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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501686

RESUMO

The study results serve as a reminder for parents, children, and drivers to be alert to the danger of traffic crashes on Halloween. The aim of this study was to examine whether Halloween is associated with a higher incidence of traffic injuries and whether traffic injuries sustained on Halloween are more severe than those sustained on other days. The U.K. STATS19 database, including the data of all road traffic crashes occurring from 1990 to 2017, was employed. A total of 73,587 pediatric traffic casualties (involving pedestrians, cyclists, and moped riders) were included. Between 17:00 and 19:00 (17:00~18:59) on Halloween, the number of casualties was higher than that on other public holidays and usual days. The logistic regression model revealed that, between 17:00 and 18:00 (17:00~17:59), the risk of being killed or seriously injured on Halloween was 34.2% higher (odds ratio = 1.342; 95% CI = 1.065-1.692) than that on other days. Pediatric crashes occurring on Halloween are associated with a higher number of injuries and increased injury severity.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217072, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877308

RESUMO

Importance: Literature has suggested that trauma among pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, limited research has investigated the association of trauma with adverse pregnancy outcomes by using a national data set. Objective: To investigate the association between traumatic injury and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study of pregnant women in Taiwan linked 3 data sets, the Taiwan Birth Registry, Household Registration Information, and National Health Insurance Research Database, from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014. Data, including the characteristics of pregnant women and infants, were extracted from the Taiwan Birth Registry data set; to obtain trauma data, this data set and the Household Registration Information data set were collectively linked to National Health Insurance Research Database data. The combined data set was analyzed from January to July 2019. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and premature delivery were defined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Exposures: The primary exposures of this study were 2 clinical variables related to injury during pregnancy: medical treatment in the emergency department (yes or no) and hospitalization (yes or no). Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome variable was adverse pregnancy outcomes, and the secondary outcome variable was premature delivery. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the association of injuries with adverse pregnancy outcomes after controlling for demographic characteristics and other pregnancy-related variables. Results: A total of 2 973 831 pregnant women (2 475 805 [83.3%] aged 20-34 years) were enrolled between 2004 and 2014, of whom 59 681 (2.0%) sought medical treatments due to injuries. Results of multivariate logistic regression models showed that women receiving emergency treatments more than once were 1.08 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.10) to have adverse pregnancy outcomes than women who received no emergency treatment. Women with injury-related hospitalization were 1.53 times more likely (adjusted odds ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.41-1.65) to have adverse pregnancy outcomes than women who did not sustain injuries. Furthermore, recurrent injuries were associated with a 572% increase in odds of premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 6.72; 95% CI, 2.86-15.80). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, trauma among pregnant women was associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, as were hospitalization and emergency department visits due to injury.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that trauma centre-related risk factors, such as distance to the nearest trauma hospital, are strong predictors of fatal injuries among motorists. Few studies have used a national dataset to study the effect of trauma centre-related risk factors on fatal injuries among motorists and motorcyclists in a country where traffic is dominated by motorcycles. This study investigated the effect of distance from the nearest trauma hospital on fatal injuries from two-vehicle crashes in Taiwan from 2017 to 2019. METHODS: A crash dataset and hospital location dataset were combined. The crash dataset was extracted from the National Taiwan Traffic Crash Dataset from 1 January 2017 through 31 December 2019. The primary exposure in this study was distance to the nearest trauma hospital. This study performed a multiple logistic regression to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for fatal injuries. RESULTS: The multivariate logistic regression models indicated that motorcyclists involved in crashes located ≥5 km from the nearest trauma hospital and in Eastern Taiwan were approximately five times more likely to sustain fatal injuries (AOR = 5.26; 95% CI: 3.69-7.49). CONCLUSIONS: Distance to, level of, and region of the nearest trauma centre are critical risk factors for fatal injuries among motorcyclists but not motorists. To reduce the mortality rate of trauma cases among motorcyclists, interventions should focus on improving access to trauma hospitals.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Centros de Traumatologia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Motocicletas , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561132

