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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356183

RESUMO

Setting up a randomized trial to assess the association of mechanical dyssynchrony (MD) and the success of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in heart failure with a wide QRS complex is ethically challenging. We therefore investigated this association in a retrospective cohort study observing different treatment strategies which were chosen based on the availability of health care resources. The survival of 500 patients from six Western European centers treated with CRT was compared to their 137 Eastern European counterparts not treated with CRT, with regard to the presence of MD. MD was visually assessed and was defined as the presence of apical rocking and/or septal flash. Patients were followed for a mean of 26 ± 8 months for the occurrence of death of any cause. As compared with medical therapy alone, CRT was associated with a more favorable survival (hazard ratio (HR), 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.79; P = 0.002). Patients with MD treated by CRT had better survival than patients belonging to all other groups-they showed 72%, 66% and 56% reduction in all-cause mortality, respectively, compared to patients with MD not treated by CRT (HR 0.28; 95% CI 0.17-0.44), patients without MD treated by CRT (HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22-0.52) and patients without MD not treated by CRT (HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Patients with wide QRS complex who are treated with CRT have a significantly better survival when MD is present.

3.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prospective WEARIT-II-EUROPE registry aimed to assess the value of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) prior to potential ICD implantation in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction considered at risk of sudden arrhythmic death. METHODS AND RESULTS: 781 patients (77% men; mean age 59.3 ± 13.4 years) with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were consecutively enrolled. All patients received a WCD. Follow-up time for all patients was 12 months. Mean baseline LVEF was 26.9%. Mean WCD wearing time was 75 ± 47.7 days, mean daily WCD use 20.3 ± 4.6 h. WCD shocks terminated 13 VT/VF events in ten patients (1.3%). Two patients died during WCD prescription of non-arrhythmic cause. Mean LVEF increased from 26.9 to 36.3% at the end of WCD prescription (p < 0.01). After WCD use, ICDs were implanted in only 289 patients (37%). Forty patients (5.1%) died during follow-up. Five patients (1.7%) died with ICDs implanted, 33 patients (7%) had no ICD (no information on ICD in two patients). The majority of patients (75%) with the follow-up of 12 months after WCD prescription died from heart failure (15 patients) and non-cardiac death (15 patients). Only three patients (7%) died suddenly. In seven patients, the cause of death remained unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality after WCD prescription was mainly driven by heart failure and non-cardiovascular death. In patients with HFrEF and a potential risk of sudden arrhythmic death, WCD protected observation of LVEF progression and appraisal of competing risks of potential non-arrhythmic death may enable improved selection for beneficial ICD implantation.

4.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472697

RESUMO

Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel shows wide variation, and poor response is correlated with adverse clinical outcomes. CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles play an important role in this response, but account for only a small proportion of variability in response to clopidogrel. An aim of the International Clopidogrel Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ICPC) is to identify other genetic determinants of clopidogrel pharmacodynamics and clinical response. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using DNA from 2,750 European ancestry individuals, using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet reactivity and major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events as outcome parameters. GWAS for platelet reactivity revealed a strong signal for CYP2C19*2 (p-value=1.67e-33). After correction for CYP2C19*2 no other SNP reached genome-wide significance. GWAS for a combined clinical endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (5.0% event rate) or a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (4.7% event rate) showed no significant results, although in coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, and acute coronary syndrome subgroups, mutations in SCOS5P1, CDC42BPA and CTRAC1 showed genome-wide significance (lowest p-values: 1.07e-09, 4.53e-08 and 2.60e-10, respectively). CYP2C19*2 is the strongest genetic determinant of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. We identified three novel associations in clinical outcome subgroups, suggestive for each of these outcomes.

