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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of dietary patterns with knee symptoms and structures in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Participants with symptomatic knee OA were recruited from a randomised, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Tasmania (N=259) and Victoria (N=133). Diet was assessed by the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Knee symptoms were assessed using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and structures using MRI. Multivariable linear regressions were used to examine associations. RESULTS: Three dietary patterns ("high-fat", "healthy" and "mixed") were identified in whole sample. Participants with higher "healthy pattern" score had lower total WOMAC, pain, function and stiffness scores at baseline but the associations were not significant over 24 months. Three ("western", "vegetable and meat" and "mediterranean") and two ("processed" and "vegetable") patterns were identified in Tasmania and Victoria, respectively. Cross-sectionally, only "mediterranean pattern" and "vegetable pattern" scores were significantly and negatively associated with total WOMAC or function scores. Longitudinally, participants with higher "western pattern" had worsening function (ß: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.03, 0.67) and total WOMAC (ß: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.07, 0.72) scores; furthermore, "vegetable pattern" was associated with decreased WOMAC stiffness score (ß: -0.47, 95%CI: -0.93, -0.02). In contrast, dietary patterns were largely not associated with structural changes. CONCLUSION: Some healthy dietary patterns were associated with reduced joint symptoms but dietary patterns were not associated with joint structure in this sample with knee OA. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the associations of blood pressure and arterial stiffness with knee cartilage volume in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: A secondary analysis was performed on the data from participants of a randomized controlled trial, which identified the effects of vitamin D supplementation on knee structures and symptoms among patients with symptomatic knee OA. Brachial and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness indicators and knee cartilage volume were measured at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Associations were assessed using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Among 231 participants (average age 63.2 years), 48.9% were females. Higher supine systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly associated with lower tibial cartilage volume (Systolic: Lateral ß -6.23, medial ß -5.14, total ß -11.35 mm3/mmHg. Diastolic: Lateral ß -10.25, medial ß -11.29, total ß -21.50 mm3/mmHg). Higher supine systolic pressure was associated with lower femoral cartilage volume (Lateral ß -17.35, total ß -28.31 mm3/mmHg). Central systolic pressure and arterial stiffness indicators (including pulse wave velocity, central pulse pressure, and peripheral pulse pressure) were largely not associated with knee cartilage volume; however, higher augmentation index was associated with lower tibial and femoral cartilage volume (Tibial: Medial ß -8.24, total ß -19.13 mm3/percent. Femoral: Lateral ß -23.70, medial ß -26.42, total ß -50.12 mm3/percent). CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure and arterial stiffness are associated with knee cartilage volume at several sites among knee OA patients. This supports that blood pressure and arterial stiffness may involve in the progression of knee OA.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of OA on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the forms of health state utilities (HSUs) and health-dimension scores, and to compare the longitudinal changes in HRQoL for people with and without OA, using an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort. METHODS: Participants of the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort with data on OA diagnosis and HRQoL were included [interviewed at baseline (n = 1093), 2.5 years (n = 871), 5 years (n = 760) and 10 years (n = 562)]. HRQoL was assessed using the Assessment of Quality of Life four-dimensions and analysed using multivariable linear mixed regressions. RESULTS: Compared with participants without OA, HSUs for those with OA were 0.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.05) units lower on average over 10 years. HSUs for participants with knee and/or hip OA were similar to those with other types of OA at the 2.5 year follow-up and then diverged, with HSUs of the former being up to 0.09 units lower than the latter. Those with OA had lower scores for psychological wellness, independent living and social relationships compared with those without OA. Independent living and social relationships were mainly impacted by knee and/or hip OA, with the effect on the former increasing over time. CONCLUSION: Interventions to improve HRQoL should be tailored to specific OA types, health dimensions, and times. Support for maintaining psychological wellness should be provided, irrespective of OA type and duration. However, support for maintaining independent living could be more relevant to knee and/or hip OA patients living with the disease for longer.

