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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite opioids' known association with hip fracture risk in the general population, they are commonly prescribed to patients with ESKD. Whether use of opioids or gabapentinoids (also used to treat pain in patients with ESKD) contributes to hip fracture risk in patients with ESKD on hemodialysis remains unknown. METHODS: In a case-control study nested within the US Renal Data System, we identified all hip fracture events recorded among patients dependent on hemodialysis from January 2009 through September 2015. Eligible cases were risk-set matched on index date with ten eligible controls. We required >1 year of Medicare Parts A and B coverage and >3 years of part D coverage to study cumulative longer-term exposure. To examine new, short-term exposure, we selected individuals with >18 months of Part D coverage and no prior opioid or gabapentinoid use between 18 and 7 months before index. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: For the longer-term analyses, we identified 4912 first-time hip fracture cases and 49,120 controls. Opioid use was associated with increased hip fracture risk (adjusted OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.53). Subgroups of low, moderate, and high use yielded adjusted ORs of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.47), 1.53 (95% CI, 1.36 to 1.72), and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.45 to 1.90), respectively. The association with hip fractures was also elevated with new, short-term use (adjusted OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.52). There were no associations between gabapentinoid use and hip fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients dependent on hemodialysis in the United States, both short-term and longer-term use of opioid analgesics were associated with hip fracture events.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8140, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424214

RESUMO

Equations predicting the risk of occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are used in primary care to identify high-risk individuals among the general population. To improve the predictive performance of such equations, we updated the Framingham general CVD 1991 and 2008 equations and the Pooled Cohort equations for atherosclerotic CVD within five years in a contemporary cohort of individuals who participated in the Austrian health-screening program from 2009-2014. The cohort comprised 1.7 M individuals aged 30-79 without documented CVD history. CVD was defined by hospitalization or death from cardiovascular cause. Using baseline and follow-up data, we recalibrated and re-estimated the equations. We evaluated the gain in discrimination and calibration and assessed explained variation. A five-year general CVD risk of 4.61% was observed. As expected, discrimination c-statistics increased only slightly and ranged from 0.73-0.79. The two original Framingham equations overestimated the CVD risk, whereas the original Pooled Cohort equations underestimated it. Re-estimation improved calibration of all equations adequately, especially for high-risk individuals. Half of the individuals were reclassified into another risk category using the re-estimated equations. Predictors in the re-estimated Framingham equations explained 7.37% of the variation, whereas the Pooled Cohort equations explained 5.81%. Age was the most important predictor.

3.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409237

RESUMO

The worldwide burden of kidney disease is rising, but public awareness remains limited, underscoring the need for more effective communication by stakeholders in the kidney health community. Despite this need for clarity, the nomenclature for describing kidney function and disease lacks uniformity. In June 2019, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened a Consensus Conference with the goal of standardizing and refining the nomenclature used in the English language to describe kidney function and disease, and of developing a glossary that could be used in scientific publications. Guiding principles of the conference were that the revised nomenclature should be patient-centered, precise, and consistent with nomenclature used in the KDIGO guidelines. Conference attendees reached general consensus on the following recommendations: (i) to use "kidney" rather than "renal" or "nephro-" when referring to kidney disease and kidney function; (ii) to use "kidney failure" with appropriate descriptions of presence or absence of symptoms, signs, and treatment, rather than "end-stage kidney disease"; (iii) to use the KDIGO definition and classification of acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI), rather than alternative descriptions, to define and classify severity of AKD and AKI; (iv) to use the KDIGO definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) rather than alternative descriptions to define and classify severity of CKD; and (v) to use specific kidney measures, such as albuminuria or decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), rather than "abnormal" or "reduced" kidney function to describe alterations in kidney structure and function. A proposed 5-part glossary contains specific items for which there was general agreement. Conference attendees acknowledged limitations of the recommendations and glossary, but they considered standardization of scientific nomenclature to be essential for improving communication.