5.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 32, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the dominant subtype of renal cancer. With currently available therapies, cure of advanced and metastatic ccRCC is achieved only in rare cases. Here, we developed a workflow integrating different -omics technologies to identify ccRCC-specific HLA-presented peptides as potential drug targets for ccRCC immunotherapy. METHODS: We analyzed HLA-presented peptides by MS-based ligandomics of 55 ccRCC tumors (cohort 1), paired non-tumor renal tissues, and 158 benign tissues from other organs. Pathways enriched in ccRCC compared to its cell type of origin were identified by transcriptome and gene set enrichment analyses in 51 tumor tissues of the same cohort. To retrieve a list of candidate targets with involvement in ccRCC pathogenesis, ccRCC-specific pathway genes were intersected with the source genes of tumor-exclusive peptides. The candidates were validated in an independent cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA KIRC, n = 452). DNA methylation (TCGA KIRC, n = 273), somatic mutations (TCGA KIRC, n = 392), and gene ontology (GO) and correlations with tumor metabolites (cohort 1, n = 30) and immune-oncological markers (cohort 1, n = 37) were analyzed to characterize regulatory and functional involvements. CD8+ T cell priming assays were used to identify immunogenic peptides. The candidate gene EGLN3 was functionally investigated in cell culture. RESULTS: A total of 34,226 HLA class I- and 19,325 class II-presented peptides were identified in ccRCC tissue, of which 443 class I and 203 class II peptides were ccRCC-specific and presented in ≥ 3 tumors. One hundred eighty-five of the 499 corresponding source genes were involved in pathways activated by ccRCC tumors. After validation in the independent cohort from TCGA, 113 final candidate genes remained. Candidates were involved in extracellular matrix organization, hypoxic signaling, immune processes, and others. Nine of the 12 peptides assessed by immunogenicity analysis were able to activate naïve CD8+ T cells, including peptides derived from EGLN3. Functional analysis of EGLN3 revealed possible tumor-promoting functions. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of HLA ligandomics, transcriptomics, genetic, and epigenetic data leads to the identification of novel functionally relevant therapeutic targets for ccRCC immunotherapy. Validation of the identified targets is recommended to expand the treatment landscape of ccRCC.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229619, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telehealth services can improve the quality of health services for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management, but the clinical benefits for patients yet not clear. It is crucial to develop a strategy that supports the engagement of healthcare professionals to promote the sustainable adoption of telehealth services further. The aim of the study was to show how variables related to the perception of telehealth services for COPD by different healthcare professionals interact to influence its adoption and to generate advice for future telehealth service implementation. METHODS: Data was thematically synthesized from published qualitative studies to create causal loop diagrams, further validated by expert interviews. These diagrams visualize dependencies and their polarity between different variables. RESULTS: Adoption of telehealth services from the nurse's perspective is directly affected by change management and autonomous decision making. From the physician's perspective, perceived value is the most important variable. Physical activity management and positive user experience are considered affecting perceived value for physiotherapists. There is no consensus where self-management services should be positioned in the COPD care pathway. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate how complex interactions between multiple variables influence the adoption of telehealth services. Consequently, there is a need for multidimensional interventions to achieve adoption. Moreover, key variables were identified that require attention to ensure success of telehealth services. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore where self-management services are best positioned in the care pathway of COPD patients.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autogestão/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos
7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(7): 129599, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173377

RESUMO

BACKROUND: Cytosolic glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2c) controls axonal outgrowth and is specifically induced in many cancer cell lines. We thus hypothesized that Grx2c promotes cell motility and invasiveness. METHODS: We characterized the impact of Grx2c expression in cell culture models. We combined stable isotope labeling, phosphopeptide enrichment, and high-accuracy mass spectrometry to characterize the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: The most prominent associations were found with actin dynamics, cellular adhesion, and receptor-mediated signal transduction, processes that are crucial for cell motility. For instance, collapsin response mediator protein 2, a protein involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, is regulated by Grx2c through a redox switch that controls the phosphorylation state of the protein as well. Cell lines expressing Grx2c showed dramatic alterations in morphology. These cells migrated two-fold faster and gained the ability to infiltrate a collagen matrix. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of Grx2c promotes cell migration, and may negatively correlate with cancer-specific survival. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Our results imply critical roles of Grx2c in cytoskeletal dynamics, cell adhesion, and cancer cell invasiveness.

9.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(6): 619-628, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031587

