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1.
Rheumatol Int ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037488

RESUMO

Primary aim: Compare change in estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF change) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with population-based age- and sex-matched controls during ~ 11-year follow-up and identify variables associated with eCRF change. Secondary aim: Compare eCRF level in RA patients and controls. eCRF change from the second (HUNT2 1995-1997) to the third (HUNT3 2006-2008) surveys of the Norwegian Trøndelag Health Study was compared between RA patients (n = 188) and controls (n = 26,202) attending both surveys. Predictors of eCRF change were identified by Lasso regression followed by multiple linear regression. Mean eCRF level in RA patients (n = 436) and controls (n = 67,910) was compared using age-adjusted linear regression stratified on sex, as well as two-sample t tests including RA patients (n = 432) and controls (n = 59,124) who attended either HUNT2, HUNT3 or both HUNT2 and HUNT3. The mean eCRF decline from HUNT2 to HUNT3 in RA patients was 8.3 mL min-1 kg-1 versus 6.7 mL min-1 kg-1 in controls (p < 0.001). The decline was faster in RA patients and larger with higher baseline age (standardized regression coefficient for RA patients: (- 0.482 × age + 0.044); controls: (- 0.367 × age, p < 0.001). The decline was also associated with smoking, cardiovascular disease, increasing body mass index, asthma, and hypertension. Mean differences in age-adjusted eCRF level for RA patients versus controls (p < 0.001): women HUNT2: - 3.2 mL min-1 kg-1; HUNT3: - 5.0 mL min-1 kg-1; men HUNT2: - 1.8 mL min-1 kg-1; HUNT3: - 4.0 mL min-1 kg-1. Higher age at baseline was associated with faster decline in eCRF. This change was more pronounced in RA patients than controls, indicating a larger negative effect on fitness of aging in RA. RA patients had lower eCRF compared to healthy individuals.

2.
BMJ ; 371: m3485, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of five years of supervised exercise training compared with recommendations for physical activity on mortality in older adults (70-77 years). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General population of older adults in Trondheim, Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 1567 of 6966 individuals born between 1936 and 1942. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to two sessions weekly of high intensity interval training at about 90% of peak heart rate (HIIT, n=400), moderate intensity continuous training at about 70% of peak heart rate (MICT, n=387), or to follow the national guidelines for physical activity (n=780; control group); all for five years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. An exploratory hypothesis was that HIIT lowers mortality more than MICT. RESULTS: Mean age of the 1567 participants (790 women) was 72.8 (SD 2.1) years. Overall, 87.5% of participants reported to have overall good health, with 80% reporting medium or high physical activity levels at baseline. All cause mortality did not differ between the control group and combined MICT and HIIT group. When MICT and HIIT were analysed separately, with the control group as reference (observed mortality of 4.7%), an absolute risk reduction of 1.7 percentage points was observed after HIIT (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 1.20) and an absolute increased risk of 1.2 percentage points after MICT (1.24, 0.73 to 2.10). When HIIT was compared with MICT as reference group an absolute risk reduction of 2.9 percentage points was observed (0.51, 0.25 to 1.02) for all cause mortality. Control participants chose to perform more of their physical activity as HIIT than the physical activity undertaken by participants in the MICT group. This meant that the controls achieved an exercise dose at an intensity between the MICT and HIIT groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that combined MICT and HIIT has no effect on all cause mortality compared with recommended physical activity levels. However, we observed a lower all cause mortality trend after HIIT compared with controls and MICT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01666340.

