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1.
Adv Pharmacol ; 84: 175-184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229170

RESUMO

MEIS1 is a transcription factor playing an important role in the development of several organs, including central and peripheral nervous systems. A genetic locus spanning the MEIS1 coding region has been associated with the risk of RLS in genome-wide association studies, with increasing evidence that MEIS1 is the causal RLS gene. The RLS-linked genetic signal has been mapped to an intronic regulatory element within MEIS1. This element plays a role in the ganglionic eminences of the developing forebrain, with the RLS risk allele related to a reduced activation of the enhancer. This suggests that the ganglionic eminences play an important role in the development of genetic susceptibility to RLS. In addition, rare variants within MEIS1 have been shown to contribute to the disease risk. These variants were identified first in RLS families and later found in further RLS cases by targeted sequencing. Some of these variants alone are sufficient to suppress MEIS1 function in neural development, providing further evidence of the importance of neurodevelopmental processes in the pathological mechanism of MEIS1 in RLS. Heterozygous Meis1 inactivation in mice causes hyperactivity at the onset of the inactive period, consistent with human RLS. In addition, these mice revealed an effect of MEIS1 on the dopaminergic system at both the spinal and supraspinal level. More studies are needed in human genetics to determine the exact role of MEIS1 variants in the risk of RLS, as well as in functional genetics and animal studies to further elucidate the pathological mechanism of MEIS1 in RLS.

2.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(6)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122931

RESUMO

Microglia adopt numerous fates with homeostatic microglia (HM) and a microglial neurodegenerative phenotype (MGnD) representing two opposite ends. A number of variants in genes selectively expressed in microglia are associated with an increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Among these genes are progranulin (GRN) and the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2). Both cause neurodegeneration by mechanisms involving loss of function. We have now isolated microglia from Grn -/- mice and compared their transcriptomes to those of Trem2 -/- mice Surprisingly, while loss of Trem2 enhances the expression of genes associated with a homeostatic state, microglia derived from Grn -/- mice showed a reciprocal activation of the MGnD molecular signature and suppression of gene characteristic for HM The opposite mRNA expression profiles are associated with divergent functional phenotypes. Although loss of TREM2 and progranulin resulted in opposite activation states and functional phenotypes of microglia, FDG (fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose)-µPET of brain revealed reduced glucose metabolism in both conditions, suggesting that opposite microglial phenotypes result in similar wide spread brain dysfunction.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to expand the genetic architecture of neurodevelopmental disorders, and to characterize the clinical features of a novel cohort of affected individuals with variants in ZNF142, a C2H2 domain-containing transcription factor. METHODS: Four independent research centers used exome sequencing to elucidate the genetic basis of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in four unrelated families. Following bioinformatic filtering, query of control data sets, and secondary variant confirmation, we aggregated findings using an online data sharing platform. We performed in-depth clinical phenotyping in all affected individuals. RESULTS: We identified seven affected females in four pedigrees with likely pathogenic variants in ZNF142 that segregate with recessive disease. Affected cases in three families harbor either nonsense or frameshifting likely pathogenic variants predicted to undergo nonsense mediated decay. One additional trio bears ultrarare missense variants in conserved regions of ZNF142 that are predicted to be damaging to protein function. We performed clinical comparisons across our cohort and noted consistent presence of intellectual disability and speech impairment, with variable manifestation of seizures, tremor, and dystonia. CONCLUSION: Our aggregate data support a role for ZNF142 in nervous system development and add to the emergent list of zinc finger proteins that contribute to neurocognitive disorders.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 387-393, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804566