RESUMO

AIMS : Investigating the acute impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on regional myocardial work distribution in the left ventricle (LV) and to which extent it is related to long-term reverse remodelling. METHODS AND RESULTS : One hundred and thirty heart failure patients, referred for CRT implantation, were recruited in our prospective multicentre study. Regional myocardial work was calculated from non-invasive segmental stress-strain loop area before and immediately after CRT. The magnitude of volumetric reverse remodelling was determined from the change in LV end-systolic volume, 11 ± 2 months after implantation. CRT caused acute redistribution of myocardial work across the LV, with an increase in septal work, and decrease in LV lateral wall work (all P < 0.05). Amongst all LV walls, the acute change in work in the septum and lateral wall of the four-chamber view correlated best and significantly with volumetric reverse remodelling (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001), with largest change seen in patients with most volumetric reverse remodelling. In multivariate linear regression analysis, including conventional parameters, such as pre-implant QRS morphology and duration, LV ejection fraction, ischaemic origin of cardiomyopathy, and the redistribution of work across the septal and lateral walls, the latter appeared as the strongest determinant of volumetric reverse remodelling after CRT (model R2 = 0.414, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION : The acute redistribution of regional myocardial work between the septal and lateral wall of the LV is an important determinant of reverse remodelling after CRT implantation. Our data suggest that the treatment of the loading imbalance should, therefore, be the main aim of CRT.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2475-2487, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010961

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance due to facilitated drug efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a main cause for failure of cancer therapy. Genetic polymorphisms in ABC genes affect the disposition of chemotherapeutics and constitute important biomarkers for therapeutic response and toxicity. Here we correlated germline variability in ABC transporters with disease-specific survival (DSS) in 960 breast cancer (BRCA), 314 clear cell renal cell carcinoma and 325 hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We find that variant burden in ABCC1 is a strong predictor of DSS in BRCA patients, whereas candidate polymorphisms are not associated with DSS. This association is highly drug-specific for subgroups treated with the MRP1 substrates cyclophosphamide (log-rank p = 0.0011) and doxorubicin (log-rank p = 0.0088) independent of age and tumor stage, whereas no association was found in individuals treated with tamoxifen (log-rank p = 0.13). Structural mapping of significant variants revealed multiple variants at residues involved in protein stability, cofactor stabilization or substrate binding. Our results demonstrate that BRCA patients with high variant burden in ABCC1 are less prone to respond appropriately to pharmacological therapy with MRP1 substrates, thus incentivizing the consideration of genomic germline data for precision cancer medicine.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Blood ; 135(3): 181-190, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697802

RESUMO

The genetic background of follicular lymphomas (FLs) diagnosed in advanced clinical stages III/IV, and which are frequently characterized by t(14;18), has been substantially unraveled. Molecular features, as exemplified in the clinicogenetic risk model m7FLIPI, are important tools in risk stratification. In contrast, little information is available concerning localized-stage FL (clinical stages I/II), which accounts for ∼20% of newly diagnosed FL in which the detection rate of t(14;18) is only ∼50%. To investigate the genetic background of localized-stage FL, patient cohorts with advanced-stage FL or localized-stage FL, uniformly treated within phase 3 trials of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group, were comparatively analyzed. Targeted gene expression (GE) profiling of 184 genes using nCounter technology was performed in 110 localized-stage and 556 advanced-stage FL patients. By penalized Cox regression, a prognostic GE signature could not be identified in patients with advanced-stage FL, consistent with results from global tests and univariate regression. In contrast, it was possible to define robust GE signatures discriminating localized-stage and advanced-stage FL (area under the curve, 0.98) by penalized logistic regression. Of note, 3% of samples harboring an "advanced-stage signature" in the localized-stage cohort exhibited inferior failure-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 7.1; P = .0003). Likewise, in the advanced-stage cohort, 7% of samples with a "localized-stage signature" had prolonged failure-free survival (HR, 2.3; P = .017) and overall survival (HR, 3.4; P = .072). These data support the concept of a biological difference between localized-stage and advanced-stage FL that might contribute to the superior outcome of localized FL.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Translocação Genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(1): 234-242, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is an important intracellular molecule mediating essential cellular functions such as signaling and protein folding. Enhanced CyPA platelet surface expression is associated with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). In patients with acute myocardial infarction CyPA platelet surface expression is significantly decreased. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations of CyPA platelet surface expression and a clinically relevant CyPA single-nucleotide polymorphism (CyPA PPIA rs6850) with prognosis in patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was obtained from 335 consecutive patients with symptomatic CAD. All patients were followed up for 1080 days for endpoints all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, and bleeding. The primary combined endpoint was defined as a composite of all-cause death and/or MI and/or ischemic stroke. Cyclophilin A platelet surface expression levels less than or equal to the median were significantly associated with a worse prognosis (combined endpoint and all-cause death) when compared to CyPA greater than the median. Genotyping for CyPA PPIA rs6850 was performed in 752 patients with symptomatic CAD. Homozygous carriers of the minor allele showed a significantly worse cumulative event-free survival for both combined endpoint and MI when compared to carriers of the major allele. CONCLUSION: The CyPA platelet surface expression is associated with mortality whereas CyPA PPIA rs6850 is associated with recurrent MI in patients with symptomatic CAD. Cyclophilin A might offer a new biomarker for risk stratification and tailoring therapies in patients with cardiovascular disease.

