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1.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(7): 1052-1060, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: New payment models resulting from the Advancing American Kidney Health initiative may create incentives for nephrologists to focus less on face-to-face in-center hemodialysis visits. This study aimed to understand whether more frequent nephrology practitioner dialysis visits improved patient experience and could help inform future policy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In a cross-sectional study of patients receiving dialysis from April 1, 2015 through January 31, 2016, we linked patient records from a national kidney failure registry to patient experience data from the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey. We used a multivariable mixed effects linear regression model to examine the association between nephrology practitioner visit frequency and patient-reported experiences with nephrologist care. RESULTS: Among 5125 US dialysis facilities, 2981 (58%) had ≥30 In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys completed between April 2015 and January 2016, and 243,324 patients receiving care within these facilities had Medicare Parts A/B coverage. Face-to-face practitioner visits per month were 71% with four or more visits, 17% with two to three visits, 4% with one visit, and 8% with no visits. Each 10% absolute greater proportion of patients seen by their nephrology practitioner(s) four or more times per month was associated with a modestly but statistically significant lower score of patient experience with nephrologist care by -0.3 points (95% confidence interval, -0.5 to -0.1) and no effect on experience with other domains of dialysis care. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of patient experiences at the dialysis facility level, frequent nephrology practitioner visits to facilities where patients undergo outpatient hemodialysis were not associated with better patient experiences.

2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(10): 2613-2621, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ongoing changes to reimbursement of United States dialysis care may increase the risk of dialysis facility closures. Closures may be particularly detrimental to the health of patients receiving dialysis, who are medically complex and clinically tenuous. METHODS: We used two separate analytic strategies-one using facility-based matching and the other using propensity score matching-to compare health outcomes of patients receiving in-center hemodialysis at United States facilities that closed with outcomes of similar patients who were unaffected. We used negative binomial and Cox regression models to estimate associations of facility closure with hospitalization and mortality in the subsequent 180 days. RESULTS: We identified 8386 patients affected by 521 facility closures from January 2001 through April 2014. In the facility-matched model, closures were associated with 9% higher rates of hospitalization (relative rate ratio [RR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03 to 1.16), yielding an absolute annual rate difference of 1.69 hospital days per patient-year (95% CI, 0.45 to 2.93). Similarly, in a propensity-matched model, closures were associated with 7% higher rates of hospitalization (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.13; P=0.04), yielding an absolute rate difference of 1.08 hospital days per year (95% CI, 0.04 to 2.12). Closures were associated with nonsignificant increases in mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.18; P=0.05 for the facility-matched comparison; HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.17; P=0.08 for the propensity-matched comparison). CONCLUSIONS: Patients affected by dialysis facility closures experienced increased rates of hospitalization in the subsequent 180 days and may be at increased risk of death. This highlights the need for effective policies that continue to mitigate risk of facility closures.

3.
Kidney Int ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600964

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is present in almost 10% of the world population and is associated with excess mortality and morbidity. Reduced glomerular filtration rate and the presence and extent of proteinuria, key domains of CKD, have both been shown to be strong and independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Patients with kidney failure requiring dialysis are at highest risk for cardiovascular events, for example, stroke or myocardial infarction, and of developing chronic cardiovascular conditions, such as heart failure. Despite the high burden of cardiovascular disease there is a paucity of evidence supporting therapies to reduce this risk. Although chronic anticoagulant treatment has the potential to prevent thromboembolism in persons with kidney failure on dialysis, this possibility remains understudied. The limited data available on anticoagulation in patients with kidney failure has focused on vitamin K antagonists or direct oral anticoagulants that inhibit thrombin or factor (F) Xa. The risk of bleeding is a major concern with these agents. However, FXI is emerging as a potential safer target for new anticoagulants because FXI plays a greater part in thrombosis than in hemostasis. In this paper, we (a) explain the rationale for considering anticoagulation therapy in patients with kidney failure to reduce atherothrombotic events, (b) highlight the limitations of current anticoagulants in this patient population, (c) explain the potential benefits of FXI inhibitors, and (d) summarize ongoing studies investigating FXI inhibition in patients with kidney failure on dialysis.