3.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 148: 106-119, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918915

RESUMO

AIMS: Endurance training improves aerobic fitness and cardiac function in individuals with heart failure. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. Exercise training could therefore act as a tool to discover novel targets for heart failure treatment. We aimed to associate changes in Ca2+ handling and electrophysiology with micro-RNA (miRNA) profile in exercise trained heart failure rats to establish which miRNAs induce heart failure-like effects in Ca2+ handling and electrophysiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Post-myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure was induced in Sprague Dawley rats. Rats with MI were randomized to sedentary control (sed), moderate (mod)- or high-intensity (high) endurance training for 8 weeks. Exercise training improved cardiac function, Ca2+ handling and electrophysiology including reduced susceptibility to arrhythmia in an exercise intensity-dependent manner where high intensity gave a larger effect. Fifty-five miRNAs were significantly regulated (up or down) in MI-sed, of which 18 and 3 were changed towards Sham-sed in MI-high and MI-mod, respectively. Thereafter we experimentally altered expression of these "exercise-miRNAs" individually in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hIPSC-CM) in the same direction as they were changed in MI. Of the "exercise-miRNAs", miR-214-3p prolonged AP duration, whereas miR-140 and miR-208a shortened AP duration. miR-497-5p prolonged Ca2+ release whereas miR-214-3p and miR-31a-5p prolonged Ca2+ decay. CONCLUSION: Using exercise training as a tool, we discovered that miR-214-3p, miR-497-5p, miR-31a-5p contribute to heart-failure like behaviour in Ca2+ handling and electrophysiology and could be potential treatment targets.

4.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large longitudinal studies on change in directly measured peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is lacking, and its significance for change of cardiovascular risk factors is uncertain. We aimed to assess ten-year change in VO2peak and the influence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and the association between change in VO2peak and change in cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: A healthy general population sample had their VO2peak directly measured in two (n = 1431) surveys of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3; 2006-2008 and HUNT4; 2017-19). Average ten-year decline in VO2peak was non-linear and progressed from 3% in the third to about 20% in the eight decade in life and was more pronounced in men. The fit linear mixed models including an additional 2,933 observations from subjects participating only in HUNT3 showed similar age-related decline. Self-reported adherence to LTPA recommendations was associated with better maintenance of VO2peak, with intensity seemingly more important than minutes of LTPA with higher age. Adjusted linear regression analyses showed that one mL/kg/min better maintenance of VO2peak was associated with favorable changes of individual cardiovascular risk factors (all p ≤ 0.002). Using logistic regression one mL/kg/min better maintenance of VO2peak was associated with lower adjusted odds ratio of hypertension (0.95 95% CI 0.92 to 0.98), dyslipidemia (0.92 95% CI 0.89 to 0.94), and metabolic syndrome (0.86 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90) at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Although VO2peak declines progressively with age, performing LTPA and especially high-intensity LTPA is associated with less decline. Maintaining VO2peak is associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile.

5.
Nat Metab ; 2(9): 829-839, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807982

RESUMO

The cardiac benefits of exercise have been recognized for centuries. Studies have undisputedly shown that regular exercise is beneficial for the cardiovascular system in young, old, healthy and diseased populations. For these reasons, physical activity has been recommended worldwide for cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. Although the benefits of exercise are clear, understanding of the molecular triggers that orchestrate these effects remains incomplete and has been a topic of intense research in recent years. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the cardiac effects of physical activity, beginning with a brief history of exercise in cardiovascular medicine and then discussing seminal work on the physiological effects of exercise in healthy, diseased and aged hearts. Later, we revisit pioneering work on the molecular mechanisms underlying the cardiac benefits of exercise, and we conclude with our view on the translational potential of this knowledge as a powerful platform for cardiovascular disease drug discovery.

6.
Nat Metab ; 2(8): 653-654, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694822
7.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560967

