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1.
Health Place ; 63: 102350, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543436

RESUMO

The planet is rapidly urbanizing, the need for actionable evidence to guide the design of cities that help (not hinder) our health has never felt more urgent. One essential component of healthy city design is improving neighborhood conditions in previously disinvested areas. To ensure equitable city design, policy makers, city planners, health practitioners, and researchers are interested in understanding the complex relationship between urban change, gentrification, and population health. Yet, the causal link between gentrification and health outcomes remain unclear. Without clear and consistent gentrification measures, researchers struggle to identify populations who are exposed to gentrification, and to compare health outcomes between exposed and unexposed populations. To move the science forward, this paper summarizes the challenges related to gentrification measurement in the United States and Canada when aspiring to conduct studies to analyze causal relationships between gentrification and health. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations for studies aimed at examining both causes and consequences of gentrification and health.

2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 141: 105540, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304868

RESUMO

Increased cycling uptake can improve population health, but barriers include real and perceived risks. Crash risk factors are important to understand in order to improve safety and increase cycling uptake. Many studies of cycling crash risk are based on combining diverse sources of crash and exposure data, such as police databases (crashes) and travel surveys (exposure), based on shared geography and time. When conflating crash and exposure data from different sources, the risk factors that can be quantified are only those variables common to both datasets, which tend to be limited to geography (e.g. countries, provinces, municipalities) and a few general road user characteristics (e.g. gender and age strata). The Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) project was a prospective cohort study that collected both crash and exposure data from seven European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zürich). The goal of this research was to use data from the PASTA project to quantify exposure-adjusted crash rates and model adjusted crash risk factors, including detailed sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes about transportation, neighbourhood built environment features and location by city. We used negative binomial regression to model the influence of risk factors independent of exposure. Of the 4,180 cyclists, 10.2 % reported 535 crashes. We found that overall crash rates were 6.7 times higher in London, the city with the highest crash rate, relative to Örebro, the city with the lowest rate. Differences in overall crash rates between cities are driven largely by crashes that did not require medical treatment and that involved motor-vehicles. In a parsimonious crash risk model, we found higher crash risks for less frequent cyclists, men, those who perceive cycling to not be well regarded in their neighbourhood, and those who live in areas of very high building density. Longitudinal collection of crash and exposure data can provide important insights into individual differences in crash risk. Substantial differences in crash risks between cities, neighbourhoods and population groups suggest there is great potential for improvement in cycling safety.

3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 107, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite rapid expansion of public bicycle share programs (PBSP), there are limited evaluations of the population-level impacts of these programs on cycling, leaving uncertainty as to whether these programs lead to net health gains at a population level or attract those that already cycle and are sufficiently physically active. Our objective was to determine whether the implementation of PBSPs increased population-level cycling in cities across the US and Canada. METHODS: We conducted repeat cross-sectional surveys with 23,901 residents in cities with newly implemented PBSPs (Chicago, New York), existing PBSPs (Boston, Montreal, Toronto) and no PBSPs (Detroit, Philadelphia, Vancouver) at three time points (Fall 2012, 2013, 2014). We used a triple difference in differences analysis to assess whether there were increases in cycling over time amongst those living in closer proximity (< 500 m) to bicycle share docking stations in cities with newly implemented and existing PBSPs, relative to those in cities with no PBSPs. RESULTS: Living in closer proximity to bicycle share predicted increases in cycling over time for those living in cities with newly implemented PBSPs at 2-year follow-up. No change was seen over time for those living in closer proximity to bicycle share in cities with existing PBSPs relative to those in cities with no PBSP. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that PBSPs are associated with increases in population-level cycling for those who live near to a docking station in the second year of program implementation.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes , Canadá , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transportes/métodos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
4.
J Transp Geogr ; 74: 91-96, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548761