4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(9): 97007, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Short-term exposures to air pollution have been associated with AF triggering; less is known regarding associations between long-term air pollution exposures and AF incidence. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the association between long-term exposures to air pollution and distance to road on incidence of AF in a cohort of U.S. women. METHODS: We assessed the association of high resolution spatiotemporal model predictions of long-term exposures to particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and distance to major roads with incidence of AF diagnosis, identified through Medicare linkage, among 83,117 women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative cohort, followed from enrollment in Medicare through December 2012, incidence of AF, or death. Using time-varying Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, study component, body mass index, physical activity, menopausal hormone therapy, smoking, diet quality, alcohol consumption, educational attainment, and neighborhood socioeconomic status, we estimated the relative risk of incident AF in association with each pollutant. RESULTS: A total of 16,348 incident AF cases were observed over 660,236 person-years of follow-up. Most exposure-response associations were nonlinear. NO2 was associated with risk of AF in multivariable adjusted models [Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.24, comparing the top to bottom quartile, p-for-trend=<0.0001]. Women living closer to roadways were at higher risk of AF (e.g., HR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13 for living within 50m of A3 roads, compared with ≥1,000 m, p-for-trend=0.02), but we did not observe adverse associations with exposures to PM10, PM2.5, or SO2. There were adverse associations with PM10 (top quartile HR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.16, p-for-trend=<0.0001) and PM2.5 (top quartile HR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14, p-for-trend=0.002) in sensitivity models adjusting for census region. DISCUSSION: In this study of postmenopausal women, NO2 and distance to road were consistently associated with higher risk of AF. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7683.

5.
Cardiorenal Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) after kidney transplantation is a significant but understudied problem. Pretransplant dialysis modality could influence incident HF risk through differing cardiac stressors. However, whether pretransplant dialysis modality is associated with the development of posttransplant HF is unknown. METHODS: We used the US Renal Data System to assemble a cohort of 27,701 patients who underwent their first kidney transplant in the USA between the years 2005 and 2012 and who had Medicare fee-for-service coverage for >6 months preceding their transplant date. Patients with any HF diagnosis prior to transplant were excluded. Detailed baseline patient characteristics and comorbidities were abstracted. The outcome of interest was de novo posttransplant HF. Pretransplant dialysis modality was defined as the dialysis modality used at the time of transplant. We conducted time-to-event analyses using Cox regression. Death was treated as a competing risk in the study's primary analysis. Graft failure was included as a time-varying covariate. RESULTS: Among eligible patients, 81% were treated with hemodialysis prior to transplant, and hemodialysis patients were more likely to be male, had a shorter dialysis vintage, and had more diabetes and vascular disease diagnoses. When adjusted for all available demographic and clinical data, pretransplant treatment with hemodialysis (vs. peritoneal dialysis) was associated with a 19% increased risk in de novo posttransplant HF, with sub-distribution HR 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.29). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that choice of pretransplant dialysis modality may impact the development of posttransplant HF.

6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469520

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as well as for cardiovascular and renal events and all-cause mortality following surgery for AAA or thoracic aortic dissection. In addition, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after any aortic surgery is particularly high, and this AKI per se is independently associated with future cardiovascular events and mortality. On the other hand, both development of AKI after surgery and the long-term evolution of kidney function differ significantly depending on the type of AAA intervention (open surgery versus the various subtypes of endovascular repair). Current knowledge regarding AAA in the general population may not be always applicable to CKD patients, as they have a high prevalence of co-morbid conditions and elevated risk for periprocedural complications. This summary of a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference group discussion reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Diseases of the Aorta in CKD and identifies knowledge gaps, areas of controversy, and priorities for future research.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting the use of anticoagulation for the prevention of stroke and thromboembolism in patients with kidney failure on hemodialysis (HD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited. We prospectively assessed the incidences of stroke and major bleeding, as well as anticoagulation strategies in patients on HD with AF. METHODS: We recruited 625 prevalent HD patients into a population-based observational cohort study. The primary prospective outcomes were thromboembolic events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism) and major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included a composite of thromboembolic events, major bleeding, and cardiovascular death to determine net clinical harm. RESULTS: A total of 238 patients (38.1%) had AF, 165 (26.4%) already at baseline and 73 (15.9%) developed AF during a median follow up of 870 days. Forty (6.4%) thromboembolic events and 89 (14.2%) major bleedings occurred. Overall, 256 patients died (41.0%). In AF patients, use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in 61 patients (25.6%) was not significantly associated with reduced risk of the primary thromboembolic outcome (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] 1.41 adjusted for age, sex, congestive heart failure, hypertension, stroke/transient ischemic attack/thromboembolism, vascular disease, and diabetes history score and antiplatelet co-medication (95% CI, 0.49-4.07), but with increased risk of major bleeding (SHR: 2.28; 95% CI, 1.09-4.79) compared with AF patients without anticoagulation (N = 139, 58.4%). Use of VKAs was associated with net clinical harm (adjusted SHR: 2.07; 95% CI, 1.25-3.42). CONCLUSIONS: Although the nonrandomized nature of the study is prone to bias, anticoagulation with VKAs was not associated with decreased thromboembolic risk, but rather with increased risk of major bleeding and may be net harmful to patients with AF on HD.