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Personal activity intelligence (PAI) is a novel activity metric that can be integrated into self-assessment heart rate devices, and translates heart rate variations during exercise into a weekly score. Previous studies relating to PAI have been conducted in the same populations from Norway where the PAI metric has been derived, limiting generalizability of the results. OBJECTIVE: To test whether PAI is associated with total and cause-specific mortality in a large cohort from the United States. DESIGN: Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) - a prospective cohort between January 1974 and December 2002 with a mean follow-up of 14.5 years. SETTING: Population-based. PARTICIPANTS: 56,175 relatively healthy participants (26.5% women) who underwent extensive preventive medical examinations at Cooper Clinic (Dallas, TX). EXPOSURE: Personal activity intelligence (PAI) score per week was estimated and divided into 4 groups (PAI scores of 0, ≤50, 51-99, and ≥100). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Total and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 14.9 (interquartile range, 6.7-21.4) years, there were 3434 total deaths including 1258 cardiovascular (CVD) deaths. Compared with the inactive (0 PAI) group, participants with a baseline weekly ≥100 PAI had lower risk of mortality: adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 0.79: 95% CI, 0.71-0.87 for all-cause mortality, and AHR, 0.72: 95% CI, 0.60-0.87 for CVD mortality among men; AHR, 0.85: 95% CI, 0.64-1.12 for all-cause mortality, and AHR, 0.48: 95% CI, 0.26-0.91 for CVD mortality among women. For deaths from ischemic heart disease (IHD), PAI score ≥100 was associated with lower risk in both men and women (AHR, 0.70: 95% CI, 0.55-0.88). Obtaining ≥100 weekly PAI was also associated with significantly lower risk of CVD mortality in pre-specified age groups, and in participants with known CVD risk factors. Participants with ≥100 weekly PAI gained 4.2 (95% CI, 3.5-4.6) years of life when compared with those who were inactive at baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: PAI is associated with long-term all-cause, CVD, and IHD, mortality. Clinicians and the general population can incorporate PAI recommendations and thresholds in their physical activity prescriptions and weekly physical activity assessments, respectively, to maximize health outcomes. KEY POINTS: Question: What is the association between personal activity intelligence (PAI), a novel activity metric, and mortality in a large cohort from the United States? FINDINGS: In this prospective study of 56,175 healthy participants at baseline, followed-up for a mean of 14.5 years, ≥100 PAI score/week was associated with significant 21% lower risk of all-cause and 30% lower risk of CVD mortality in comparison with inactive people. Participants with ≥100 PAI/week lived on average 4.2 years longer compared with inactive. Meaning: PAI is associated with long-term all-cause and CVD mortality. Clinicians and general population may incorporate PAI recommendations into weekly physical activity assessments to maximize CVD prevention.

8.
Mol Metab ; 39: 101012, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would attenuate metabolic impairment in a model of severe cancer cachexia. METHODS: We used multiple in vivo and in vitro methods to explore the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects induced by exercise training in tumor-bearing rats. RESULTS: Exercise training improved running capacity, prolonged lifespan, reduced oxidative stress, and normalized muscle mass and contractile function in tumor-bearing rats. An unbiased proteomic screening revealed COP9 signalosome complex subunit 2 (COPS2) as one of the most downregulated proteins in skeletal muscle at the early stage of cancer cachexia. Exercise training normalized muscle COPS2 protein expression in tumor-bearing rats and mice. Lung cancer patients with low endurance capacity had low muscle COPS2 protein expression as compared to age-matched control subjects. To test whether decrease in COPS2 protein levels could aggravate or be an intrinsic compensatory mechanism to protect myotubes from cancer effects, we performed experiments in vitro using primary myotubes. COPS2 knockdown in human myotubes affected multiple cellular pathways, including regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Incubation of cancer-conditioned media in mouse myotubes decreased F-actin expression, which was partially restored by COPS2 knockdown. Direct repeat 4 (DR4) response elements have been shown to positively regulate gene expression. COPS2 overexpression decreased the DR4 activity in mouse myoblasts, and COPS2 knockdown inhibited the effects of cancer-conditioned media on DR4 activity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrated that exercise training may be an important adjuvant therapy to counteract cancer cachexia and uncovered novel mechanisms involving COPS2 to regulate myotube homeostasis in cancer cachexia.