RESUMO

Background: Bike sharing systems have potential to substantially boost active transportation levels (and consequent physical and mental health) in urban populations. We explored equity of spatial access in a novel 'dockless' bike share system that does not that constrain bike pickup and drop-off locations to docking stations. Methods: Starting in July 2017, Seattle, Washington piloted a dockless bike share system that made 10,000 bikes available. We merged data on resident sociodemographic and economic characteristics from the American Community Survey about 93 defined neighborhoods with data about bike locations, bike idle time, and which neighborhoods operators rebalanced bikes to. We used mapping and descriptive statistics to compare access between neighborhoods along sociodemographic and economic lines. Results: With many bikes available, no neighborhood was consistently excluded from access. However, the average availability ranged from 3 bikes per day to 341 per day. Neighborhoods with more bikes had more college-educated residents (median 75% college-educated vs. 65%) and local community resources (median opportunity index score of 24 vs. 19), and higher incomes (median 83,202 vs. 71,296). Rebalancing destinations were strongly correlated with neighborhood demand (r=0.61). Conclusions: The overall scale of the dockless system ensured there was baseline access throughout Seattle. We observed modest inequities in access along sociodemographic lines, similar to prior findings in studies of docked bike share systems. Dockless bike share systems hold promise for offering equitable spatial access to bike sharing.

5.
Prev Med Rep ; 15: 100946, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338286

RESUMO

Public bike share programs have been critiqued for serving those who already bicycle, or more well-off individuals who already have a multitude of transportation options. While substantial research focuses on characteristics of public bike share members, it often overlooks their intensity of use which may relate more directly to transport and health gains. In this study we link system data with member survey data to characterize "super-users" of Vancouver's public bike share system. We used system data from September 1, 2016-August 31, 2017 to calculate member-specific trip rates (trips/month). We linked system data to demographic and travel data for members who completed an online survey in 2017 (1232 members who had made 89,945 trips). We defined super-users as those who made 20 or more trips/month. We used a logistic regression to model demographic and travel characteristics associated with super-users as compared to regular users. Of the 1232 members, 204 were super-users. Super-users made 47% of the trips and had a median trip rate of 29.3 trips/month. In adjusted models, super-users were more likely to be young, male, have household incomes below $75,000, and live and work near bike share docking stations. Super-users had fewer transportation options than regular users, with lower odds of having a personal bike or car share membership. Amongst members, we found a distinct demographic profile for super-users relative to regular users, suggesting that usage is an important consideration when quantifying transport and health gains, and the resulting equity implications of public bike share programs.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 728, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active transportation, such as walking and biking, is a healthy way for children to explore their environment and develop independence. However, children can be injured while walking and biking. Many cities make changes to the built environment (e.g., traffic calming features, separated bike lanes) to keep people safe. There is some research on how effective these changes are in preventing adult pedestrians and bicyclists from getting hurt, but very little research has been done to show how safe various environments are for children and youth. Our research program will study how features of the built environment affect whether children travel (e.g., to school) using active modes, and whether certain features increase or decrease their likelihood of injury. METHODS: First, we will use a cross-sectional study design to estimate associations between objectively measured built environment and objectively measured active transportation to school among child elementary students. We will examine the associations between objectively measured built environment and child and youth pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and bicyclist-MVCs. We will also use these data to determine the space-time distribution of pedestrian-MVCs and bicyclist-MVCs. Second, we will use a case-crossover design to compare the built environment characteristics of the site where child and youth bicyclists sustain emergency department reported injuries and two randomly selected sites (control sites) along the bicyclist's route before the injury occurred. Third, to identify implementation strategies for built environment change at the municipal level to encourage active transportation we will conduct: 1) an environmental scan, 2) key informant interviews, 3) focus groups, and 4) a national survey to identify facilitators and barriers for implementing built environment change in municipalities. Finally, we will develop a built environment implementation toolkit to promote active transportation and prevent child pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. DISCUSSION: This program of research will identify the built environment associated with active transportation safety and form an evidence base from which municipalities can draw information to support change. Our team's national scope will be invaluable in providing information regarding the variability in built environment characteristics and is vital to producing evidence-based recommendations that will increase safe active transportation.