9.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1146-1154, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outpatient dialysis is standardized with several evidence-based measures of adequacy and quality that providers aim to meet while providing treatment. By contrast, in the intensive care unit (ICU) there are different types of prolonged and continuous renal replacement therapies (PIRRT and CRRT, respectively) with varied strategies for addressing patient care and a dearth of nationally accepted quality parameters. To eventually describe appropriate quality measures for ICU-related renal replacement therapy (RRT), we first aimed to capture the variety and prevalence of basic strategies and equipment utilized in the ICUs of Veteran Affairs (VA) medical facilities with inpatient hemodialysis capabilities. METHODS: Via email to the dialysis directors of all VA facilities that provided inpatient hemodialysis during 2018, we requested survey participation regarding aspects of RRT in VA ICUs. Questions centered around the mode of therapy, equipment, solutions, prescription authority, nursing, anticoagulation, antimicrobial dosing, and access. RESULTS: Seventy-six centers completed the questionnaire, achieving a response rate of 87.4%. Fifty-five centers reported using PIRRT or CRRT in addition to intermittent hemodialysis. Of these centers, 42 reported being specifically CRRT-capable. Over half of respondents had the capabilities to perform PIRRT. Twelve centers (21.8%) were equipped to use slow low efficient dialysis (SLED) alone. Therapy was largely prescribed by nephrologists (94.4% of centers). CONCLUSIONS: Within the VA system, ICU-related RRT practice is quite varied. Variation in processes of care, prescription authority, nursing care coordination, medication management, and safety practices present opportunities for developing cross-cutting measures of quality of intensive care RRT that are agnostic of modality choice.

10.
Kidney Int ; 100(3): 516-526, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252450

RESUMO

Kidney disease is an important public health problem. Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease have been well defined and classified, leading to improved research efforts and subsequent management strategies and recommendations. For those patients with abnormalities in kidney function and/or structure who meet neither the definition of AKI nor chronic kidney disease, there remains a gap in research, care, and guidance. The term acute kidney diseases and disorders, abbreviated to acute kidney disease (AKD), has been introduced as an important construct to address this. To expand and harmonize existing definitions and to ultimately better inform research and clinical care, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) organized a consensus workshop. Multiple invitees from around the globe, representing both acute and chronic kidney disease researchers and experts, met virtually to examine existing data, and discuss key concepts related to AKD. Despite some remaining unresolved questions, conference attendees reached general consensus on the definition and classification of AKD, management strategies, and research priorities. AKD is defined by abnormalities of kidney function and/or structure with implications for health and with a duration of ≤3 months. AKD may include AKI, but, more importantly, also includes abnormalities in kidney function that are not as severe as AKI or that develop over a period of >7 days. The cause(s) of AKD should be sought, and classification includes functional and structural parameters. Management of AKD is currently based on empirical considerations. A robust research agenda to enable refinement and validation of definitions and classification systems, and thus testing of interventions and strategies, is proposed.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Doença Aguda , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Consenso , Humanos , Rim , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
12.
Kidney Int ; 100(1): 35-48, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961868

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects about 10% of all populations worldwide, with about 2 million people requiring dialysis. Although patients with CKD are at high risk of cardiovascular disease and events, they are often underrepresented or excluded in clinical trials, leading to important knowledge gaps about how to treat these patients. KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) convened the fourth clinical Controversies Conference on the heart, kidney and vasculature in Dublin, Ireland, in February 2020, entitled Central and Peripheral Arterial Diseases in Chronic Kidney Disease. A global panel of multidisciplinary experts from the fields of nephrology, cardiology, neurology, surgery, radiology, vascular biology, epidemiology, and health economics attended. The objective was to identify key issues related to the optimal detection, management, and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, central aortic disease, renovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease in the setting of CKD. This report outlines the common pathophysiology of these vascular processes in the setting of CKD, describes best practices for their diagnosis and management, summarizes areas of uncertainty, addresses ongoing controversial issues, and proposes a research agenda to address key gaps in knowledge that, when addressed, could improve patient care and outcomes.


