giving birth with nurse-midwives at home or in Primary Health Units (PHUs) in rural Egypt. Two PPH management approaches were compared: 1) 600mcg oral misoprostol given to all women after delivery (i.e. primary prevention, current standard of care); 2) 800mcg sublingual misoprostol given only to women with 350-500 ml postpartum blood loss estimated using an underpad (i.e. secondary prevention). The primary outcome was mean change in pre- and post-delivery hemoglobin. Secondary outcomes included hemoglobin ≥2 g/dL and other PPH interventions. RESULTS: Misoprostol was administered after delivery to 100% (1555/1555) and 10.7% (117/1099) of women in primary and secondary prevention clusters, respectively. The mean drop in pre- to post-delivery hemoglobin was 0.37 (SD: 0.91) and 0.45 (SD: 0.76) among women in primary and secondary prevention clusters, respectively (difference adjusted for clustering = 0.01, one-sided 95% CI: < 0.27, p = 0.535). There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes, including hemoglobin drop ≥2 g/dL, PPH diagnosis, transfer to higher level, or other interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Misoprostol for secondary prevention of PPH is comparable to universal prophylaxis and can be implemented using local materials, such as underpads. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02226588, date of registration 27 August 2014.


Assuntos
Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Adulto , Egito , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Parto , Gravidez , Prevenção Primária , Adulto Jovem
14.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 34, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral tranexamic acid (TXA), if effective in reducing blood loss after delivery for women experiencing primary PPH, could be administered where parenteral administration is not feasible. This trial assessed the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of oral TXA when used as an adjunct to sublingual misoprostol to treat postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) following vaginal delivery. METHODS: From October 2016 to January 2018, women presenting at four hospitals in Senegal and Vietnam for vaginal delivery were screened for enrollment in the trial. Women diagnosed with postpartum hemorrhage (defined as blood loss ≥700 ml) were randomized to receive either oral TXA (1950 mg) or placebo in addition to 800 mcg sublingual misoprostol. Postpartum blood loss was measured using a calibrated drape. Blood loss for all PPH cases was recorded for 2 h after administration of the drugs. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of women with bleeding controlled with the trial regimen without recourse to further treatment. Secondary outcomes including the rate of severe PPH, mean/median blood loss, use of additional uterotonics and/or interventions side effects, and acceptability were also recorded. RESULTS: Of the 258 women who received treatment for PPH, 128 received placebo and misoprostol and 130 received TXA and misoprostol. The proportion of women who had active bleeding controlled with trial drugs alone and no additional interventions was similar in both groups: 77(60.2%) placebo; 74 (56.9%) TXA, p = 0.59). Use of other interventions to control bleeding, including uterotonics, did not differ significantly between groups. Median blood loss at PPH diagnosis was 700 ml in both groups. Uterine atony alone or in addition to another cause contributed to over 90% of PPH cases reported (92.2% placebo vs. 91.5% TXA), other causes included perineal and cervical lacerations and retained placenta. Reports of side effects and acceptability were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Adjunct use of oral TXA with misoprostol to treat PPH resulted in similar clinical and acceptability outcomes when compared to treatment with misoprostol alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02805426. Registered on 3 September 2016.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Contraception ; 102(1): 7-12, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether fetal and placental expulsion is more likely within 48 h if women receive mifepristone pre-treatment vs placebo pre-treatment followed by misoprostol 200 mcg buccally for treatment of fetal death at 14 weeks 0 days to 28 weeks and 6 days gestation. STUDY DESIGN: We randomized 176 women with a confirmed fetal death between 14 weeks and 0 days to 28 weeks and 6 days to mifepristone 200 mg or placebo; 24 h later all participants received misoprostol 200 mcg buccally every 3 h for up to 16 doses or 48 h. The trial took place in Hanoi, Vietnam and Mexico City in 2015-2018. RESULTS: Complete expulsion of the fetus and placenta within 48 h of misoprostol administration occurred in 74 of 90 women (82.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 72.7%-89.5%) in the mifepristone-misoprostol group and in 70 of 86 women (81.4%, 95% CI, 71.6%-89.0%) in the placebo-misoprostol group (Relative Risk (RR) 1.01, 95%CI 0.87-1.16, p = 0.887). The median time from the start of the misoprostol induction to fetal expulsion was shorter among women who received mifepristone-misoprostol compared to women assigned to placebo-misoprostol (7 h vs ±5 vs 12 ± 13 h; p < 0.001). Women in the mifepristone-misoprostol group were more likely to expel the fetus within 24 h of the start of misoprostol administration (96% vs 78%; RR 1.22 (1.09-1.39) p = 0.009). CONCLUSION(S): Mifepristone-misoprostol did not result in a higher rate of complete expulsion of the fetus and the placenta within 48 h of the start of misoprostol administration without any additional surgical intervention or medication (e.g. additional misoprostol doses or oxytocin) than placebo-misoprostol. However, treatment with mifepristone-misoprostol did result in a shorter time to expulsion than placebo misoprostol. IMPLICATIONS: Pretreatment with mifepristone followed by misoprostol bucally resulted in a shorter treatment time for medical management of fetal death than treatment with misoprostol alone. Pre-treatment with mifepristone may be more acceptable to women and providers by both reducing the length of hospital stay and the amount of misoprostol required.