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/métodos , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciclismo/lesões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pedestres , Projetos de Pesquisa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Caminhada/lesões
7.
J Sch Health ; 89(5): 365-372, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mode share is an important metric for active school travel programs. Common methods for measuring mode share include Hands Up surveys and family surveys, but these require teacher and parental involvement. We used these methods as part of an evaluation of a school-based bicycle training program, and added a novel observational count approach. This paper compares mode share results across the 3 methods. METHODS: We collected data over 2015-2017 at 16 elementary schools. Our outcome of interest was mode share (walk, drive, and bicycle). RESULTS: We found variations in travel mode estimates between methods and across schools. Overall most school journeys were made by walking (55.7% by observational counts, 46.3% by Hands Up surveys, and 51.5% by family surveys) or car (42.5%, 51.4%, and 46.2%, respectively), and a small proportion by bicycle (1.8%, 2.3%, and 2.2%, respectively). At individual schools, Hands Up and family survey results were similar; there was less agreement between these and observational counts. CONCLUSION: School travel practitioners face pragmatic choices in data collection. Observational counts are a nonintrusive method suited for school-wide travel patterns. Hands up and family surveys may be more appropriate for assessing differences between classrooms, ages, or family characteristics.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 51, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban form interventions can result in positive and negative impacts on physical activity, social participation, and well-being, and inequities in these outcomes. Natural experiment studies can advance our understanding of causal effects and processes related to urban form interventions. The INTErventions, Research, and Action in Cities Team (INTERACT) is a pan-Canadian collaboration of interdisciplinary scientists, urban planners, and public health decision makers advancing research on the design of healthy and sustainable cities for all. Our objectives are to use natural experiment studies to deliver timely evidence about how urban form interventions influence health, and to develop methods and tools to facilitate such studies going forward. METHODS: INTERACT will evaluate natural experiments in four Canadian cities: the Arbutus Greenway in Vancouver, British Columbia; the All Ages and Abilities Cycling Network in Victoria, BC; a new Bus Rapid Transit system in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and components of the Sustainable Development Plan 2016-2020 in Montreal, Quebec, a plan that includes urban form changes initiated by the city and approximately 230 partnering organizations. We will recruit a cohort of between 300 and 3000 adult participants, age 18 or older, in each city and collect data at three time points. Participants will complete health and activity space surveys and provide sensor-based location and physical activity data. We will conduct qualitative interviews with a subsample of participants in each city. Our analysis methods will combine machine learning methods for detecting transportation mode use and physical activity, use temporal Geographic Information Systems to quantify changes to urban intervention exposure, and apply analytic methods for natural experiment studies including interrupted time series analysis. DISCUSSION: INTERACT aims to advance the evidence base on population health intervention research and address challenges related to big data, knowledge mobilization and engagement, ethics, and causality. We will collect ~ 100 TB of sensor data from participants over 5 years. We will address these challenges using interdisciplinary partnerships, training of highly qualified personnel, and modern methodologies for using sensor-based data.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Exercício Físico , Saúde Pública , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Quebeque , Projetos de Pesquisa , Saskatchewan , Participação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes
9.
JAMA Pediatr ; 173(1): 86-92, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452514