5.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414662

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects more than two-thirds of patients receiving hemodialysis and is the leading cause of death in this population, yet CVD outcomes are infrequently and inconsistently reported in trials in patients receiving hemodialysis. As part of the Standardised Outcomes in Nephrology-Haemodialysis (SONG-HD) initiative, we convened a consensus workshop to discuss the potential use of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death as core outcome measures for CVD for use in all trials in people receiving hemodialysis. Eight patients or caregivers and 46 health professionals from 15 countries discussed selection and implementation of the proposed core outcome measures. Five main themes were identified: capturing specific relevance to the hemodialysis population (acknowledging prevalence, risk, severity, unique symptomology, and pathophysiology), the dilemmas in using composite outcomes, addressing challenges in outcome definitions (establishing a common definition and addressing uncertainty in the utility of biomarkers in hemodialysis), selecting a meaningful metric for decision making (to facilitate comparison across trials), and enabling and incentivizing implementation (by ensuring that cardiologists are involved in the development and integration of the outcome measure into registries, trial design, and reporting guidelines). Based on these themes, participants supported the use of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death as core outcome measures of CVD to be reported in all hemodialysis trials.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5964, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249786

RESUMO

Generic medications offer substantial potential cost savings to health systems compared to their branded counterparts. In Europe and the US, they are only approved if they are bioequivalent to the respective originator product. Nevertheless, the lack of clinical outcomes is sometimes used as the reason for hesitancy in prescribing generics. We performed an observational retrospective study on 17 branded vs. generic pharmaceutical substances for the treatment of hypertension/heart failure, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus in a dataset of 9,413,620 insured persons, representing nearly the full population of Austria, from 2007 to 2012. We compared generic vs. branded medications using hazard ratios for all-cause death and major adverse cardiac and cardiovascular events (MACCE) as outcomes of interest. Using patient demographics, health characteristics from hospitalization records, and pharmacy records as covariates, we controlled for confounding in Cox models through inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using high-dimensional propensity scores. We observed that the unadjusted hazard ratios strongly favor generic drugs for all three pooled treatment indications (hypertension/heart failure, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus), but were attenuated towards unity with increasingly larger covariate sets used for confounding control. We found that after IPTW adjustment the generic formulation was associated with significantly fewer deaths in 10 of 17 investigated drugs, and with fewer MACCE in 11 of 17 investigated drugs. This result favoring generic drugs was also present in a number of sub-analyses based on gender, prior disease status, and treatment discontinuation. E-value sensitivity analyses suggested that only strong unmeasured confounding could fully explain away the observed results. In conclusion, generic medications were at least similar, and in some cases superior, to their branded counterparts regarding mortality and major cardiovascular events.

7.
Transpl Int ; 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337774

RESUMO

A primary obligation of medical journals is the responsible, professional, and expeditious delivery of knowledge from researchers and practitioners to the wider community.1 The task of journal editors, therefore, rests not merely in selecting what to publish, but in large measure judging how it might best be communicated. The challenge of improving descriptions of kidney function and disease in medical publishing was the impetus for a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Consensus Conference held in June 2019. The conference goals included standardizing and refining kidney-related nomenclature used in English-language scientific articles and developing a glossary that could be used by journals.2.

8.
Cardiorenal Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are hospitalized with a critical illness are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. We studied the predictors of hospitalization with critical illness among patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD stages 3 and 4 in a safety-net healthcare setting. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients ≥18 years of age with CKD stages 3 and 4 using a CKD registry from a safety-net healthcare system. Hospitalizations with critical illness were identified among patients requiring nonelective admission or transfer to the intermediate or intensive care unit during a 3-year period after the diagnosis of CKD. Poisson regression was used to determine associations between baseline characteristics and hospitalization requiring intermediate or intensive care among all CKD patients and in those with different stages of CKD. Outcomes of these hospitalizations were also tabulated. RESULTS: Among 8,302 patients with CKD stages 3 and 4, 1,298 were hospitalized and 495 required intermediate or intensive care during a 3-year follow-up period. In the adjusted analysis, advanced CKD, Hispanics (incident rate ratio [IRR]: 1.88), non-Hispanic Blacks (IRR: 1.48), presence of congestive heart failure (IRR: 2.09), cardiovascular disease (IRR: 1.57), chronic pulmonary disease (IRR: 1.60), liver disease, malignancy, and anemia were associated with higher risk of hospitalization requiring intermediate or intensive care. The association of age, gender, race/ethnicity, congestive heart failure, anemia, and body mass index with hospitalization requiring intermediate or intensive care differed significantly by CKD stage (p value for interaction term <0.05). Congestive heart failure and severity of anemia were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization requiring intermediate or intensive care among patients with mild CKD, and the magnitude of association attenuated among patients with advanced CKD. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of hospitalization with critical illness among patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD stages 3 and 4 remains high and was associated with demographic factors and comorbid medical conditions, especially among those with congestive heart failure and cardiovascular disease. Targeted, effective interventions to reduce the burden of hospitalization and critical illness in CKD patients within safety-net healthcare systems are needed.