RESUMO

Insomnia is a common disorder linked with adverse long-term medical and psychiatric outcomes. The underlying pathophysiological processes and causal relationships of insomnia with disease are poorly understood. Here we identified 57 loci for self-reported insomnia symptoms in the UK Biobank (n = 453,379) and confirmed their effects on self-reported insomnia symptoms in the HUNT Study (n = 14,923 cases and 47,610 controls), physician-diagnosed insomnia in the Partners Biobank (n = 2,217 cases and 14,240 controls), and accelerometer-derived measures of sleep efficiency and sleep duration in the UK Biobank (n = 83,726). Our results suggest enrichment of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and of genes expressed in multiple brain regions, skeletal muscle, and adrenal glands. Evidence of shared genetic factors was found between frequent insomnia symptoms and restless legs syndrome, aging, and cardiometabolic, behavioral, psychiatric, and reproductive traits. Evidence was found for a possible causal link between insomnia symptoms and coronary artery disease, depressive symptoms, and subjective well-being.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética , Sono/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteólise , Autorrelato , Ubiquitina/genética
6.
Nervenarzt ; 90(2): 131-137, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645660

RESUMO

After an impressively successful application as a research instrument, whole-exome sequencing (WES) now enters the clinical practice due to its high diagnostic, time, and economic efficiency. WES is the diagnostic method of choice for symptoms that may be due to many different monogenic causes. Neurological indications include movement disorders, especially in cases of early symptom onset, familial clustering and complex manifestation. Starting from a blood sample, enrichment and sequencing of the exome enable the examination of all coding DNA regions for point mutations and small insertions/deletions. The identification of variants as the cause of a disease requires a professional evaluation pipeline, variant prioritization schemes and variant classification databases. Whereas many variants can be reliably classified as pathogenic or benign, variants of unclear significance (VUS) remain a challenge for the clinical evaluation and necessitate a periodic reanalysis of WES data. As a genetic examination WES requires adequate patient informed consent which in particular should address possible secondary findings as well as data security. A positive molecular result ends diagnostic odysseys, enables accurate genetic counseling and can point to targeted preventive measures and treatment. A WES significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of neurological diseases, enriching and enabling precision medicine.


Assuntos
Exoma , Testes Genéticos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Neurologia , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Neurologia/tendências , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Curr Treat Options Neurol ; 20(12): 55, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411165

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review article is to summarize and discuss the recent advances in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS), as well as REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and periodic leg movement disorder (PLMD). RECENT FINDINGS: Traditionally, dopaminergic therapy has been considered the sole option for first-line treatment of RLS due to their impressive acute efficacy. Dopamine agonists such as oral pramipexole and ropinirole, as well as transdermal rotigotine are all effective treatment options. However, augmentation of the RLS symptoms is a major limitation of oral dopaminergic therapy. Recently, gabapentinoid agents such as gabapentin enacarbil and pregabalin have shown comparable short-term efficacy to dopaminergics with lower risk of augmentation of the RLS symptoms. Recent evidence on the efficacy of oxycodone-naloxone in treatment-resistant RLS provides an additional therapeutic avenue. The increasing understanding of the role of iron in RLS pathophysiology has led to new options in iron supplementation therapy in RLS, including treatment with ferric carboxymaltose. With emerging evidence of augmentation being a side effect specific to dopaminergic treatment, gabapentinoids are considered a safer option as initial treatment. In severe refractory RLS, oxycodone-naloxone can be used. If iron stores are low, IV iron formulations should be the initial treatment choice. New treatment options are needed to address issues with current therapies.

10.
Cell Rep ; 25(4): 988-1001, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355503

RESUMO

Transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into induced neuronal cells (iNs) by the neuron-specific transcription factors Brn2, Myt1l, and Ascl1 is a paradigmatic example of inter-lineage conversion across epigenetically distant cells. Despite tremendous progress regarding the transcriptional hierarchy underlying transdifferentiation, the enablers of the concomitant epigenome resetting remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of KMT2A and KMT2B, two histone H3 lysine 4 methylases with cardinal roles in development, through individual and combined inactivation. We found that Kmt2b, whose human homolog's mutations cause dystonia, is selectively required for iN conversion through suppression of the alternative myocyte program and induction of neuronal maturation genes. The identification of KMT2B-vulnerable targets allowed us, in turn, to expose, in a cohort of 225 patients, 45 unique variants in 39 KMT2B targets, which represent promising candidates to dissect the molecular bases of dystonia.