RESUMO

Importance: The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is poorly understood, but prior studies suggest associations with airborne pollutants. Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal exposures to airborne pollutants and ASD in a large population-based cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort encompassed nearly all births in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from 2004 through 2009, with follow-up through 2014. Children were diagnosed with ASD using a standardized assessment with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Monthly mean exposures to particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at the maternal residence during pregnancy were estimated with temporally adjusted, high-resolution land use regression models. The association between prenatal air pollution exposures and the odds of developing ASD was evaluated using logistic regression adjusted for child sex, birth month, birth year, maternal age, maternal birthplace, and neighborhood-level urbanicity and income band. Data analysis occurred from June 2016 to May 2018. Exposures: Mean monthly concentrations of ambient PM2.5, NO, and NO2 at the maternal residence during pregnancy, calculated retrospectively using temporally adjusted, high-resolution land use regression models. Main Outcomes and Measures: Autism spectrum disorder diagnoses based on standardized assessment of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. The hypothesis being tested was formulated during data collection. Results: In a cohort of 132 256 births, 1307 children (1.0%) were diagnosed with ASD by the age of 5 years. The final sample size for the PM2.5-adjusted model was 129 439 children, and for NO and NO2, it was 129 436 children; of these, 1276 (1.0%) were diagnosed with ASD. Adjusted odds ratios for ASD per interquartile range (IQR) were not significant for exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy (1.04 [95% CI, 0.98-1.10] per 1.5 µg/m3 increase [IQR] in PM2.5) or NO2 (1.06 [95% CI, 0.99-1.12] per 4.8 ppb [IQR] increase in NO2) but the odds ratio was significant for NO (1.07 [95% CI, 1.01-1.13] per 10.7 ppb [IQR] increase in NO). Odds ratios for male children were 1.04 (95% CI, 0.98-1.10) for PM2.5; 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.15) for NO; and 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00-1.13) for NO2. For female children, they were for 1.03 (95% CI, 0.90-1.18) for PM2.5; 0.98 (95% CI, 0.83-1.13) for NO; and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.86-1.16) for NO2. Conclusions and Relevance: In a population-based birth cohort, we detected an association between exposure to NO and ASD but no significant association with PM2.5 and NO2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Colúmbia Britânica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/toxicidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Razão de Chances , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1326, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public bicycle share programs in many cities are used by a small segment of the population. To better understand the market for public bicycle share, this study examined the socio-demographic and transportation characteristics of current, potential, and unlikely users of a public bicycle share program and identified specific motivators and deterrents to public bicycle share use. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from a 2017 Vancouver public bicycle share (Mobi by Shaw Go) member survey (n = 1272) and a 2017 population-based survey of Vancouver residents (n = 792). We categorized non-users from the population survey as either potential or unlikely users based on their stated interest in using public bicycle share within the next year. We used descriptive statistics to compare the demographic and transportation characteristics of current users to non-users, and multiple logistic regression to compare the profiles of potential and unlikely users. RESULTS: Public bicycle share users in Vancouver tended to be male, employed, and have higher educations and incomes as compared to non-users, and were more likely to use active modes of transportation. The vast majority of non-users (74%) thought the public bicycle share program was a good idea for Vancouver. Of the non-users, 23% were identified as potential users. Potential users tended to be younger, have lower incomes, and were more likely to use public transit for their main mode of transportation, as compared to current and unlikely users. The most common motivators among potential users related to health benefits, not owning a bicycle, and stations near their home or destination. The deterrents among unlikely users were a preference for riding their own bicycle, perceived inconvenience compared to other modes, bad weather, and traffic. Cost was a deterrent to one-fifth of unlikely users, notable given they tended to have lower incomes than current users. CONCLUSION: Findings can help inform targeted marketing and outreach to increase public bicycle share uptake in the population.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Prev Med Rep ; 12: 176-181, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306014

RESUMO

Public bicycle share programs have been implemented in cities around the world to encourage bicycling. However, there are limited evaluations of the impact of these programs on bicycling at the population level. This study examined the impact of a public bicycle share program on bicycling amongst residents of Vancouver, BC. Using an online panel, we surveyed a population-based sample of Vancouver residents three times: prior to the implementation of the public bicycle share program (T0, October 2015, n = 1111); in the early phase of implementation (T1, October 2016, n = 995); and one-year post implementation (T2, October 2017, n = 966). We used difference in differences estimation to assess whether there was an increase in bicycling amongst those living and/or working in close proximity (≤500 m) to Vancouver's Mobi by Shaw Go public bicycle share program, compared to those living and working outside this area. Results suggest that only living or only working inside the bicycle share service area was not associated with increases in bicycling at T1 or T2 relative to those outside the service area. Both living and working inside the bicycle share service area was associated with increases in bicycling at T1 (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.80), however not at T2 (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.67, 2.83). These findings indicate that the implementation of a public bicycle share program may have a greater effect on bicycling for residents who both live and work within the service area, although this effect may not be sustained over time.

13.
Prev Med Rep ; 11: 312-313, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210997

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.03.008.].

14.
Prev Med Rep ; 10: 184-190, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868365

RESUMO

New rapid transit investments have been motivated by environmental, economic, and health benefits. Given transit's potential to increase active travel, recent research leverages transit changes for natural experiment studies to examine physical activity outcomes. We aimed to quantify the association size, critically examine existing literature, and make recommendations for future studies to advance research and policies on active travel, transportation, and physical activity. Studies of physical activity impacts following transit interventions were systematically reviewed using seven health and transport databases (May-July 2017). Two investigators extracted data on sample size, intervention, pre- and post-intervention physical activity, and relevant measurement information. Inconsistency of results and estimated overall mean physical activity change post-intervention were assessed. Forest plots were created from physical activity change in each study using a general variance-based random effects model. Of 18 peer-reviewed articles examining health behaviors, 15 addressed physical activity and five were natural experiment studies with pre- and post- intervention measurements. Studies varied by intervention, duration, outcome measurement, sampling location, and spatial method. Q (201) and I2 (98%) indicated high study heterogeneity. Among these five studies, after transit interventions, total physical activity decreased (combined mean - 80.4 min/week, 95% CI - 157.9, -2.9), but transport-related physical activity increased (mean 6.7 min/week, 95% CI - 10.1, 23.5). Following new transit infrastructure, total physical activity may decline but transport-related physical activity may increase. Positive transit benefits were location, sociodemographic, or activity-specific. Future studies should address context, ensure adequate follow-up, utilize controls, and consider non-residential environments or participants.