4.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 40, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe demographic and clinical factors associated with the presence and incidence of depression and explore the temporal relationship between depression and joint symptoms in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Three hundred ninety-seven participants were selected from a randomized controlled trial in people with symptomatic knee OA and vitamin D deficiency (age 63.3 ± 7.1 year, 48.6% female). Depression severity and knee joint symptoms were assessed using the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), respectively, at baseline and 24 months. RESULTS: The presence and incidence of depression was 25.4 and 11.2%, respectively. At baseline, having younger age, a higher body mass index (BMI), greater scores of WOMAC pain (PR: 1.05, 95%CI:1.03, 1.07), dysfunction (PR: 1.02, 95%CI:1.01, 1.02) and stiffness (PR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.09), lower education level, having more than one comorbidity and having two or more painful body sites were significantly associated with a higher presence of depression. Over 24 months, being female, having a higher WOMAC pain (RR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.09) and dysfunction score (RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03) at baseline and having two or more painful sites were significantly associated with a higher incidence of depression. In contrast, baseline depression was not associated with changes in knee joint symptoms over 24 months. CONCLUSION: Knee OA risk factors and joint symptoms, along with co-existing multi-site pain are associated with the presence and development of depression. This suggests that managing common OA risk factors and joint symptoms may be important for prevention and treatment depression in patients with knee OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176344 . Anzctr.org.au identifier: ACTRN12610000495022 .

5.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(2): 11, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511486

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Finding appropriate pharmacological options to treat osteoarthritis (OA) remain challenging. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of all types of turmeric extracts for the management of knee OA. RECENT FINDINGS: Sixteen RCTs of up to 16 weeks duration including 1810 adults with knee OA were included. Eleven RCTs compared the efficacy of turmeric extracts with placebo and five with active comparators (NSAIDs). The overall risk bias of included RCTs was moderate. Turmeric extracts significantly reduced knee pain (SMD - 0.82, 95% CI - 1.17 to - 0.47, I2 = 86.23%) and improved physical function (SMD - 0.75, 95% CI - 1.18 to - 0.33, I2 = 90.05%) compared to placebo but had similar effects compared to NSAIDs. BMI was the major contributor to heterogeneity in the placebo-controlled studies (explained 37.68% and 67.24%, respectively, in the models) and modified the effects of the turmeric on pain and physical function with less improvement with higher BMI (SMD 0.26 95% CI 0.04 to 0.48; SMD 0.48 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). No significant between-group differences were reported for either biochemical markers or imaging outcomes. Turmeric extracts had 12% fewer adverse events than NSAIDs and similar rates to placebo. Turmeric extract is a safe and effective option for the symptomatic management of knee OA, compared to placebo or NSAIDs. However, current evidence from short-term studies is heterogeneous and has moderate risk of bias leading to some uncertainty about the true effect.

6.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To describe the associations of baseline dietary pattern scores with falls risk, bone mineral density (BMD), and incident fractures measured over 10 years in older adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Femoral neck (FN), hip, and lumbar spine (LS) BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, falls risk z-score using the Physiological Profile Assessment, and incident fractures by self-report. Linear mixed-effects models and log-binomial regression were used to estimate associations between baseline dietary pattern z-scores and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 1098 participants at baseline, 567 were retained over 10 years. Four dietary patterns were derived: fruit and vegetable (FV), animal protein (AP), snack, and Western. FV pattern reduced falls risk at baseline by ß = 0.05-0.08/SD and the annual decreases of FN and hip BMD were less for higher Western or AP pattern scores in all populations and women. The annual increase in LS of the entire population was greater with higher scores of FV, AP, and Western patterns (all ß = 0.001 g/cm2/year/SD, p < 0.05). Higher scores of FV and snack were associated with a higher risk of LS BMD increasing over 10 years (p < 0.05 for all, except snack pattern in men) and incident fracture was not associated with any dietary pattern in the overall cohort and both men and women separately. CONCLUSIONS: An FV dietary pattern may be beneficial for reducing falls risk. The associations of dietary patterns and BMD are modest in magnitude and did not translate into an improved fracture risk. Associations between diet and LS BMD may reflect osteoarthritis rather than osteoporosis.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To derive dietary patterns and examine their longitudinal associations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This is a corrected analysis of a retracted paper. We followed 1098 adults aged ≥50 years for 5 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Baseline dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis and scores at each time point calculated using the weighted sum score method. Associations of energy-adjusted dietary pattern scores with participant characteristics were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: The four dietary patterns identified were: fruit and vegetable (vegetables, potatoes, fruits); animal protein (poultry, red meats, fish); snack (snacks, sweets, nuts); western (meat pies, hamburgers, pizzas). Fruit and vegetable pattern scores were lower in men and current smokers at baseline. Animal protein scores were lower in older and retired people but higher in men and smokers at baseline. The sex difference in animal protein score increased over time (p = 0.012). At baseline, snack score was positively associated with age and physical activity, but lower in men and current smokers. The effect of age on snack score lessened over time (p = 0.035). Western scores were lower in older people but higher in men, current smokers and those living in disadvantaged areas at baseline. The effect of age on western score reduced over time (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The higher scores for healthy and/or lower scores for unhealthy patterns in men, smokers, retirees and those experiencing social disadvantage suggest these could be target groups for interventions to improve diet quality in older adults.