9.
J Physiol ; 598(13): 2513-2530, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347544

RESUMO

The increasing number of older adults has seen a corresponding growth in those affected by neurovascular diseases, including stroke and dementia. Since cures are currently unavailable, major efforts in improving brain health need to focus on prevention, with emphasis on modifiable risk factors such as promoting physical activity. Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) paradigms have been shown to confer vascular benefits translating into improved musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular function. However, the time commitment associated with MICT is a potential barrier to participation, and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has since emerged as a more time-efficient mode of exercise that can promote similar if not indeed superior improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness for a given training volume and further promote vascular adaptation. However, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the impact of HIIT on the brain are surprisingly limited. The present review outlines how the HIIT paradigm has evolved from a historical perspective and describes the established physiological changes including its mechanistic bases. Given the dearth of RCTs, the vascular benefits of MICT are discussed with a focus on the translational neuroprotective benefits including their mechanistic bases that could be further potentiated through HIIT. Safety implications are highlighted and components of an optimal HIIT intervention are discussed including practical recommendations. Finally, statistical effect sizes have been calculated to allow prospective research to be appropriately powered and optimise the potential for detecting treatment effects. Future RCTs that focus on the potential clinical benefits of HIIT are encouraged given the prevalence of cognitive decline in an ever-ageing population.

10.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(3): 341-349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035127

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a strong and independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. For other CVD risk factors, numerous genetic association studies have been performed, revealing promising risk markers and new therapeutic targets. However, large genomic association studies on VO2max are still lacking, despite the fact that VO2max has a large genetic component. METHODS: We performed a genetic association study on 123.545 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and directly measured VO2max in 3470 individuals (exploration cohort). Candidate SNPs from the exploration cohort were analyzed in a validation cohort of 718 individuals, in addition to 7 wild-card SNPs. Sub-analyses were performed for each gender. Validated SNPs were used to create a genetic score for VO2max. In silico analyses and genotype-phenotype databases were used to predict physiological function of the SNPs. RESULTS: In the exploration cohort, 41 SNPs were associated with VO2max (p < 5.0 ∗ 10-4). Six of the candidate SNPs were associated with VO2max also in the validation cohort, in addition to three wild-card SNPs (p < 0.05, in men, women or both). The cumulative number of high-VO2max-SNPs correlated negatively with CVD risk factors, e.g. waist-circumference, visceral fat, fat %, cholesterol levels and BMI. In silico analysis indicated that several of the VO2max-SNPs influence gene expression in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and heart. CONCLUSION: We discovered and validated new SNPs associated with VO2max and proposed possible links between VO2max and CVD. Studies combining several large cohorts with directly measured VO2max are needed to identify more SNPs associated with this phenotype.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Tolerância ao Exercício/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/genética , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur Heart J ; 41(15): 1467-1475, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047884

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) confers higher risk of mortality and morbidity, but the long-term impact of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on outcomes in AF patients is unknown. We, therefore, examined the prospective associations of PA and estimated CRF (eCRF) with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, morbidity and stroke in individuals with AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed 1117 AF patients from the HUNT3 study in 2006-08 until first occurrence of the outcomes or end of follow-up in November 2015. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the prospective associations of self-reported PA and eCRF with the outcomes. Atrial fibrillation patients meeting PA guidelines had lower risk of all-cause [hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.75] and CVD mortality (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86) compared with inactive patients. The respective HRs for CVD morbidity and stroke were 0.78 (95% CI 0.58-1.04) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.42-1.15). Each 1-metabolic equivalent task (MET) higher eCRF was associated with a lower risk of all-cause (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.95), CVD mortality (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.95), and morbidity (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.95). CONCLUSION: Higher PA and CRF are associated with lower long-term risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in individuals with AF. The findings support a role for regular PA and improved CRF in AF patients, in order to combat the elevated risk for mortality and morbidity.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014682, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986991