15.
J Phys Act Health ; 15(6): 411-416, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29570005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity confers many health benefits to older adults, and adopting activity into daily life routines may lead to better uptake. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of a lifestyle intervention to increase daily physical activity in older women through utilitarian walking and use of public transportation. METHODS: In total, 25 inactive women with mean age (SD) of 64.1 (4.6) years participated in this pilot randomized controlled trial [intervention (n = 13) and control (n = 12)]. Seven-day travel diaries (trips per week) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (minutes per week) were collected at baseline, 3, and 6 months. RESULTS: At 3 months, intervention participants reported 9 walking trips per week and 643.5 minutes per week of active transportation, whereas control participants reported 4 walking trips per week and 49.5 minutes per week of active transportation. Adjusting for baseline values, there were significant group differences favoring Everyday Activity Supports You for walking trips per week [4.6 (0.5 to 9.4); P = .04] and active transportation minutes per week [692.2 (36.1 to 1323.5); P = .05]. At 6 months, significant group differences were observed in walking trips per week [6.1 (1.9 to 11.4); P = .03] favoring the intervention (9 vs 2 trips per week). CONCLUSION: Given these promising findings, the next step is to test Everyday Activity Supports You model's effectiveness to promote physical activity in older women within a larger study.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMJ Open ; 8(1): e019130, 2018 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bicycling is promoted as a transportation and population health strategy globally. Yet bicycling has low uptake in North America (1%-2% of trips) compared with European bicycling cities (15%-40% of trips) and shows marked sex and age trends. Safety concerns due to collisions with motor vehicles are primary barriers.To attract the broader population to bicycling, many cities are making investments in bicycle infrastructure. These interventions hold promise for improving population health given the potential for increased physical activity and improved safety, but such outcomes have been largely unstudied. In 2016, the City of Victoria, Canada, committed to build a connected network of infrastructure that separates bicycles from motor vehicles, designed to attract people of 'all ages and abilities' to bicycling.This natural experiment study examines the impacts of the City of Victoria's investment in a bicycle network on active travel and safety outcomes. The specific objectives are to (1) estimate changes in active travel, perceived safety and bicycle safety incidents; (2) analyse spatial inequities in access to bicycle infrastructure and safety incidents; and (3) assess health-related economic benefits. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is in three Canadian cities (intervention: Victoria; comparison: Kelowna, Halifax). We will administer population-based surveys in 2016, 2018 and 2021 (1000 people/city). The primary outcome is the proportion of people reporting bicycling. Secondary outcomes are perceived safety and bicycle safety incidents. Spatial analyses will compare the distribution of bicycle infrastructure and bicycle safety incidents across neighbourhoods and across time. We will also calculate the economic benefits of bicycling using WHO's Health Economic Assessment Tool. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study received approval from the Simon Fraser University Office of Research Ethics (study no. 2016s0401). Findings will be disseminated via a website, presentations to stakeholders, at academic conferences and through peer-reviewed journal articles.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Meio Ambiente , Transportes/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 111: 101-108, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29195128

RESUMO

Many cities are making significant financial investments in cycling infrastructure with the aim of making cycling safer for riders of all ages and abilities. Methods for evaluating cycling safety tend to summarize average change for a city or emphasize change on a single road segment. Few spatially explicit approaches are available to evaluate how patterns of safety change throughout a city due to cycling infrastructure investments or other changes. Our goal is to demonstrate a method for monitoring changes in the spatial-temporal distribution of cycling incidents across a city. Using cycling incident data provided by the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia, we first compare planar versus network constrained kernel density estimation for visualizing incident intensity across the street network of Vancouver, Canada. Second, we apply a change detection algorithm explicitly designed for detecting statistically significant change in kernel density estimates. The utility of network kernel density change detection is demonstrated through the comparison of cycling incident densities following the construction of two cycle tracks in the downtown core of Vancouver. The methods developed and demonstrated for this study provide city planners, transportation engineers and researchers a means of monitoring city-wide change in the intensity of cycling incidents following enhancements to cycling infrastructure or other significant changes to the transportation network.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Ciclismo , Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Segurança , Transportes , População Urbana , Colúmbia Britânica , Engenharia , Humanos , Seguro , Investimentos em Saúde
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 193: 59-69, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024825