11.
Mov Disord Clin Pract ; 5(1): 89-91, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363071

RESUMO

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/page/journal/23301619/homepage/mdc312564-sup-v001_1.htm.

12.
Health Syst Transit ; 20(3): 1-254, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277215

RESUMO

This analysis of the Austrian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Two major reforms implemented in 2013 and 2017 are among the main issues today. The central aim of the reforms that put in place a new governance system was to strengthen coordination and cooperation between different levels of government and self-governing bodies by promoting joint planning, decision-making and financing. Yet despite these efforts, the Austrian health system remains complex and fragmented in its organizational and financial structure. The Austrian population has a good level of health. Life expectancy at birth is above the EU average and low amenable mortality rates indicate that health care is more effective than in most EU countries. Yet, the number of people dying from cardiovascular diseases and cancer is high compared to the EU-28 average. Tobacco and alcohol represent the major health risk factors. Tobacco consumption has not declined over the last decade like in most other EU countries and lies well above the EU-28 average. In terms of performance, the Austrian health system provides good access to health care services. Austrias residents report the lowest levels of unmet needs for medical care across the EU. Virtually all the population is covered by social health insurances and enjoys a broad benefit basket. Yet, rising imbalances between the numbers of contracted and non-contracted physicians may contribute to social and regional inequalities in accessing care. The Austrian health system is relatively costly. It has a strong focus on inpatient care as characterized by high hospital utilization and imbalances in resource allocation between the hospital and ambulatory care sector. The ongoing reforms therefore aim to bring down publicly financed health expenditure growth with a global budget cap and reduce overutilization of hospital care. Efficiency of inpatient care has improved over the reform period but the fragmented financing between the inpatient and ambulatory sector remain a challenge. Current reforms to strengthen primary health care are an important step to further shift activities out of the large and costly hospital sector and improve skill mix within the health workforce.

13.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(11): 994-1005, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244828

RESUMO

Restless legs syndrome, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a common neurological condition whose manifestation is affected by complex environmental and genetic interactions. Restless legs syndrome can occur on its own, mostly at a young age, or with comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and arterial hypertension, making it a difficult condition to properly diagnose. However, the concept of restless legs syndrome as being two entities, primary or secondary to another condition, has been challenged with genetic data providing further insight into the pathophysiology of the condition. Although dopaminergic treatment was formerly the first-line therapy, prolonged use can result in a serious worsening of symptoms known as augmentation. Clinical studies on pregabalin, gabapentin enacarbil, oxycodone-naloxone, and iron preparations have provided new treatment options, but most patients still report inadequate long-term management of symptoms. Studies of the hypoxic pathway activation and iron deficiency have provided valuable information about the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome that should now be translated into new, more effective treatments for restless legs syndrome.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262571

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are key mediators of calcium signaling and underpin neuronal health. Although widely studied, the contribution of CaMKs to Mendelian disease is rather enigmatic. Here, we describe an unusual neurodevelopmental phenotype, characterized by milestone delay, intellectual disability, autism, ataxia, and mixed hyperkinetic movement disorder including severe generalized dystonia, in a proband who remained etiologically undiagnosed despite exhaustive testing. We performed trio-whole-exome sequencing to identify a de novo essential splice-site variant (c.981+1G>A) in CAMK4, encoding CaMKIV. Through in silico evaluation and cDNA analyses, we demonstrated that c.981+1G>A alters CAMK4 pre-mRNA processing and results in a stable mRNA transcript containing a 77-nt out-of-frame deletion and a premature termination codon within the last exon. The expected protein, p.Lys303Serfs*28, exhibits selective loss of the C-terminal regulatory domain of CaMKIV and bears striking structural resemblance to previously reported synthetic mutants that confer constitutive CaMKIV activity. Biochemical studies in proband-derived cells confirmed an activating effect of c.981+1G>A and indicated that variant-induced excessive CaMKIV signaling is sensitive to pharmacological manipulation. Additionally, we found that variants predicted to cause selective depletion of CaMKIV`s regulatory domain are unobserved in diverse catalogs of human variation, thus revealing that c.981+1G>A is a unique molecular event. We propose that our proband`s phenotype is explainable by a dominant CAMK4 splice-disrupting mutation that acts through a gain-of-function mechanism. Our findings highlight the importance of CAMK4 in human neurodevelopment, provide a foundation for future clinical research of CAMK4, and suggest the CaMKIV signaling pathway as a potential drug target in neurological disease.