8.
Mult Scler ; 26(12): 1550-1559, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More work is needed to understand the burden of comorbidities in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalence of 30 comorbidities and impacts of comorbidities on employment outcomes in a working-aged MS cohort. METHODS: Participants were from the Australian MS Longitudinal Study (n = 929). Information on specific comorbidity was obtained (whether or not each was present, doctor-diagnosed, limited their activities and being treated). RESULTS: Comorbidities most frequently reported to limit activities were osteoarthritis (51%), migraines (40%), anxiety (33%), depression (29%) and allergies (18%). Mean MS-related work productivity loss in past 4 weeks was 1.3 days for those without comorbidities and 2.5 days for those with any comorbidity. The annual population costs of work productivity loss were highest for people with depression, allergies, anxiety, migraines and osteoarthritis. Higher number of comorbidities was associated with more work productivity loss and a higher likelihood of not working. These associations were substantially reduced after adjustment for MS symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities substantially impact employment outcomes and these effects were mainly mediated through MS symptom severity. This suggests that optimal and simultaneous management of comorbidities may be a viable strategy to reduce MS symptom severity, which in turn could improve employment outcomes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health state utility values (HSUVs) are a key input in health economic modelling but HSUVs of people with osteoarthritis (OA)-related conditions have not been systematically reviewed and meta-analysed. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyse the HSUVs for people with OA. METHODS: Searches within health economic/biomedical databases were performed to identify eligible studies reporting OA-related HSUVs. Data on study design, participant characteristics, affected OA joint sites, treatment type, HSUV elicitation method, considered health states, and the reported HSUVs were extracted. HSUVs for people with knee, hip and mixed OA in pre- and post-treatment populations were meta-analysed using random effects models. RESULTS: One-hundred and fifty-one studies were included in the systematic review, and 88 in meta-analyses. Of 151 studies, 56% were conducted in Europe, 75% were in people with knee and/or hip OA and 79% were based on the EQ-5D. The pooled mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) baseline HSUVs for knee OA core interventions, medication, injection and primary surgery treatments were 0.64 (0.61-0.66), 0.56 (0.45-0.68), 0.58 (0.50-0.66) and 0.52 (0.49-0.55), respectively. These were 0.71 (0.59-0.84) for hip OA core interventions and 0.52 (0.49-0.56) for hip OA primary surgery. For all knee OA treatments and hip OA primary surgery, pooled HSUVs were significantly higher in the post- than the pre- treatment populations. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive summary of OA-related HSUVs and generates a HSUVs database for people with different affected OA joint sites undergoing different treatments to guide HSUV choices in future health economic modelling of OA interventions.