RESUMO

Reduced peak expiratory flow is a common physiological change in older individuals and age is an important predictor for sarcopenia. We analyzed nationwide survey data to determine the relationship between peak expiratory flow rate and sarcopenia in older Indonesians. Community-dwelling Indonesian individuals aged ≥60 years (n = 2422; mean age = 67.21 y) from the fifth-wave data of the Indonesian Family Life Survey was selected. Sarcopenia was diagnosed based on handgrip strength, gait speed, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFRs) were categorized according to their percentage of predicted flow rates as <50%, 50% to 80%, and >80%. Confounders previously determined to be associated with sarcopenia occurrence were included. Sarcopenia prevalence was 50.25%. After adjustment for confounders, PEFRs of <50% and 50% to 80% were associated with an increased sarcopenia risk (odds ratio = 5.22 and 1.88, respectively) compared with PEFRs of >80%. Poor lung function was independently associated with sarcopenia occurrence. Future studies should explore the usefulness of PEFR as a risk factor of sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Risco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that drivers tend to engage in risk-taking behaviours on public holidays. Studies that examined the association between holidays (or other special days) and fatal injuries are inconsistent. This study used UK STATS19 data to investigate the associations of nine public holidays on road crash casualties. METHODS: This retrospective study assessed UK STATS19 crash data for 1990-2017. All casualties from two vehicle crashes were initially considered; subsequently, casualties with missing data were excluded. Multiple logistic regression was estimated to explore the associations of potential risk factors with the likelihood of killed or seriously injured (KSI) casualties and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs). RESULTS: In total, 3,751,998 casualties from traffic accidents in the United Kingdom during 1990-2017 were included in the final data set; among these, 410,299 (10.9%) were KSI casualties, and 3,341,699 (89.1%) were slight injuries. Crashes on public holidays were 16% (AOR = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.19) more likely to involve KSI casualties than were crashes on non-holidays. With other factors controlled for, crashes during the Queen's 2002 Golden Jubilee and on New Year's Day were 48% (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.06-2.07) and 36% (AOR = 1.36; 1.26-1.48) more likely to lead to KSIs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of crashes resulting in KSI casualties on public holidays was higher than that on non-holidays. Furthermore, crashes during the Queen's 2002 Golden Jubilee had the highest risk of KSI casualties followed by New Year's Day.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Férias e Feriados , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Férias e Feriados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the determinants of anxiety and its related factors in the general population affected by COVID-19 are poorly understood. We examined the effects of spirituality, knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) on anxiety regarding COVID-19. METHODS: Online cross-sectional data (n = 1082) covered 17 provinces. The assessment included the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and the KAP-COVID-19 questionnaire. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression revealed that individuals who had low levels of spirituality had increased anxiety compared to those with higher levels of spirituality. Individuals had correct knowledge of early symptoms and supportive treatment (K3), and that individuals with chronic diseases and those who were obese or elderly were more likely to be severe cases (K4). However, participants who chose incorrect concerns about there being no need for children and young adults to take measures to prevent COVID-19 (K9) had significantly lower anxiety compared to those who responded with the correct choice. Participants who disagreed about whether society would win the battle against COVID-19 (A1) and successfully control it (A2) were associated with higher anxiety. Those with the practice of attending crowded places (P1) had significantly higher anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Spirituality, knowledge, attitudes, and practice were significantly correlated with anxiety regarding COVID-19 in the general population.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781787