9.
Kidney Int ; 97(5): 861-876, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278617

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) and volume control are critical components of dialysis care and have substantial impacts on patient symptoms, quality of life, and cardiovascular complications. Yet, developing consensus best practices for BP and volume control have been challenging, given the absence of objective measures of extracellular volume status and the lack of high-quality evidence for many therapeutic interventions. In February of 2019, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) held a Controversies Conference titled Blood Pressure and Volume Management in Dialysis to assess the current state of knowledge related to BP and volume management and identify opportunities to improve clinical and patient-reported outcomes among individuals receiving maintenance dialysis. Four major topics were addressed: BP measurement, BP targets, and pharmacologic management of suboptimal BP; dialysis prescriptions as they relate to BP and volume; extracellular volume assessment and management with a focus on technology-based solutions; and volume-related patient symptoms and experiences. The overarching theme resulting from presentations and discussions was that managing BP and volume in dialysis involves weighing multiple clinical factors and risk considerations as well as patient lifestyle and preferences, all within a narrow therapeutic window for avoiding acute or chronic volume-related complications. Striking this challenging balance requires individualizing the dialysis prescription by incorporating comorbid health conditions, treatment hemodynamic patterns, clinical judgment, and patient preferences into decision-making, all within local resource constraints.

10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(3): 579-590, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2011, inclusion of injectable medications into an expanded ESKD payment bundle prompted concerns that dialysis facilities facing higher costs might close, disrupting care delivery and access to care. Whether this policy change influenced dialysis facility closures is unknown. METHODS: To examine whether facility closures increased after 2011 and whether factors influencing closures changed, we analyzed US Renal Data System registry data to identify all patients receiving in-center hemodialysis from 2006 through 2015 and to track dialysis facility closures. We used interrupted time series logistic regression models and estimated marginal effects to examine immediate and longer-term changes in the likelihood of being affected by facility closures following payment reform. We also examined whether associations between selected predictors of closures indicating populations at "high risk" of closure (patient characteristics, facility characteristics, and geography-related characteristics) and closures changed after payment reform. RESULTS: Dialysis facility closures were uncommon over the study period. In adjusted models, the relative odds of experiencing a closure declined by 37% (odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.59 to 0.67) immediately after payment reform and declined by an additional 6% (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91 to 0.97) annually thereafter, corresponding to a 0.3% lower absolute probability of closure in 2015 in association with payment reform. Patients who were black and who dialyzed at small, hospital-based facilities experienced slight increases in closures following payment reform, whereas Hispanic and Medicare/Medicaid dual-eligible patients experienced slight decreases in closures. CONCLUSIONS: Expansion of the ESKD payment bundle was not associated with increased closure of dialysis facilities, although the likelihood of closures changed slightly for some higher-risk populations.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in people on hemodialysis (HD). Cardiovascular outcomes are reported infrequently and inconsistently across trials in HD. This study aimed to identify the priorities of patients/caregivers and health professionals (HPs) for CVD outcomes to be incorporated into a core outcome set reported in all HD trials. METHODS: In an international online survey, participants rated the absolute importance of 10 cardiovascular outcomes (derived from a systematic review) on a 9-point Likert scale, with 7-9 being critically important. The relative importance was determined using a best-worst scale. Likert means, medians and proportions and best-worst preference scores were calculated for each outcome. Comments were thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Participants included 127 (19%) patients/caregivers and 549 (81%) HPs from 53 countries, of whom 530 (78%) completed the survey in English and 146 (22%) in Chinese. All but one cardiovascular outcome ('valve replacement') was rated as critically important (Likert 7-9) by all participants; 'sudden cardiac death', 'heart attack', 'stroke' and 'heart failure' were all rated at the top by patients/caregivers (median Likert score 9). Patients/caregivers ranked the same four outcomes as the most important outcomes with mean preference scores of 6.2 (95% confidence interval 4.8-7.5), 5.9 (4.6-7.2), 5.3 (4.0-6.6) and 4.9 (3.6-6.3), respectively. The same four outcomes were ranked most highly by HPs. We identified five themes underpinning the prioritization of outcomes: 'clinical equipoise and potential for intervention', 'specific or attributable to HD', 'severity or impact on the quality of life', 'strengthen knowledge and education', and 'inextricably linked burden and risk'. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and HPs believe that all cardiovascular outcomes are of critical importance but consistently identify sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure as the most important outcomes to be measured in all HD trials.