10.
J Neurol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relative contribution of comorbidities in predicting the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between the number of and individual comorbidities and HRQoL and estimate the relative contribution of different comorbidities on HRQoL. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of data on self-reported presence of 30 comorbidities and HRQoL from the Australian MS Longitudinal Study (AMSLS) participants (n = 902). HRQoL was measured using the Assessment of Quality of Life-8 Dimensions (AQoL-8D). Linear regression and general dominance analysis were used. RESULTS: Higher number of comorbidities was associated with lower HRQoL (p trend p < 0.01). Comorbidities accounted for 18.1% of the variance in HRQoL. Mental health and musculoskeletal disorders were the strongest contributors to lower HRQoL. Of individual comorbidities, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [ß = - 0.16 (- 0.27, - 0.05)] and depression [ß = - 0.15(- 0.18, - 0.13)] were most strongly associated with overall HRQoL, depression [ß = - 0.14(- 0.16, - 0.11)] and anxiety [ß = - 0.10 (- 0.13, - 0.07)] with psychosocial HRQoL, and SLE [ß = - 0.18 (- 0.29, - 0.07)], rheumatoid arthritis [ß = - 0.11 (- 0.19, - 0.02)] and hyperthyroidism [ß = - 0.11 (- 0.19, - 0.03)) with physical HRQoL. CONCLUSION: Comorbidities potentially make important contributions to HRQoL in PwMS. Our findings highlight groups of and individual comorbidities that could provide the largest benefits for the HRQoL of PwMS if they were targeted for prevention, early detection, and optimal treatment.

11.
J Neurol ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the change in prevalence of comorbidities during the disease course of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and whether the prevalences vary by MS onset type. OBJECTIVE: To calculate the change in prevalence of comorbidities between symptom onset and the time of study, to compare the prevalences of comorbidities with those in the Australian population at the time of study and to examine onset-type differences. METHODS: Comorbidity data from 1518 participants of the Australian MS Longitudinal Study and Australian population comparator data (2014-2015 National Health Survey) were used. The change in prevalence between time points and prevalence ratios (PR) at the time of study (crude, age and sex adjusted, and stratified by onset type) was calculated. RESULTS: Comorbidities were common, and those with the largest increases in prevalence between MS symptom onset and the time of study were depression (+ 26.9%), anxiety (+ 23.1%), hypertension (+ 21.9%), elevated cholesterol (+ 16.3%), osteoarthritis (+ 17.1%), eye diseases (+ 11.6%), osteoporosis (+ 10.9%) and cancer (+ 10.3%). Compared to the general population and after age and sex adjustment, participants had a significantly higher prevalence for 14/19 comorbidities at the time of study. The associations were strongest for anaemia, cancer (both PR > 4.00), anxiety, depression, migraine (all PR > 3.00), psoriasis and epilepsy (both PR > 2.00). No significant differences were seen by onset type. CONCLUSION: Comorbidities are common at MS symptom onset and increase with MS duration. Having MS may thus contribute to accrual of comorbidities. This emphasises the importance of optimal screening for and management of comorbidities in early MS and throughout the disease course.

12.
J Sci Med Sport ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the status of and identify factors associated with physical activity promotion by podiatrists. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. METHOD: In 2016-17 Australian podiatrists were invited to complete an online survey. Items assessed by Likert scale included; frequency of assessing and promoting physical activity and podiatrists' intentions, attitudes, social norms, confidence, barriers, role beliefs and perceived knowledge and skills regarding the promotion of physical activity. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. RESULTS: Of 316 respondents, 62% reported always/or often giving general and 39% specific physical activity advice. Attitudes to physical activity promotion were mostly positive and 83% agreed it was part of their role. Many believed they have the knowledge 62%) and skills to promote physical activity. Most podiatrists were confident to carry out basic physical activity promotion activities (83%), but fewer were confident assessing physical activity levels (54%), providing specific advice (47%), monitoring patient physical activity levels (49%) and carrying out physical activity counselling (41%). Modelling revealed intention to promote physical activity was most strongly influenced by experiential beliefs (ß=0.35, 95%CI 0.20-0.51) and instrumental beliefs (ß=0.27, 95%CI 0.15-0.40), whereas physical activity promotion was influenced by intention (ß=0.45, 95%CI 0.35-0.55) and behavioural control (ß=0.43, 95%CI 0.33-0.53). CONCLUSION: Physical activity promotion is feasible and regularly practiced in the podiatry setting, however current practice appears suboptimal. Attitudes and behavioural control appear influential in engagement and deserve consideration when designing strategies to improve delivery in podiatric practice.