RESUMO

In the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in older adults' mobility. Most often, mobility is measured quantitatively as physical movement (e.g. physical activity) or travel behavior (e.g. trips, modes, and distances). There is a need to integrate both quantitative and qualitative data over time to visualize both context and content in a spatial and temporal dimension and discover patterns and explanations for their underlying processes. We aim to address this gap by demonstrating how a grounded visualization approach can be used to explore sociospatial and temporal complexities of older adults' mobility. We present two cases of active community (urban) dwelling older adults with low incomes (age > 65) who live in Metro Vancouver, Canada, over a period of 4 years. Geographical Position Systems (GPS) (QStarz Datalogger BT-Q1000x) data is used to capture the destinations participants travel to and the routes they take to get there. Survey data provides socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood environments. Interview data capture perceptions, attitudes, and motivations of destinations and route choices over time. Integration of the methods identified the following themes: spatial perceptions of neighborhood, consistency in travel patterns, changes in physical health, familiarity with place and access over time. Our grounded visualization approach demonstrates how georeferenced qualitative data can be combined with quantitative spatial data to provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of older adults' mobility experiences over time. Findings illustrate that time is a necessary component of older adults' engagement with place; familiarity influences spatial perceptions of local and distant 'neighbourhoods'; and older adults prioritize destinations that allow them to engage in multiple activities. By integrating methods we are able to gain a better understanding of challenges faced by older adults at multiple systems levels, and uncover resources and assets available to remediate them.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Geográfico , Fatores de Tempo , Caminhada , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Colúmbia Britânica , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/instrumentação , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 53(4): 465-472, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Public bike share users have low prevalence of helmet use, and few public bike share systems make helmets available. In summer 2016, a public bike share system launched in Vancouver, BC. Each bicycle is equipped with a free helmet, in response to BC's all-ages compulsory helmet law. This study assessed the prevalence of helmet use among adult cyclists on personal and public bicycles in Vancouver. METHODS: A survey of adult cyclists (age estimated at ≥16 years) at five screen line sites and at 15 public bike share docking stations was conducted. Observations were made on fair weather days in 2016. Observers recorded the gender of the rider, bicycle type, helmet use, and helmet type. In 2016, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of helmet use by personal and trip characteristics. RESULTS: Observers conducted 87.5 hours of observation and recorded 11,101 cyclists. They observed 10,704 (96.4%) cyclists on personal bicycles and 397 (3.6%) public bicycle users. Overall, the prevalence of helmet use was 78.1% (n=8,670/11,101), higher for personal bicycle riders (78.6%, n=8,416/10,704) than bike share users (64.0%, n=254/397). Helmet use was associated with gender, bicycle facility type, and day and time of travel. CONCLUSIONS: In a city with all-ages helmet legislation, helmet use is high but differs across infrastructure types and cyclist characteristics. Bike share systems could increase helmet use by providing complementary helmets coupled with supportive measures.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Urbana
20.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 4(3): 278-285, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28695486

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While many levels of government recognize that walking and cycling (active travel) are critical to healthy cities, a continued challenge is to identify and prioritize strategies that will increase walking and cycling for transportation. We review evidence on policies that can increase active travel. RECENT FINDINGS: The reviews included here conclude that policies related to active travel may operate at various levels of the socio-ecological framework, including society, cities, routes or individuals. The provision of convenient, safe and connected walking and cycling infrastructure is at the core of promoting active travel, but policies may work best when implemented in comprehensive packages. There is strong evidence that active travel can result in substantial health benefits. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about the exact effects of specific policies on walking or cycling rates or safety. Further research is needed to quantify the impact of specific policies or packages of policies, especially across different settings or for different population segments.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Transportes , Ciclismo , Cidades , Humanos , Caminhada
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