16.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(6): 714-722, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the occurrence of fever (≥38.0°C) after treatment for post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) with sublingual misoprostol 800 mcg in Latin America, where elevated rates of misoprostol's thermoregulatory effects and recipients' increased susceptibility to high fever have been documented. METHODS: A prospective observational study in hospitals in Argentina enrolled consenting women with atonic PPH after vaginal delivery, eligible to receive misoprostol. Corporal temperature was assessed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min post-treatment; other effects were recorded. The incidence of high fever ≥ 40.0°C (primary outcome) was compared to the rate observed previously in Ecuador. Logistic regressions were performed to identify clinical and population-based predictors of misoprostol-induced fever. RESULTS: Transient shivering and fever were experienced by 75.5% (37/49) of treated participants and described as acceptable by three-quarters of women interviewed (35/47). The high fever rate was 12.2% (6/49), [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.6, 24.8], compared to Ecuador's rate following misoprostol treatment (35.6% (58/163) [95% CI 28.3, 43.5], P = 0.002). Significant predictors of misoprostol-induced fever (model dependent) were as follows: pre-delivery haemoglobin < 11.0g/dl, rapid placental expulsion, and higher age of the woman. No serious outcomes were reported prior to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Misoprostol to treat PPH in Argentina resulted in a significantly lower rate of high fever than in Ecuador, although both are notably higher than rates seen elsewhere. A greater understanding of misoprostol's side effects and factors involved in their occurrence, including genetics, will help alleviate concerns. The onset of shivering may be the simplest way to know if fever can also be expected.


Assuntos
Febre/induzido quimicamente , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Sublingual , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Contraception ; 101(5): 315-320, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the characteristics, clinical information, and storage instructions contained in package inserts from medical abortion commodities collected in low- and middle-income countries. STUDY DESIGN: From November 2017 to February 2018 mifepristone, misoprostol, and combined mifepristone-misoprostol (combipack) products were collected to populate the Medical Abortion Commodities Database. We extracted stated indications for use, storage instructions, and date of last revision from each package insert obtained. For those inserts listing medical abortion as an indication, we also extracted eligibility criteria, recommended regimens, side effects, and contraindications. RESULTS: We identified 41 package inserts from 20 countries; 19 (46%) listed medical abortion as an indication including all 7 combipacks, all 7 mifepristone products, and 5/27 (19%) misoprostol products. Date of last insert revision ranged from 1991 to 2016. Gestational age limits for early medical abortion ranged from 49 days to "first trimester." Three (43%) mifepristone products recommended a 600 mg oral dose and two (29%) recommended regimens with gemeprost. Eighteen (67%) misoprostol and one (14%) combipack inserts recommended protection from moisture. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics, clinical information, and storage instructions in medical abortion product package inserts from a variety of field settings in low- and middle-income countries included inadequate storage instructions and outdated gestational age limits and regimens. IMPLICATIONS: There is an urgent need to revisit approved inserts for medical abortion products in low- and middle-income countries to ensure information is accurate and reflects the current evidence base. Simultaneously, providing supplemental instructions targeted at users may fill some gaps. People have a right to accurate information to ensure a safe and effective medical abortion experience.