13.
Australas J Ageing ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of education and occupation with handgrip strength (HGS), lower limb strength (LLS) and appendicular lean mass (ALM). METHODS: Measures of HGS, LLS and ALM (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were ascertained at baseline in 1090 adults (50-80 years, 51% women), ~3 and 5 years. Education and occupation were self-reported, the latter categorised as high-skilled white collar (HSWC), low-skilled white collar (LSWC) or blue collar. Separate general estimating equations were performed. RESULTS: The highest education group had greater HGS than the middle (0.33 psi) and lowest (0.48 psi) education groups, and 0.34 kg greater ALM than the lowest education group. HGS was 0.46 psi greater for HSWC than LSWC groups. Compared to LSWC groups, LLS was 5.38 and 7.08 kg greater in HSWC and blue-collar groups. Blue-collar and HSWC groups each had ~ 0.60-0.80kg greater ALM than LSWC. CONCLUSION: Progressive muscle loss can be prevented by targeted intervention; thus, we suggest clinical attention be directed towards specific social groups.

14.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(11): 861-869, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current pharmacologic therapies for patients with osteoarthritis are suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of Curcuma longa extract (CL) for reducing knee symptoms and effusion-synovitis in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and knee effusion-synovitis. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12618000080224). SETTING: Single-center study with patients from southern Tasmania, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 70 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and ultrasonography-defined effusion-synovitis. INTERVENTION: 2 capsules of CL (n = 36) or matched placebo (n = 34) per day for 12 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: The 2 primary outcomes were changes in knee pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and effusion-synovitis volume on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The key secondary outcomes were change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and cartilage composition values. Outcomes were assessed over 12 weeks. RESULTS: CL improved VAS pain compared with placebo by -9.1 mm (95% CI, -17.8 to -0.4 mm [P = 0.039]) but did not change effusion-synovitis volume (3.2 mL [CI, -0.3 to 6.8 mL]). CL also improved WOMAC knee pain (-47.2 mm [CI, -81.2 to -13.2 mm]; P = 0.006) but not lateral femoral cartilage T2 relaxation time (-0.4 ms [CI, -1.1 to 0.3 ms]). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the CL (n = 14 [39%]) and placebo (n = 18 [53%]) groups (P = 0.16); 2 events in the CL group and 5 in the placebo group may have been treatment related. LIMITATION: Modest sample size and short duration. CONCLUSION: CL was more effective than placebo for knee pain but did not affect knee effusion-synovitis or cartilage composition. Multicenter trials with larger sample sizes are needed to assess the clinical significance of these findings. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: University of Tasmania and Natural Remedies Private Limited.