RESUMO

Secondhand smoke (SHS) and physical inactivity are thought to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the synergistic effect of SHS with physical inactivity and their relationships with T2DM-associated inflammation biomarkers have not been estimated. We investigated the roles of SHS exposure and physical inactivity and their synergistic effect on T2DM risk and their relationships with T2DM associated inflammation biomarkers, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and white blood cells (WBCs). A case-control study was conducted in total 588 participants (294 case T2DM and 294 healthy controls) from five community clinics in Indonesia. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire on demographic information, smoking status, physical activity habits and food consumption. WBCs and NLR levels were determined using an automated hematology analyzer. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression model. The synergistic effect was analyzed using additive interaction for logistic regression. Physical inactive people exposed to SHS exhibited a synergistically increased 7.78-fold risk of T2DM compared with people who were not exposed to SHS and who were physically active. SHS is significantly correlated with a high NLR, WBCs and has a synergistic effect with physical inactivity on increasing susceptibility to T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Comportamento Sedentário , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Neutrófilos/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
10.
Accid Anal Prev ; 143: 105594, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-involved riders tend to engage in other risk-taking behaviours such as un-helmeted riding which could further increases injury severity. The combined effect of alcohol-involved and un-helmeted riding on fatal injuries is rarely investigated. This study investigated the interaction effect between blood alcohol concentration and helmet use on fatal injuries. METHODS: This study used the National Taiwan Traffic Crash Dataset for the period from 2011 to 2015. Data on road crashes involving a motorcycle and an automobile were extracted and analysed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (AOR). We calculated an interaction effect for blood alcohol concentration and helmet use based on STROBE guidelines. RESULTS: There were a total of 669,292 motorcyclist casualties; among these casualties, 3459 (0.5 %) motorcyclists sustained fatal injuries. Alcohol-involved riders were 9.47 times (AOR = 9.47; 95 % CI = 8.75-10.25) more likely than sober ones to sustain fatal injuries. Alcohol-involved and un-helmeted riders were approximately 18 times (AOR = 18.1; CI: 15.9-20.4) more likely to sustain fatal injuries than sober and helmeted riders. Riders involved in head-on crashes and approach-turn motorcycle crashes had an increased probability of sustaining fatal injuries by 240 % (AOR = 3.4; 95 % CI = 2.91-4.09) and 132 % (AOR = 2.3; 95 % CI = 2.016-2.67), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that alcohol-involved riding acts synergistically with un-helmeted riding to increase motorcyclist injury severity.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
11.
Biol Res Nurs ; 22(3): 378-387, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-associated inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with poor quality of life (QoL). However, no study has investigated the synergistic effect of physical activity (PA) and lower neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on QoL. OBJECTIVE: We examined the independent and synergistic effects of PA and inflammatory biomarkers on three domains of QoL in T2DM. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 294 patients with T2DM from community clinics in Indonesia. The 36-item Short Form Survey and a questionnaire about PA engagement were used to measure QoL and metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-hr/week, respectively. Inflammatory biomarkers were measured in fasting blood. Adjusted coefficients ß and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using multiple linear regression. The synergistic effect was analyzed using additive interaction for linear regression. RESULTS: Patients with PA ≥ 7.5 MET-hr/week exhibited significantly higher total QoL (ß = 8.41, 95% CI = [6.04, 10.78]) and physical component score (PCS; ß = 13.90, 95% CI = [10.52, 17.29]) than those with PA < 7.5 MET-hr/week. Patients with NLR < 1.940 had significantly higher total QoL (ß = 4.76, 95% CI = [3.41, 6.11]), mental component score (MCS; ß = 2.62, 95% CI = [0.75, 4.49]), and PCS (ß = 6.89, 95% CI = [4.97, 8.82]) than patients with NLR ≥ 1.940. PA ≥ 7.5 MET-hr/week and NLR < 1.940 exhibited a synergistic effect on total QoL, MCS, and PCS. CONCLUSIONS: High PA level and low NLR had a positive synergistic effect on QoL among patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Linfócitos/química , Neutrófilos/química , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019161

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the factors associated with cognitive impairment. However, obesity may differently affect cognitive function in different age groups, and scarce data are available from low- and middle-income countries. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between obesity and cognitive impairment among 143 elderly individuals in Yogyakarta. We recorded the sociodemographic factors and some comorbidities, also measured the body mass index as a parameter of obesity, cognitive function using Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesia, mood condition and depression status using geriatric depression scale-short form, as well as the daily life function using Activity of Daily Living and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living. After adjustment for the sociodemographic and comorbidities, we found that subjects with older age were more likely to have cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] 3.544, 95%CI: 1.36-9.22, p < 0.01) and compared with elderly individuals with normal weight, obese elderly individuals were 40% less likely to have cognitive impairment (OR 0.604, 95%CI: 0.39-0.95, p < 0.05). This study suggests that obesity in elderly individuals is less frequently associated with cognitive impairment. These findings support the reverse causation mechanism related to body mass index (BMI) and cognitive impairment in low/middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 78, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motorcycle full-coverage helmet use may reduce fatalities and head injuries. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study extracted injury data from eight level-I trauma centres in Taiwan and performed a questionnaire survey to investigate injuries sustained by motorcyclists for the period between January 2015 and June 2017. RESULTS: As many as 725 patients participated in the questionnaire survey and reported their helmet types or phone use during crashes. The results of multivariate logistic models demonstrated that nonstandard helmet (half or open-face helmet) use was associated with an increased risk of head injuries and more severe injuries (injury severity score ≥ 8). Drunk riding and phone use appeared to be two important risk factors for head injuries and increased injury severity. Anaemia was also found to be a determinant of head injuries." CONCLUSIONS: Compared to full-coverage helmets, nonstandard provide less protection against head injuries and increased injury severity among motorcyclists.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Adulto Jovem
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