Assuntos
Nefrologia , Doença Arterial Periférica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Irlanda , Rim , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
14.
N Engl J Med ; 384(17): 1601-1612, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vadadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, a class of compounds that stimulate endogenous erythropoietin production. METHODS: We conducted two randomized, open-label, noninferiority phase 3 trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vadadustat, as compared with darbepoetin alfa, in patients with anemia and incident or prevalent dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (DD-CKD). The primary safety end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was the first occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE, a composite of death from any cause, a nonfatal myocardial infarction, or a nonfatal stroke), pooled across the trials (noninferiority margin, 1.25). A key secondary safety end point was the first occurrence of a MACE plus hospitalization for either heart failure or a thromboembolic event. The primary and key secondary efficacy end points were the mean change in hemoglobin from baseline to weeks 24 to 36 and from baseline to weeks 40 to 52, respectively, in each trial (noninferiority margin, -0.75 g per deciliter). RESULTS: A total of 3923 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive vadadustat or darbepoetin alfa: 369 in the incident DD-CKD trial and 3554 in the prevalent DD-CKD trial. In the pooled analysis, a first MACE occurred in 355 patients (18.2%) in the vadadustat group and in 377 patients (19.3%) in the darbepoetin alfa group (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.11). The mean differences between the groups in the change in hemoglobin concentration were -0.31 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.53 to -0.10) at weeks 24 to 36 and -0.07 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.34 to 0.19) at weeks 40 to 52 in the incident DD-CKD trial and -0.17 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.23 to -0.10) and -0.18 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.25 to -0.12), respectively, in the prevalent DD-CKD trial. The incidence of serious adverse events in the vadadustat group was 49.7% in the incident DD-CKD trial and 55.0% in the prevalent DD-CKD trial, and the incidences in the darbepoetin alfa group were 56.5% and 58.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with anemia and CKD who were undergoing dialysis, vadadustat was noninferior to darbepoetin alfa with respect to cardiovascular safety and correction and maintenance of hemoglobin concentrations. (Funded by Akebia Therapeutics and Otsuka Pharmaceutical; INNO2VATE ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02865850 and NCT02892149.).


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Darbepoetina alfa/uso terapêutico , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Picolínicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Prolil-Hidrolase/uso terapêutico , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Idoso , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Darbepoetina alfa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Glicina/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Picolínicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Prolil-Hidrolase/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
15.
N Engl J Med ; 384(17): 1589-1600, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vadadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, a class of drugs that stabilize HIF and stimulate erythropoietin and red-cell production. METHODS: In two phase 3, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, noninferiority trials, we compared vadadustat with the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) darbepoetin alfa in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) not previously treated with an ESA who had a hemoglobin concentration of less than 10 g per deciliter and in patients with ESA-treated NDD-CKD and a hemoglobin concentration of 8 to 11 g per deciliter (in the United States) or 9 to 12 g per deciliter (in other countries). The primary safety end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was the first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke), pooled across the two trials. Secondary safety end points included expanded MACE (MACE plus hospitalization for either heart failure or a thromboembolic event). The primary and key secondary efficacy end points in each trial were the mean change in hemoglobin concentration from baseline during two evaluation periods: weeks 24 through 36 and weeks 40 through 52. RESULTS: A total of 1751 patients with ESA-untreated NDD-CKD and 1725 with ESA-treated NDD-CKD underwent randomization in the two trials. In the pooled analysis, in which 1739 patients received vadadustat and 1732 received darbepoetin alfa, the hazard ratio for MACE was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.36), which did not meet the prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.25. The mean between-group differences in the change in the hemoglobin concentration at weeks 24 through 36 were 0.05 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.15) in the trial involving ESA-untreated patients and -0.01 g per deciliter (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.07) in the trial involving ESA-treated patients, which met the prespecified noninferiority margin of -0.75 g per deciliter. CONCLUSIONS: Vadadustat, as compared with darbepoetin alfa, met the prespecified noninferiority criterion for hematologic efficacy but not the prespecified noninferiority criterion for cardiovascular safety in patients with NDD-CKD. (Funded by Akebia Therapeutics and Otsuka Pharmaceutical; PRO2TECT ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02648347 and NCT02680574.).


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Darbepoetina alfa/uso terapêutico , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Picolínicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Prolil-Hidrolase/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Darbepoetina alfa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Glicina/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Picolínicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Prolil-Hidrolase/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade
16.
Kidney Int ; 99(6): 1280-1295, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839163

RESUMO

In chronic kidney disease, anemia and disordered iron homeostasis are prevalent and associated with significant adverse consequences. In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) issued an anemia guideline for managing the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease. Since then, new data have accrued from basic research, epidemiological studies, and randomized trials that warrant a re-examination of previous recommendations. Therefore, in 2019, KDIGO decided to convene 2 Controversies Conferences to review the latest evidence, explore new and ongoing controversies, assess change implications for the current KDIGO anemia guideline, and propose a research agenda. The first conference, described here, focused mainly on iron-related issues, including the contribution of disordered iron homeostasis to the anemia of chronic kidney disease, diagnostic challenges, available and emerging iron therapies, treatment targets, and patient outcomes. The second conference will discuss issues more specifically related to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, including epoetins, and hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors. Here we provide a concise overview of the consensus points and controversies resulting from the first conference and prioritize key questions that need to be answered by future research.