15.
J Neurol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More research is needed to understand the contribution of comorbidities to MS symptomatology. OBJECTIVES: To examine the dose-response relationship between the number of comorbidities and severity of MS symptoms and to assess the relative contribution of comorbidity groups and individual comorbidities to the severity of each symptom. METHODS: We surveyed 1223 participants of the Australian MS Longitudinal Study for the presence of 30 comorbidities and the severity of 13 MS symptoms (0-10 scale). The associations between comorbidities and symptoms were assessed using negative binomial regression. The relative contributions of comorbidities to the severity of symptoms were assessed using general dominance analysis. RESULTS: Higher number of comorbidities was most strongly associated with a higher severity of pain and feelings of anxiety and depression (ratios of means ≥ 0.12 per comorbidity increase). Comorbidities explained between 3.7% (spasticity) and 22.0% (feelings of anxiety) of the total variance of symptom severity. Mental health and musculoskeletal disorders contributed most strongly to the severity of the most common symptoms in MS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that early recognition and optimal management of comorbidities, particularly of mental health and musculoskeletal disorders, could have a positive impact on the severity of symptoms of people with MS.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively synthesise the evolution of health-economic evaluation models (HEEMs) of all OA interventions including preventions, core treatments, adjunct non-pharmacological interventions, pharmacological and surgical treatments. METHODS: The literature was searched within health-economic/biomedical databases. Data extracted included: OA type, population characteristics, model setting/type/events, study perspective, comparators; and the reporting quality of the studies was assessed. The review protocol was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (registration: CRD42018092937). RESULTS: Eighty-eight studies were included. Pharmacological and surgical interventions were the focus in 51% and 44% studies, respectively. Twenty-four studies adopted a societal perspective (with increasing popularity after 2013), however most (63%) did not include indirect costs. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) was the most popular outcome measure since 2008. Markov models were used by 62% of studies, with increasing popularity since 2008. Until 2010, most studies used short-to-medium time horizons; subsequently a lifetime horizon became popular. Eighty-six percent of studies reported discount rate(s) (predominantly between 3% and 5%). Studies published after 2002 had a better coverage of OA-related adverse events (AEs). Reporting quality significantly improved after 2001. CONCLUSIONS: OA HEEMs have evolved and improved substantially over time, with focus shifting from short-to-medium-term pharmacological decision-tree models to surgical-focused lifetime Markov models. Indirect costs of OA are frequently not considered, despite using a societal perspective. There was lack of reporting sensitivity of model outcome to input parameters including discount rate, OA definition, and population parameters. Whilst the coverage of OA-related AEs has improved over time, it is still not comprehensive.

17.
Bone ; 140: 115546, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine and compare risk factors associated with incident fractures in older adults with and without obesity, defined by both body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage. METHODS: 1,099 older adults (mean ± standard deviation age = 63.0 ± 7.5) years, participated in this prospective cohort study. Obesity status at baseline was defined by BMI (≥30 kg/m2) obtained by anthropometry and body fat percentage (≥30% for men and ≥40% for women) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total hip and lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were assessed by DXA up to five years. Incident fractures were self-reported up to 10 years. RESULTS: Prevalence of obesity was 28% according to BMI and 43% according to body fat percentage. Obese older adults by BMI, but not body fat percentage, had significantly higher aBMD at the total hip and spine compared with non-obese (both p-value<0.05). Obese older adults by body fat percentage had significantly higher likelihood of all incident fractures (OR: 1.71; CI:1.08, 2.71) and non-vertebral fractures (OR: 1.88; CI:1.16, 3.04) compared with non-obese after adjusting for confounders. Conversely, obese older adults by BMI had a significantly lower likelihood (OR: 0.54; CI:0.31, 0.94) of non-vertebral fractures although this was no longer significant after adjustment for total hip aBMD (all p-value > 0.05). Mediation analysis confirmed that aBMD meditated the effects of BMI, but not body fat percentage, on all incident fractures. Higher baseline falls risk score was the only consistent predictor of increased likelihood of incident fracture in obese individuals only, according to both BMI and body fat percentage (both p-value<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity defined by body fat percentage is associated with increased likelihood of incident fractures in community-dwelling older adults, whereas those who are obese according to BMI have reduced likelihood of incident fracture which appears to be explained by higher aBMD. Falls risk assessment may improve identification of obese older adults at increased risk of incident fractures.