RESUMO

Background Left atrial (LA) size and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are predictors of future cardiovascular events in high-risk populations. LA dilatation is a diagnostic criterion for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. However, LA is dilated in endurance athletes with high CRF, but little is known about the association between CRF and LA size in healthy, free-living individuals. We hypothesized that in a healthy population, LA size was associated with CRF and leisure-time physical activity, but not with echocardiographic indexes of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Methods and Results In this cross-sectional study from HUNT (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study), 107 men and 138 women, aged 20 to 82 years, without hypertension, cardiovascular, pulmonary, or malignant disease participated. LA volume was assessed by echocardiography and indexed to body surface area LAVI (left atrial volume index). CRF was measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) using ergospirometry, and percent of age- and-sex-predicted VO2peak was calculated. Indexes of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction were assessed in accordance with latest recommendations. LAVI was >34 mL/m2 in 39% of participants, and LAVI was positively associated with VO2peak and percentage of age- and-sex-predicted VO2peak (ß [95% CI], 0.11 [0.06-0.16] and 0.18 [0.09-0.28], respectively) and weighted minutes of physical activity per week (ß [95% CI], 0.01 [0.003-0.015]). LAVI was not associated with other indexes of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. There was an effect modification between age and VO2peak/percentage of age- and-sex-predicted VO2peak showing higher LAVI with advanced age and higher VO2peak/percentage of age- and-sex-predicted VO2peak as presented in prediction diagrams. Conclusions Interpretation of LAVI as a marker of diastolic dysfunction should be done in relation to age-relative CRF. Studies on the prognostic value of LAVI in fit subpopulations are needed.

14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(6): 1248-1255, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977641

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) is the gold standard to measure cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). For resource-intensive evaluation, equations estimating CRF (eCRF) may be used. The purpose was to investigate if an eCRF equation from a healthy population is useful in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if necessary, develop new equations for eCRF in this group. METHODS: V˙O2peak results from 93 persons with RA were compared with eCRF calculated by an established equation for healthy individuals including age, sex, physical activity (PA index), resting HR (RHR), and waist circumference. Because of deviation from the observed V˙O2peak, new equations for eCRF in persons with RA were developed from regression analysis of variables associated with observed V˙O2peak. RESULTS: The established equation overestimated CRF (R = 0.48, root mean square error [RMSE] = 7.07). The new RA equation more accurately estimated CRF (R = 0.81, RMSE = 4.44) (female = 0, male = 1; never smoked = 0, ever smoked = 1): eCRF = 77.961 + (sex × 28.791) - (age × 0.358) - (age-sex interaction × 0.326) - (body mass index [BMI] × 0.700) - (RHR × 0.125) - (smoking × 1.854) + (PA index × 0.211) - (patient global RA assessment × 0.071). Alternative new RA equation (R = 0.79, RMSE = 4.63): eCRF = 77.851 + (sex × 25.460) - (age × 0.381) - (age-sex interaction × 0.254) - (BMI × 0.743) - (RHR × 0.115) - (smoking × 2.154) + (PA index × 0.209). CONCLUSIONS: The new RA equations better predicted CRF in individuals with RA, preventing overestimation in low-fit persons. The new equation should be preferred when estimating CRF in individuals with RA. The alternative equation, without patient global assessment, is useful for individuals with RA in population-based studies.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 301: 180-182, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is the gold-standard approach to assessing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The current study puts forth reference standards for peak oxygen (O2) pulse from the "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base" (FRIEND) Registry. METHODS: The current analysis included 13,318 tests from CPX laboratories in the United States, Canada and Europe. Inclusion criteria included CPX data on apparently healthy men and women: 1) aged ≥20 years; 2) with exercise tests performed on a treadmill; and 3) achieving a peak respiratory exchange ratio ≥ 1.00. RESULTS: Peak O2 pulse 50th percentile values decreased from 20.8 ml/beat in the 2nd decade to 11.2 ml/beat in the 8th decade in men and from 13.6 ml/beat in the 2nd decade to 7.9 ml/beat in the 8th decade in women. Linear regression analysis results produced the following statistically significant (p < 0.001) equation: peak O2 pulse (ml/beat) = 23.2-0.09(age) - 6.6(sex); female = 1 and male = 0. DISCUSSION: The assessment of CRF through CPX is an important health metric. Reference standards, such as those put forth in the current study, allow for the comparison of key measures of CRF to expected normal responses across the adult lifespan.