12.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(3): 172-181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently complicates hospitalizations for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Little is known about the relationship of AKI with subsequent readmissions, and we investigated the relationship of AKI during LVAD implantation hospitalization with all-cause and cause-specific 30-day readmissions. METHODS: We used a United States (US) nationwide all-payer administrative database, identifying patients who underwent implantable LVAD placement 2010-2015. Patients were classified into 3 mutually exclusive groups based on presence and severity of AKI during the LVAD placement hospitalization: no AKI, AKI, and AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-D). Outcomes were all-cause and cause-specific 30-day readmissions. RESULTS: Within 30 days after discharge 25.4% of patients were readmitted. Of those without AKI, 23.9% were readmitted, compared to 25.5% of those with AKI and 42.2% of those with AKI-D. Compared to no AKI (adjusted for demographics, index hospitalization and chronic comorbidity factors, and year), odds of 30-day readmission were 2.18 (95% CI 1.37-3.49) times higher for those with AKI-D, whereas those with AKI not requiring dialysis had similar 30-day readmission risk (OR 1.03 [95% CI 0.89-1.20]). Those with AKI-D had higher risk of 30-day readmission for infection (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.13-3.61]), gastrointestinal (GI) bleed (2.32 [95% CI 1.24-4.34]), and kidney disease (13.9 [95% CI 4.0-48]). There was no increased risk for stroke readmission with AKI or AKI-D. CONCLUSION: AKI-D was associated with highest -30-day readmission risk, possibly related to negatively synergistic effects of LVAD, kidney dysfunction, and dialysis related factors on infection and GI bleeding risks. AKI alone was not associated with increased readmission risk.

14.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(2): 312-319, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association lipid guideline recommends statin dosing based on intensity, rather than targeting specific low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, among general populations. The 2013 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) lipid guideline recommends statins for most adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but dose-dependent statin effects in CKD are unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of US veterans with CKD Stages G3a, G3b or G4, and new, persistent statin use, from 2005 to 2015. We tested the association of intensity of statin therapy [categorized as low (expected LDL-C reduction <30%), medium (30 to <50%) or high (≥50%)] during the initial 1-year exposure period, with all-cause mortality over the subsequent 4 years. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the association between statin intensity and all-cause mortality, adjusting for demographics, comorbidities and laboratory measurements. RESULTS: Our cohort included 65 292 persons, of whom 40 124 (61.5%) had CKD G3a, 20 183 (30.9%) G3b and 4985 (7.6%) G4. Overall, 4878 (7.5%) used high-intensity, 39 070 (59.8%) used moderate-intensity and 21 344 (32.7%) used low-intensity statins. High-intensity statins were used more in recent years, and among persons diagnosed with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. There was no association between statin intensity and mortality in unadjusted or multivariable-adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant associations between statin intensity over 1 year of exposure and subsequent mortality among US veterans with CKD. This supports the current KDIGO guideline recommendations to use statins and dosages that have been studied specifically in CKD populations, rather than intensity-based dosing.