15.
Mov Disord ; 33(7): 1077-1091, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756335

RESUMO

The objective of the current review was to update the previous evidence-based medicine review of treatments for restless legs syndrome published in 2008. All randomized, controlled trials (level I) with a high quality score published between January 2007 and January 2017 were reviewed. Forty new studies qualified for efficacy review. Pregabalin, gabapentin enacarbil, and oxycodone/naloxone, which did not appear in the previous review, have accrued data to be considered efficacious. Likewise, new data enable the modification of the level of efficacy for rotigotine from likely efficacious to efficacious. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose and pneumatic compression devices are considered likely efficacious in idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Bupropion and clonidine were reviewed, but the lack of data determined a rating of insufficient evidence for efficacy. The following interventions continue to be considered efficacious as in 2008: levodopa, ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, pergolide, and gabapentin. Bromocriptine, oxycodone, carbamazepine, and valproic acid are considered likely efficacious. Oral iron is nonefficacious in iron-sufficient subjects, but its benefit for patients with low peripheral iron status has not been adequately evaluated. Restless legs syndrome augmentation has been identified as a significant long-term treatment complication for pramipexole more than pregabalin and possibly for all dopaminergic agents more than α2δ ligands. Therefore, special monitoring for augmentation is required for all dopaminergic medications as well as tramadol. Other drugs also require special safety monitoring: cabergoline, pergolide, oxycodone, methadone, tramadol, carbamazepine, and valproic acid. Finally, we also highlighted gaps and needs for future clinical research and studies of restless legs syndrome. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

16.
Neuron ; 98(4): 671-672, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772195

RESUMO

Rare variants cause Mendelian family aggregation in subsets of common diseases, and common variants may contribute to rare diseases. In this issue of Neuron, Gormley et al. (2018) report that the common variant burden in familial migraine is larger than in migraine of the general population.

17.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 46: 74-78, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066004

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently, mutations in the collagen gene COL6A3 have been reported in patients with autosomal-recessive, isolated dystonia (DYT27). Zebrafish models of COL6A3 mutations showed deficits in axonal targeting mechanisms. Therefore, COL6A3 mutations have been considered to contribute to irregular sensorimotor circuit formation. To test this hypothesis, we examined structural abnormalities in cerebral fiber tracts of dystonia patients with COL6A3 mutations using diffusion tensor imaging. METHODS: We performed a voxel-wise statistical analysis to compare fractional anisotropy within whole-brain white matter in four of the previously reported dystonia patients with COL6A3 mutations and 12 healthy controls. Region of interests-based probabilistic tractography was performed as a post-hoc-analysis. RESULTS: Dystonia patients with COL6A3 mutations showed significantly decreased fractional anisotropy bilaterally in midbrain, pons, cerebellar peduncles, thalamus, internal capsule and in frontal and parietal subcortical regions compared to healthy controls. Tractography revealed a decreased fractional anisotropy in patients with COL6A3-associated dystonia between bilateral dentate nucleus and thalamus. CONCLUSION: Diffusion tensor imaging demonstrates an altered white matter structure especially in various parts of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in dystonia patients with COL6A3 mutations. This suggests that COL6A3 mutations could contribute to abnormal circuit formation as potential basis of dystonia.