13.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(1): 227-237, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350763

RESUMO

Systemic therapy of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the small-molecule multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is associated with large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability and unpredictable side effects potentially requiring dose reduction or treatment termination. Organic cation transporter (OCT1; gene SLC22A1) has been proposed as a clinical biomarker of HCC response. Because proof is lacking that OCT1 transports sorafenib, we used a combinatorial approach to define how OCT1 contributes to sorafenib transport. Overexpression of functional OCT1 protein in Xenopus laevis oocytes and mammalian cell lines did not facilitate sorafenib transport. Otherwise, sorafenib considerably accumulated in liver cancer cell lines despite negligible OCT1 mRNA and protein levels. Sorafenib pharmacokinetics was independent of OCT1 genotype in mice. Finally, SLC22A1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced by DNA methylation in The Cancer Genome Atlas HCC cohort. These results clearly demonstrate OCT1-independent cellular sorafenib uptake indicating that OCT1 is apparently not a valid biomarker of sorafenib response in HCC.

14.
Hum Genet ; 139(2): 137-149, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786673

RESUMO

Structural variants including copy number variations (CNV) have gained widespread attention, especially in pharmacogenomics but for several genes functional relevance and clinical evidence are still lacking. Detection of CNVs in next-generation sequencing data is challenging but offers widespread applications. We developed a cohort-based CNV detection workflow to extract CNVs from read counts of targeted NGS of 340 genes involved in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs. We applied our method to 150 human liver tissue samples and correlated identified CNVs to mRNA expression levels. In total, we identified 445 deletions (73%) and 167 duplications (27%) in 36 pharmacogenes including all well-known CNVs of CYPs, GSTs, SULTs, UGTs, numerous described rare CNVs of CYP2E1, SLC16A3 or UGT2B15 as well as novel observations, e.g., for SLC22A12, SLC22A17 and GPS2 (G Protein Pathway Suppressor 2). We were able to fine-map complex CNVs of CYP2A6 and CYP2D6 with exon resolution. Correlation analysis confirmed known expression patterns for common CNVs and suggested an influence on expression variability for some rare CNVs. Our straightforward CNV detection workflow can be easily applied to any NGS coverage data and helped to analyze CNVs in an ADME-NGS panel of 340 pharmacogenes to improve genotype-phenotype correlations.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Marcadores Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Fígado/metabolismo , Farmacogenética/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Front Genet ; 10: 871, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616470

RESUMO

Background: Although there is evidence that the CYP3A4*22 variant should be considered in tacrolimus dosing in renal transplantation, its impact beyond tacrolimus dose requirements remains controversial. Methods: In a cohort of 121 kidney transplant recipients, we analyzed the CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3 alleles and the ABCB1 variants 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, and 3435C>T for their impact on exposure and dose requirement. Relevant clinical outcome measures such as acute rejection within the first year after transplantation, delayed graft function, and renal function at discharge (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were evaluated. Results: Extensive metabolizer (n = 17, CYP3A4*1/*1 carriers with at least one CYP3A5*1 allele) showed significantly higher tacrolimus dose requirement (P = 0.004) compared with both intermediate metabolizer (IM, n = 93, CYP3A5*3/*3 plus CYP3A4*1/*1 or CYP3A4*22 carriers plus one CYP3A5*1 allele), and poor metabolizer (n = 11, CYP3A4*22 allele in combination with CYP3A5*3/*3) after onset of therapy. Significantly higher dose requirement was observed in CYP3A5 expressers (P = 0.046) compared with non-expressers again at onset of therapy. Using the log additive genetic model, the area under the curve for the total observation period up to 16 days was significantly associated with the CYP3A5*3 genotype (P = 3.34 × 10-4) as well as with the IM or extensive metabolizer phenotype (P = 1.54 × 10-4), even after adjustment for multiple testing. Heterozygous carriers for CYP3A4*22 showed significantly higher areas under the curve than the CYP3A4*1/*1 genotype in the second week post-transplantation (adjusted P = 0.016). Regarding clinical outcomes, acute rejection was significantly associated with human leukocyte antigen mismatch (≥3 alleles; OR = 12.14, 95% CI 1.76, 525.21, P = 0.019 after correction for multiple testing). Graft recipients from deceased donors showed higher incidende of delayed graft function (OR 7.15, 95% CI 2.23, 30.46, adjusted P = 0.0008) and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at discharge (P = 0.0001). Tested CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 variants did not show any effects on clinical outcome parameters. ABCB1 variants did neither impact on pharmacokinetics nor on clinical endpoints. Conclusion: At our transplantation center, both CYP3A5*3 and, to a lesser extent, CYP3A4*22 affect tacrolimus pharmacokinetics early after onset of therapy with consequences for steady-state treatment in routine clinical practice.