18.
Contraception ; 101(5): 309-314, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the possibility that serum or urine concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM-12), placental growth factor (PlGF), human placental lactogen (HPL), glypican-3, pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 1 (PSG-1) or prolactin could predict gestational age (GA) >70 days, the currently recommended limit for medical abortion in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: In this exploratory observational study, we collected serum and urine specimens from 245 healthy individuals with singleton intrauterine pregnancies at GA <40 weeks by ultrasound. We assayed the serum specimens for all seven proteins and the urine specimens for PAPP-A and ADAM-12. We used scatterplots and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify a concentration for each protein that would differentiate GAs above and below 70 days. RESULTS: All seven proteins showed significant ability to distinguish GAs >70 days from earlier gestations. A PAPP-A concentration ≥5.591 ng/ml provided 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity for identifying GAs >70 days. An ADAM-12 concentration of ≥3.11 ng/ml provided 98.5% sensitivity and 77% specificity for identifying GAs >70 days. Serum concentrations of the other compounds showed less diagnostic discrimination. PAPP-A was not detected in urine, and urinary ADAM-12 concentrations were not useful in identifying GAs above 70 days. CONCLUSION: PAPP-A and ADAM-12 showed considerable promise as bases for a sensitive and specific serum test for identifying pregnancies with GA >70 days. If these results are confirmed by future research, such a test could obviate the need for routine ultrasound before medical abortion. IMPLICATIONS: Two placental proteins, PAPP-A and ADAM-12, showed considerable promise as bases for a serum test for identifying pregnancies with gestational age >70 days. Such a test could be highly useful in screening patients for eligibility for medical abortion.

19.
Contraception ; 101(5): 302-308, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This open-label non-inferiority study assessed efficacy of a common outpatient medical abortion regimen among people with pregnancies 64-70 days and 71-77 days of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: We defined non-inferiority by a 6% margin of method success. People with intrauterine pregnancies 64-77 days' gestational age by abdominal ultrasound seeking medical abortion at one of eight clinics and met eligibility criteria were offered participation. Consenting participants took mifepristone 200 mg followed 24-48 h later by misoprostol 800 mcg buccally, and returned after one week for provider evaluation and abdominal ultrasound to determine abortion status. Participants recorded medication use, pregnancy expulsion, daily bleeding and pain scores until the one-week follow up. Clinic staff interviewed participants prior to study discharge to assess acceptability. RESULTS: Seven hundred and nineteen participants were enrolled, 393 and 326 in the respective groups. Successful expulsion without surgical intervention was achieved in 92.3% of the earlier gestational age group and 86.7% of the later group (difference in proportions 5.6%, 1-sided 95% CI 9.6). Ongoing pregnancy accounted for 3.6% and 8.7% (p = 0.007) of outcomes, respectively. Participants in the 71-77 day group reported nausea and weakness more frequently. Pain, bleeding and acceptability measures between groups were similar. CONCLUSION: Although the success rate at 71-77 days of gestation was within the non-inferiority margin, we cannot rule out that it is statistically worse than in the previous gestational week. Significantly more ongoing pregnancies in the later group raise concerns about using the regimen at 71-77 days.

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