15.
Kidney Int ; 97(1): 42-61, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706619

RESUMO

Potassium disorders are common in patients with kidney disease, particularly in patients with tubular disorders and low glomerular filtration rate. A multidisciplinary group of researchers and clinicians met in October 2018 to identify evidence and address controversies in potassium management. The issues discussed encompassed our latest understanding of the regulation of tubular potassium excretion in health and disease; the relationship of potassium intake to cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, with increasing evidence showing beneficial associations with plant-based diet and data to suggest a paradigm shift from the idea of dietary restriction toward fostering patterns of eating that are associated with better outcomes; the paucity of data on the effect of dietary modification in restoring abnormal serum potassium to the normal range; a novel diagnostic algorithm for hypokalemia that takes into account the ascendency of the clinical context in determining cause, aligning the educational strategy with a practical approach to diagnosis; and therapeutic approaches in managing hyperkalemia when chronic and in the emergency or hospital ward. In sum, we provide here our conference deliberations on potassium homeostasis in health and disease, guidance for evaluation and management of dyskalemias in the context of kidney diseases, and research priorities in each of the above areas.

16.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 75(3): 351-360, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606233

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been associated with hip fracture risk in the general population. This study examined this relationship among patients with kidney failure treated by hemodialysis, a unique high-risk subpopulation, within which the impact of SSRIs on hip fracture risk remains unexplored. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: Eligible cases of hip fracture among maintenance hemodialysis patients between January 1, 2009, and September 30, 2015, were identified using the US Renal Data System. Each case was matched on index date with 10 eligible controls. To be eligible, study participants needed to have more than 1 year of Medicare Parts A and B coverage and more than 3 years of Part D coverage. For a separate examination of new short-term SSRI exposure, we selected cases and controls with more than 18 months of Part D coverage and no prior antidepressant use for 1 year. EXPOSURE: During the 3-year Part D coverage period, use of SSRIs characterized as any (≥1 prescription filled), low, moderate, and high use (<20%, 20%-<80%, and≥80% of days covered by filled prescriptions, respectively). OUTCOME: We selected cases using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 820.xx and 821.xx. In addition to 1 of these codes tied to a hospitalization, we required a corresponding surgical procedural code within 7 days of diagnosis. ANALYTIC APPROACH: Conditional logistic regression to estimate unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted ORs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: We identified 4,912 cases and 49,120 controls. SSRI use was associated with increased hip fracture risk (adjusted OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.17-1.35). Risk for fracture was estimated for any, low, moderate, and high SSRI use: adjusted conditional ORs were 1.25 (95% CI, 1.17-1.35), 1.20 (95% CI, 1.08-1.32), 1.31 (95% CI, 1.18-1.43), and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.12-1.41), respectively. The association between hip fracture events and SSRI use was also seen in the examination of new short-term use (adjusted OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.23-1.67). LIMITATIONS: Biomarkers of mineral bone disorder were not captured and accounted for in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated an association between increased hip fracture risk and both long- and new short-term SSRI use. The stronger association with new short-term use may suggest an acute mechanism potentially related to falls.

17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(2): 424-433, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most American patients with ESKD become eligible for Medicare by their fourth month of dialysis, some never do. Information about where patients with limited health insurance receive maintenance dialysis has been lacking. METHODS: We identified patients initiating maintenance dialysis (2008-2015) from the US Renal Data System, defining patients as "safety-net reliant" if they were uninsured or had only Medicaid coverage at dialysis onset and had not qualified for Medicare by the fourth dialysis month. We examined four dialysis facility ownership categories according to for-profit/nonprofit status and ownership (chain versus independent). We assessed whether patients who were safety-net reliant were more likely to initiate dialysis at certain facility types. We also examined hospital-based affiliation. RESULTS: The proportion of patients <65 years initiating dialysis who were safety-net reliant increased significantly over time, from 11% to 14%; 73% of such patients started dialysis at for-profit/chain-owned facilities compared to 76% of all patients starting dialysis. Patients who were safety-net reliant had a 30% higher relative risk of initiating dialysis at nonprofit/independently owned versus for-profit/independently owned facilities (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.36); they had slightly lower relative risks of initiating dialysis at for-profit and non-profit chain-owned facilities, and were more likely to receive dialysis at hospital-based facilities. These findings primarily reflect increased likelihood of dialysis among patients without insurance at certain facility types. CONCLUSIONS: Although most patients who were safety-net reliant received care at for-profit/chain-owned facilities, they were disproportionately cared for at nonprofit/independently owned and hospital-based facilities. Ongoing loss of market share of nonprofit/independently owned outpatient dialysis facilities may affect safety net-reliant populations.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(14): 1823-1838, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582143