16.
Respir Med ; 158: 78-88, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence to support the implementation of telehealth (TH) interventions in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies throughout Europe. Despite more than ten years of TH research in COPD management, it is still not possible to define which TH interventions are beneficial to which patient group. Therefore, informing policymakers on TH implementation is complicated. We aimed to examine the provision and efficacy of TH for COPD management to guide future decision-making. METHODS: A mapping study of twelve systematic reviews of TH interventions for COPD management was conducted. This was followed by an in-depth review of fourteen clinical trials performed in Europe extracted from the systematic reviews. Efficacy outcomes for COPD management were synthesized. RESULTS: The mapping study revealed that systematic reviews with a meta-analysis often report positive clinical outcomes. Despite this, we identified a lack of pragmatic trial design affecting the synthesis of reported outcomes. The in-depth review visualized outcomes for three TH categories, which revealed a plethora of heterogeneous outcomes. Suggestions for reporting within these three outcomes are synthesized as targets for future empirical research reporting. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates the need for more standardized and updated systematic reviews. Policymakers should advocate for improved TH trial designs, focusing on the entire intervention's adoption process evaluation. One of the policymakers' priorities should be the harmonization of the outcome sets, which would be considered suitable for deciding about subsequent reimbursement. We propose possible outcome sets in three TH categories which could be used for discussion with stakeholders.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504375

RESUMO

AIMS: Clopidogrel is prescribed for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. While investigations have identified genetic determinants of inter-individual variability in on-treatment platelet inhibition (e.g. CYP2C19*2), evidence that these variants have clinical utility to predict major adverse cardiovascular events remains controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the impact of 31 candidate gene polymorphisms on ADP-stimulated platelet reactivity in 3,391 clopidogrel-treated coronary artery disease patients of the International Clopidogrel Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ICPC). The influence of these polymorphisms on cardiovascular events (CVE) was tested in 2,134 ICPC patients (N = 129 events) in whom clinical event data were available. Several variants were associated with on-treatment ADP-stimulated platelet reactivity (CYP2C19*2, P = 8.8x10-54; CES1 G143E, P = 1.3x10-16; CYP2C19*17, P = 9.5x10-10; CYP2B6 1294 + 53C>T, P = 3.0x10-4; CYP2B6 516G>T, P = 1.0x10-3; CYP2C9*2, P = 1.2x10-3; and CYP2C9*3, P = 1.5x10-3). While no individual variant was associated with CVEs, generation of a pharmacogenomic polygenic response score (PgxRS) revealed that patients who carried a greater number of alleles that associated with increased on-treatment platelet reactivity were more likely to experience CVEs (ß = 0.17, SE 0.06, P = 0.01) and cardiovascular-related death (ß = 0.43, SE 0.16, P = 0.007). Patients who carried 8 or more risk alleles were significantly more likely to experience CVEs (OR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.14-2.76, P = 0.01) and cardiovascular death (OR = 4.39, 95%CI 1.35-14.27, P = 0.01) compared to patients who carried 6 or fewer of these alleles. CONCLUSION: Several polymorphisms impact clopidogrel response and PgxRS is a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. Additional investigations that identify novel determinants of clopidogrel response and validating polygenic models may facilitate future precision medicine strategies.