18.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(9): 1652-1659, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638468

RESUMO

We have found that early-life exposures are associated with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at ages 8 and 16 years. This study aimed to assess whether these associations persist into young adulthood when peak bone mass (PBM) is achieved and extend this analysis to microarchitecture. Participants were followed from perinatal period to 25 years old (n = 201). Outcomes were total body, spine, and hip aBMD (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), and cortical and trabecular bone measures at the distal radius and tibia (by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography [HRpQCT]). Early-life exposures including breastfeeding, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and birth weight. Sex, weight, height, vegetables, fruit and calcium intake at age 25 years were regarded as potential confounders in the analysis. There were significant interactions between period of gestation and early-life exposures for bone measures, so all analyses were stratified by period of gestation. Breastfeeding was beneficially associated with hip and total body aBMD, total, cortical and trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD), cortical thickness, porosity, trabecular number (Tb.N), separation (Tb.Sp), and bone volume fraction (Tb.BV/TV) at radius and/or tibia at age 25 years in participants born prematurely (ß ranged from -0.92 to 0.94), but there were no associations in those born at term. Maternal smoking had no association with any DXA/HRpQCT measures in those born prematurely but was detrimentally associated with inner transitional zone porosity and Tb.N (ß = 0.40 and ß = -0.37, respectively) in those full-term participants. Associations of birth weight with bone measures did not persist after adjustment for weight gain since birth. Breastfeeding was associated with a lower risk of lower limb fractures and maternal smoking had a deleterious association with upper limb fractures. In conclusion, breastfeeding and maternal smoking may have effects on peak bone microarchitecture whereas the association with birth weight is countered by subsequent growth. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine whether vitamin D supplementation or maintaining sufficient vitamin D level reduces foot pain over two years in patients with symptomatic knee OA. METHODS: A post hoc study was conducted from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial named the VItamin D Effect on Osteoarthritis (VIDEO) study. Symptomatic knee OA patients with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between 12.5 nmol/L to 60 nmol/L were included and randomly allocated to either monthly vitamin D3 or placebo treatment (1:1) for 2 years. Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) was used to evaluate foot pain and Disabling foot pain was defined as at least one of the 10 functional limitation items (items 1-9,11) being documented as on 'most/every day(s)' in the last month. A repeated-measure mixed effect model was used to analyze the change of MFPDI scores between groups adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 413 patients with a mean age of 63.2 years (49.7% males) were enrolled and 340 completed the study. The mean MFPDI score was 22.8±7.3, with 23.7% participants having disabling foot pain at baseline. There were significant differences in MFPDI scores change between groups over 2 years, with more improvements in vitamin D group than in placebo group (-0.03 vs. 1.30, P=0.013) and more improvement in those maintaining sufficient vitamin D levels (n=226) than those who did not (n=114) (-0.09 vs. 2.19, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation and maintenance of sufficient vitamin D levels may improve foot pain in those with knee OA.

20.
J Clin Densitom ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586682

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Both areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone microarchitecture have been associated with vertebral deformity (VD), but there are limited data on the utility of bone microarchitecture measures in combination with aBMD in discriminating VD. This study aimed to describe whether radial bone microarchitecture measures alone or in combinations with radial volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) or spine aBMD can improve discrimination of VD in adults. METHODS: Data on 196 subjects (mean age (standard deviation, SD) = 72 (7) years, female 46%) were utilized. VD of T4-L4 and spine aBMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. VD was defined if anterior to posterior height ratio was more than 3-SD, 4-SD below, or >25% decrease compared with the sex-matched normal means. Bone microarchitecture parameters at distal radius were collected using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and analyzed using StrAx. RESULTS: The strongest associations were seen for the cortical thickness (odds ratios (ORs): 2.63/SD decrease for 25% and 2.38/SD decrease for 3-SD criterion) and compact cortical area (OR: 3.33/SD decrease for 4-SD criterion). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for spine aBMD for VD was 0.594, 0.597, and 0.634 for 25%, 3-SD and 4-SD criteria, respectively (all p < 0.05). Compact cortical area, cortical thickness and compact cortical thickness alone had the largest AUCs for VD (0.680-0.685 for 25% criterion, 0.659-0.674 for 3-SD criterion, and 0.699-0.707 for 4-SD criterion). Adding spine aBMD or radial vBMD to each cortical measure did not improve VD discrimination (∆ AUC 0.8%-2.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Cortical measures had the best utility for discriminating VD when used alone. Adding either spine aBMD or radial vBMD did not improve the utility of cortical measures.

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