16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(2): 255-264, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To begin the process of developing global reference standards for adults from directly measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: Percentiles of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from 20 through 79 years of age using International data from the Fitness Registry and Importance of Exercise: A National Database (FRIEND-I) along with previously published data from seven studies. FRIEND-I data from January 1, 2014, through January 1, 2019, included 11,678 maximal treadmill tests from three countries, whereas the previously published reports included 32,329 maximal treadmill tests from six countries. RESULTS: FRIEND-I data revealed significant differences between sex and age groups for VO2max (P<0.01). For the 20- to 29-years of age group, the 50th percentile VO2max in men and women were 49.5 mLO2⋅kg-1⋅min-1 and 40.6 mLO2⋅kg-1⋅min-1, respectively. VO2max declined an average of 9% per decade with the 50th percentile for the 70- to 79-years of age group having a VO2max of 30.8 mLO2⋅kg-1⋅min-1 in men and 25.0 mLO2⋅kg-1⋅min-1 in women. These results were similar in magnitude and direction to the previously published literature. Within both the FRIEND-I and previously published data there were CRF differences between countries. CONCLUSION: This report begins to establish global reference standards for CRF. Continued development of FRIEND-I will increase global representation providing an improved ability to identify and stratify CRF risk categories.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Teste de Esforço/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Padrões de Referência , Sistema de Registros
17.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(11): e565-e574, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with risk of dementia, but whether temporal changes in cardiorespiratory fitness influence the risk of dementia incidence and mortality is still unknown. We aimed to study whether change in estimated cardiorespiratory fitness over time is associated with change in risk of incident dementia, dementia-related mortality, time of onset dementia, and longevity after diagnosis in healthy men and women at baseline. METHODS: We linked data from the prospective Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) done in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway with dementia data from the Health and Memory Study and cause of death registries (n=30 375). Included participants were apparently healthy individuals for whom data were available on estimated cardiorespiratory fitness and important confounding factors. Datasets were matched to each participant through their 11-digit personal identification number. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated on two occasions 10 years apart, during HUNT1 (1984-86) and HUNT2 (1995-97). HUNT2 was used as the baseline for follow-up. Participants were classified into two sex-specific estimated cardiorespiratory fitness groups according to their age (10-year categories): unfit (least fit 20% of participants) and fit (most fit 80% of participants). To assess the association between change in estimated cardiorespiratory fitness and dementia, we used four categories of change: unfit at both HUNT1 and HUNT2, unfit at HUNT1 and fit at HUNT2, fit at HUNT1 and unfit at HUNT2, fit at both HUNT1 and HUNT2. Using Cox proportional hazard analyses, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) for dementia incidence and mortality related to temporal changes in estimated cardiorespiratory fitness. FINDINGS: During a median follow-up of 19·6 years for mortality, and 7·6 years for incidence, there were 814 dementia-related deaths, and 320 incident dementia cases. Compared with participants who were unfit at both assessments, participants who sustained high estimated cardiorespiratory fitness had a reduced risk of incident dementia (AHR 0·60, 95% CI 0·36-0·99) and a reduced risk of dementia mortality (0·56, 0·43-0·75). Participants who had an increased estimated cardiorespiratory fitness over time had a reduced risk of incident dementia (AHR 0·52, 95% CI 0·30-0·90) and dementia mortality (0·72, 0·52-0·99) when compared with those who remained unfit at both assessments. Each metabolic equivalent of task increase in estimated cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with a risk reduction of incident dementia (adjusted HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·93) and dementia mortality (0·90, 0·84-0·97). Participants who increased their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness over time gained 2·2 (95% CI 1·0-3·5) dementia-free years, and 2·7 (0·4-5·8) years of life when compared with those who remained unfit at both assessments. INTERPRETATION: Change in estimated cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for incidence dementia and dementia mortality. Maintaining or improving cardiorespiratory fitness over time may be a target to reduce risk of dementia incidence and mortality, delay onset, and increase longevity after diagnosis. Our data highlight the importance of assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in health risk assessment for people at risk of dementia. FUNDING: The KG Jebsen Foundation, the Norwegian Research Council, the Liaison Committee between the Central Norway Regional Health Authority, and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

18.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(6): 505-514, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505192