18.
Circulation ; 140(13): 1061-1069, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial arrhythmias are common in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). External shocks and internal cardioversion through commanded ICD shock for electrical cardioversion are used for rhythm-control. However, there is a paucity of data on efficacy of external versus internal cardioversion and on the risk of lead and device malfunction. We hypothesized that external cardioversion is noninferior to internal cardioversion for safety, and superior for successful restoration of sinus rhythm. METHODS: Consecutive patients with ICD undergoing elective cardioversion for atrial arrhythmias at 13 centers were randomized in 1:1 fashion to either internal or external cardioversion. The primary safety end point was a composite of surrogate events of lead or device malfunction. Conversion of atrial arrhythmia to sinus rhythm was the primary efficacy end point. Myocardial damage was studied by measuring troponin release in both groups. RESULTS: N=230 patients were randomized. Shock efficacy was 93% in the external cardioversion group and 65% in the internal cardioversion group (P<0.001). Clinically relevant adverse events caused by external or internal cardioversion were not observed. Three cases of pre-existing silent lead malfunction were unmasked by internal shock, resulting in lead failure. Troponin release did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized trial on external vs internal cardioversion in patients with ICDs. External cardioversion was superior for the restoration of sinus rhythm. The unmasking of silent lead malfunction in the internal cardioversion group suggests that an internal shock attempt may be reasonable in selected ICD patients presenting for electrical cardioversion. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03247738.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213261, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress is common in patients with cardiovascular disease and negatively impacts outcome. HYPOTHESIS: Psychological distress is high in acute high risk cardiac patients eligible for a WCD, and associated with low quality of life. Distress is aggravated by WCD. METHODS: Consecutive patients eligible for a WCD were included in the prospective, multicenter "Cologne Registry of External Defibrillator" registry. Quality of life (Short Form-12), depressive symptoms (Beck-Depression Inventory II) and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory) were assessed at enrollment and 6-weeks, and associations with WCD prescription were analyzed. RESULTS: 123 patients (mean [SD] age 59 [± 14] years, 75% male) were included, 85 (69%) of whom received a WCD. At enrollment 21% showed clinically significant depressive symptoms and 52% anxiety symptoms, respectively. At 6 weeks, depressive and anxious symptoms significantly decreased to 7% and 25%, respectively. Depressive symptoms at enrollment and changes at 6 weeks showed significant associations with health-related quality of life, whereas anxious symptoms did not. There was a trend for better improvement of depression scores in patients with WCD (mean [SD] change in score points: -4.1 [6.1] vs -1.8 [3.9]; p = 0.09), whereas change of the anxiousness score was not different (-4.6 [9.5]) vs -3.7 [9.1], p = 0.68). CONCLUSION: In patients eligible for a WCD, depressive and anxiety symptoms were initially common and depressive symptoms showed a strong association with reduced health-related quality of life contributing to their clinical relevance. WCD recipients showed at least similar improvement of depression and anxiety at 6 weeks when compared to non recipients.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
20.
Front Genet ; 10: 7, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766545

RESUMO

We developed a panel-based NGS pipeline for comprehensive analysis of 340 genes involved in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs, other xenobiotics, and endogenous substances. The 340 genes comprised phase I and II enzymes, drug transporters and regulator/modifier genes within their entire coding regions, adjacent intron regions and 5' and 3'UTR regions, resulting in a total panel size of 1,382 kbp. We applied the ADME NGS panel to sequence genomic DNA from 150 Caucasian liver donors with available comprehensive gene expression data. This revealed an average read-depth of 343 (range 27-811), while 99% of the 340 genes were covered on average at least 100-fold. Direct comparison of variant annotation with 363 available genotypes determined independently by other methods revealed an overall accuracy of >99%. Of 15,727 SNV and small INDEL variants, 12,022 had a minor allele frequency (MAF) below 2%, including 8,937 singletons. In total we found 7,273 novel variants. Functional predictions were computed for coding variants (n = 4,017) by three algorithms (Polyphen 2, Provean, and SIFT), resulting in 1,466 variants (36.5%) concordantly predicted to be damaging, while 1,019 variants (25.4%) were predicted to be tolerable. In agreement with other studies we found that less common variants were enriched for deleterious variants. Cis-eQTL analysis of variants with (MAF ≥ 2%) revealed significant associations for 90 variants in 31 genes after Bonferroni correction, most of which were located in non-coding regions. For less common variants (MAF < 2%), we applied the SKAT-O test and identified significant associations to gene expression for ADH1C and GSTO1. Moreover, our data allow comparison of functional predictions with additional phenotypic data to prioritize variants for further analysis.

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