18.
J Sleep Res ; 27(4): e12557, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28695622

RESUMO

Meis homeobox 1 (Meis1) is a transcription factor functioning in the development of the nervous system and the cardiovascular system. Both common and rare variants within the gene have been associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS), while its association with symptoms of insomnia has also been discovered recently. RLS is associated with sleep disturbances, and while Meis1 haploinsufficiency is one of the most promising strategies for an RLS animal model, sleep phenotyping of Meis1 knockout mice has never been conducted. We report a detailed sleep analysis of heterozygous Meis1 knockout mice and challenge it with pramipexole, a dopamine agonist used in the treatment of RLS. At baseline, the Meis1-haploinsufficient mice had a trend towards lower delta power in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during sleep compared to the wild-type littermates, possibly indicating reduced sleep quality, but not sleep fragmentation. Pramipexole had a sleep disrupting effect in both genotype groups. In addition, it exerted differential effects on the EEG power spectra of the two mouse lines, remarkably elevating the theta power of the mutant mice during recovery more than that of the wild-types. In conclusion, Meis1 haploinsufficiency seems to have only a modest effect on sleep, but the gene may interact with the sleep-disrupting effect of dopamine agonists.

19.
Case Rep Genet ; 2017: 2721615, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214085

RESUMO

SOX5 encodes a conserved transcription factor implicated in cell-fate decisions of the neural lineage. SOX5 haploinsufficiency induced by larger genomic deletions has been linked to a recognizable pediatric syndrome combining developmental delay with intellectual disability, mild dysmorphism, inadequate behavior, and variable additional features including motor disturbances. In contrast to SOX5-involving deletions, examples of pathogenic SOX5 small coding variations are sparse in the literature and have been described only in singular cases with phenotypic abnormalities akin to those seen in the SOX5 microdeletion syndrome. Here a novel SOX5 loss-of-function point mutation, c.13C>T (p.Arg5X), is reported, identified in the course of exome sequencing applied to the diagnosis of an unexplained adult-onset motor disorder. Aged 43 years, our female index patient demonstrated abrupt onset of mixed generalized hyperkinesia, with dystonic and choreiform movements being the most salient features. The movement disorder was accompanied by behavioral problems such as anxiety and mood instability. The mutation was found to be inherited to the patient's son who manifested abnormal behavior including diminished social functioning, paranoid ideation, and anxiety since adolescence. Our results expand the compendium of SOX5 damaging single-nucleotide variation mutations and suggest that SOX5 haploinsufficiency might not be restrictively associated with childhood-onset syndromic disease.

20.
Neurogenetics ; 18(4): 195-205, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849312

RESUMO

Combined and complex dystonias are heterogeneous movement disorders combining dystonia with other motor and/or systemic signs. Although we are beginning to understand the diverse molecular causes of these disease entities, clinical pattern recognition and conventional genetic workup achieve an etiological diagnosis only in a minority of cases. Our goal was to provide a window into the variable genetic origins and distinct clinical patterns of combined/complex dystonia more broadly. Between August 2016 and January 2017, we applied whole-exome sequencing to a cohort of nine patients with varied combined and/or complex dystonic presentations, being on a diagnostic odyssey. Bioinformatics analyses, co-segregation studies, and sequence-interpretation algorithms were employed to detect causative mutations. Comprehensive clinical review was undertaken to define the phenotypic spectra and optimal management strategies. On average, we observed a delay in diagnosis of 23 years before whole-exome analysis enabled determination of each patient's genetic defect. Whereas mutations in ACTB, ATP1A3, ADCY5, and SGCE were associated with particular phenotypic clues, trait manifestations arising from mutations in PINK1, MRE11A, KMT2B, ATM, and SLC6A1 were different from those previously reported in association with these genes. Apart from improving counseling for our entire cohort, genetic findings had actionable consequences on preventative measures and therapeutic interventions for five patients. Our investigation confirms unique genetic diagnoses, highlights key clinical features and phenotypic expansions, and suggests whole-exome sequencing as a first-tier diagnostic for combined/complex dystonia. These results might stimulate independent teams to extend the scope of agnostic genetic screening to this particular phenotypic group that remains poorly characterized through existing studies.


Assuntos
Distonia/genética , Distúrbios Distônicos/genética , Exoma/genética , Mutação/genética , Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Adulto , Distonia/diagnóstico , Distúrbios Distônicos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética
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