RESUMO

A large body of evidence demonstrates positive, graded effects of PA on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality with increasing intensity compared with lower PA intensity. Running is often designated as a high-intensity PA with substantial evidence supporting its health benefits. Cross-country skiing is among the most demanding aerobic endurance exercises and requires engaging the upper- and lower-body. Cross-country skiing is often regarded as high-intensity PA, which has been associated with significant health benefits. However, a robust body of evidence identifying the dose-response relation between cross-country skiing volume and health outcomes is sparse. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the available evidence linking cross-country skiing with CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality; postulated pathways that may elucidate the relation between these associations; outline areas of ongoing uncertainty; and the implications for primary and secondary CVD prevention. To put the findings into perspective, we also summarized the evidence linking running with CVD morbidity and all-cause mortality. Though a head-to-head comparison is not available, the evidence indicates that performing PA as cross-country skiing associates with lower mortality risk when compared with that observed in those undertaking their PA as running. Potential adverse effects of extreme high weekly doses of cross-country skiing over decades may be cardiac arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation. Evidence suggests that cross-country skiing may reduce the risk of CVD events and all-cause mortality via anti-inflammatory pathways, improvements in endothelial function and reduced levels of CVD risk factors, such as lipids, glucose, and blood pressure; and enhancement of cardiorespiratory fitness.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Mortalidade , Corrida , Esqui , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/mortalidade , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Resistência Física , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(12): 2491-2497, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), and examine how long-term changes in eCRF affects the AF risk. METHODS: This prospective cohort study includes data of 39,844 men and women from the HUNT2 (August 15, 1995 to June 18, 1997) and the HUNT3 study (October 3, 2006 to June 25, 2008). The follow-up period was from HUNT3 until AF diagnosis or November 30, 2015. The AF diagnoses were retrieved from hospital registers and validated by medical doctors. A nonexercise test based on age, waist circumference, resting heart rate and self-reported physical activity was used to estimate CRF. Cox regression was performed to assess the association between eCRF and AF. RESULTS: The mean age was 50.6 ± 14.6 yr for men and 50.2 ± 15.2 yr for women. Mean follow-up time was 8.1 yr. One thousand fifty-seven cases of AF were documented. For men, the highest risk reduction of AF was 31% in the fourth quintile of eCRF when compared with the first quintile (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.89). For women, the highest risk reduction was 47% in the fifth quintile when compared with the first quintile (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.38-0.74). One metabolic equivalent increase in eCRF over a 10-yr period was associated with 7% lower risk of AF (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00). Participants with improved eCRF had 44% lower AF risk compared with those with decreased eCRF (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: The eCRF was inversely associated with AF, and participants with improved eCRF over a 10-yr period had less risk of AF. These findings support the hypothesis that fitness may prevent AF.

20.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000912, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168415

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer from more cardiovascular disease (CVD), and develop cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier age than the general population. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important predictor of cardiovascular health. There are few data regarding CRF of RA patients, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) by the gold standard method; cardiopulmonary exercise testing. We compared CRF in RA patients to those from a healthy population, and investigated if risk factors for CVD and RA-specific variables including subjective and objective disease activity measures were associated with CRF in RA patients. Methods: VO2peak tests of RA patients (n=93) were compared to those of an age-matched and gender-matched healthy population (n=4631) from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Predictors of VO2peak were found using Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression, followed by standardised multiple linear regression. Results: Women with RA ≥40 years and men with RA aged 40-49 years or 60-69 years had up to 20% lower CRF than the healthy population in the same age groups. By relative importance, body mass index (standardised coefficient=-0.25, p<0.001), physical activity level (coefficient=0.21, p<0.001), patient global assessment (PGA; coefficient=-0.14, p=0.006), systolic blood pressure (coefficient=-0.12, p=0.016), resting heart rate (coefficient=-0.11, p=0.032) and smoking (coefficient=-0.10, p=0.046) were significant predictors of CRF (R2=0.82, gender-adjusted and age-adjusted). Conclusion: CRF in RA patients was lower than in a healthy population. CRF was associated with common risk factors for CVD and the PGA score. Focusing on fitness in RA patients may improve cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Avaliação de Sintomas
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