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). As well as their high prevalence of traditional CAD risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension, persons with CKD are also exposed to other nontraditional, uremia-related cardiovascular disease risk factors, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and abnormal calcium-phosphorus metabolism. CKD and end-stage kidney disease not only increase the risk of CAD, but they also modify its clinical presentation and cardinal symptoms. Management of CAD is complicated in CKD patients, due to their likelihood of comorbid conditions and potential for side effects during interventions. This summary of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference on CAD and CKD (including end-stage kidney disease and transplant recipients) seeks to improve understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CAD in CKD and to identify knowledge gaps, areas of controversy, and priorities for research.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with adverse outcomes in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the association of absolute and functional iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with adverse outcomes (cardiovascular hospitalization, dialysis and mortality) in those with nondialysis-dependent CKD. METHODS: Nondialysis-dependent CKD patients followed in the US Veterans Administration with hemoglobin level measured within 90 days of the date of the second estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were included. Logistic regression, multivariate Cox proportional hazards and Poisson regression models adjusted for demographics and comorbidities were used to assess the prevalence and correlates of absolute [transferrin saturation (TSAT) ≤20%, ferritin <100 ng/mL] and functional (TSA T≤20%, ferritin >100-500 ng/mL) IDA and the associations of absolute and functional IDA with mortality, dialysis and cardiovascular hospitalization. RESULTS: Of 933 463 patients with CKD, 20.6% had anemia. Among those with anemia, 23.6% of patients had both TSAT and ferritin level measured, of whom 30% had absolute IDA and 19% had functional IDA. Absolute IDA in CKD was not associated with an increased risk of mortality or dialysis but was associated with a higher risk of 1-year {risk ratio [RR] 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.28]} and 2-year cardiovascular hospitalization [RR 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.17)]. CKD patients with functional IDA had a higher risk of mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.11 (95% CI 1.07-1.14)] along with a higher risk of 1-year [RR 1.21 (95% CI 1.1-1.30)] and 2-year cardiovascular hospitalization [RR 1.13 (95% CI 1.07-1.21)]. Ferritin >500 ng/mL (treated as a separate category) was only associated with an increased risk of mortality [HR 1.38 (95% CI 1.26-1.51)]. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of CKD patients with anemia, absolute and functional IDA were associated with various clinical covariates. Functional IDA was associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but absolute IDA was associated only with a higher risk of hospitalization.

20.
J Diabetes Complications ; 33(11): 107423, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537413

RESUMO

AIMS: To quantify patterns of conventional and newer antidiabetic medication use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We used data from a large claims and integrated dataset that includes employed and commercially insured patients in the US to select patients who had T2DM and CKD with information on laboratory values and prescriptions for antidiabetic medications from January 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015. We stratified the analyses by sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: In a cohort of 38,577 patients with T2DM and CKD, we found wide variation in the treatment of T2DM by CKD stage as well as by several sociodemographic factors. Although metformin was the most commonly prescribed medication, only about half of patients in the cohort and fewer than two-thirds of patients with early stage CKD were prescribed metformin. Approximately 10.6% of patients with CKD stage 4 and 2.1% of the patients with CKD stage 5 were prescribed metformin. Sulfonylureas with active metabolites that accumulate with impaired kidney function were prescribed in more than one-third of patients with CKD stages 3b, 4, and 5. Only 3.4% and 12.3% of patients were prescribed GLP-1 and DPP-4 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prescriptions for metformin were lower than expected among patients with mild to moderate CKD. Prescriptions for newer antidiabetic medications with known safety and efficacy across the spectrum of CKD remained low. Prescriptions for agents contraindicated in advanced CKD continued to be written in a sizeable fraction of patients.

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