Assuntos
Anemia , Hematínicos , Inibidores de Prolil-Hidrolase , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ferro , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
17.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905766

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is highly prevalent among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not requiring kidney replacement therapy. We studied the associations of PH with mortality, kidney failure, as well as cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV hospitalization among Medicare beneficiaries with a CKD diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study using a matched cohort design. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients with PH (based on 2 claims within 2 years) and patients without PH matched on CKD stage from the Medicare 5% CKD sample (1996-2016). PREDICTOR: Presence of pulmonary hypertension. OUTCOME: Mortality, kidney failure, and all-cause, CV, and non-CV hospitalization. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between PH and mortality, adjusting for age, sex, race, and comorbidities. Death was considered as a competing event in Fine-Gray models to assess the association between PH and kidney failure. Negative binomial model was used to evaluate the relationship between PH and all-cause, CV, and non-CV hospitalizations. RESULTS: 30,052 patients with PH and CKD and 150,260 CKD stage-matched patients without diagnosed PH were studied. The median age of the study population was 80.7 years, 57.8% were women, and 10.3% were African Americans. The presence of PH was associated with an increased risk of mortality after 1 (HR, 2.87 [95% CI, 2.79-2.95]), 2-3 (HR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.51-1.61]), and 4-5 (HR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.40-1.53]) years of follow-up, and a higher risk of all-cause, CV, and non-CV hospitalization during the same period. PH was also associated with kidney failure in after 1 and 2-3 years but not after 4-5 years of follow-up evaluation. Patients with PH also experienced higher rates of acute kidney injury (AKI), and AKI requiring dialysis support within 30 and 90 days of AKI. LIMITATIONS: Reliance on billing codes and lack of echocardiogram or right heart catheterization data CONCLUSIONS: Among older Medicare beneficiaries with a CKD diagnosis not requiring kidney replacement therapy, the presence of PH was associated with an increased risk of mortality, kidney failure, and hospitalization. Understanding of the mechanism of these associations, especially the increased risk of kidney failure, requires further study.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher ultrafiltration (UF) rates are associated with numerous adverse cardiovascular outcomes among individuals receiving maintenance hemodialysis. We undertook this study to investigate the association of UF rate and incident atrial fibrillation in a large, nationally representative US cohort of incident, older hemodialysis patients. METHODS: We used the US Renal Data System linked to the records of a large dialysis provider to identify individuals ≥67 years of age initiating hemodialysis between January 2006 and December 2011. We applied an extended Cox model as a function of a time-varying exposure to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of delivered UF rate and incident atrial fibrillation. RESULTS: Among the 15 414 individuals included in the study, 3177 developed atrial fibrillation. In fully adjusted models, a UF rate >13 mL/h/kg (versus ≤13 mL/h/kg) was associated with a higher hazard of incident atrial fibrillation [adjusted HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.07-1.30)]. Analyses using lower UF rate thresholds (≤10 versus >10 mL/h/kg and ≤8 versus >8 mL/h/kg, separately) yielded similar results. Analyses specifying the UF rate as a cubic spline (per 1 mL/h/kg) confirmed an approximately linear dose-response relationship between the UF rate and the risk of incident atrial fibrillation: risk began at UF rates of ~6 mL/h/kg and the magnitude of this risk flattened, but remained elevated, at rates ≥9 mL/h/kg. CONCLUSION: In this observational study of older individuals initiating hemodialysis, higher UF rates were associated with higher incidences of atrial fibrillation.

20.
Transpl Int ; 34(4): 612-621, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545741

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed the landscape of kidney transplantation in the United States and worldwide. In addition to adversely impacting allograft and patient survival in postkidney transplant recipients, the current pandemic has affected all aspects of transplant care, including transplant referrals and listing, organ donation rates, organ procurement and shipping, and waitlist mortality. Critical decisions were made during this period by transplant centers and individual transplant physicians taking into consideration patient safety and resource utilization. As countries have begun administering the COVID vaccines, new and important considerations pertinent to our transplant population have arisen. This comprehensive review focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on kidney transplantation rates, mortality, policy decisions, and the clinical management of transplanted patients infected with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Política de Saúde , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/tendências , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Pandemias , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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