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2.
Bull Cancer ; 107(2): 148-156, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057466

RESUMO

Over the past years, planet oncology has kept changing and moving forward. Recent results of important clinical trials are challenging our daily practices. With modesty, the Editorial Board of BulletinduCancer has selected some clinical trials they consider as "must-know about" even if they go beyond our medical fields.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias/terapia , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/terapia , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/terapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Purinas/uso terapêutico
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085544

RESUMO

A large interindividual variability has been observed in anti Programmed cell Death 1 (anti-PD1) therapies efficacy. The aim of this study is to assess the correlation of soluble PD-1 (sPD-1), soluble Programmed cell Death Ligand 1 (sPD-L1), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble CD44 (sCD44), with survival in nivolumab-treated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Plasma biomarkers were assayed at baseline and after two cycles of nivolumab. A cut-off of positivity for sPD-1, sPD-L1 and sCD40L expressions was defined as a plasma level above the lower limit of quantification. Baseline sPD-1 and sPD-L1 levels were subsequently analyzed in a control group of EGFR-mutated (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) NSCLC patients. Association between survival and biomarkers was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression model. Eighty-seven patients were included (51 nivolumab-treated patients, 36 in EGFR-mutated group). In nivolumab group, baseline sPD-1, sPD-L1 and sCD40L were positive for 15(29.4%), 27(52.9%) and 18(50%) patients, respectively. We defined a composite criteria (sCombo) corresponding to sPD-1 and/or sPD-L1 positivity for each patient. In nivolumab group, baseline sCombo positivity was associated with shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) (78 days 95%CI (55-109) vs. 658 days (222-not reached); HR: 4.12 (1.95-8.71), p = 0.0002) and OS (HR: 3.99(1.63-9.80), p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, baseline sCombo independently correlated with PFS (HR: 2.66 (1.17-6.08), p = 0.02) but not OS. In EGFR-mutated group, all patients were baseline sCombo positive; therefore this factor was not associated with survival. After two cycles of nivolumab, an increased or stable sPD-1 level independently correlated with longer PFS (HR: 0.49, 95%CI (0.30-0.80), p = 0.004) and OS (HR: 0.39, 95%CI (0.21-0.71), p = 0.002). VEGFA, sCD40L and sCD44 did not correlate with survival. We propose a composite biomarker using sPD-1and sPDL-1 to predict nivolumab efficacy in NSCLC patients. A larger validation study is warranted.

4.
Bull Cancer ; 107(1): 41-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916995

RESUMO

A growing number of studies suggest a tumor suppressor role for the SWI/SNF complex involved in the remodeling of chromatin. Alterations of this complex have been found in many tumors of different origins, with topographic, morphologic and phenotypic diversity. Notably, they define 2 types of thoracic tumors: SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung carcinoma and SMARCA4-deficient sarcoma. Some clinical features appear to be common to both, such as intrathoracic localization, smoking exposure, male predominance and poor prognosis. However, the histological distinction between these two entities is sometimes difficult and it is not excluded that these entities belong to the same tumor spectrum with different degrees of differentiation. The therapy of these tumors is not yet codified. These tumors do not seem associated with oncogenic driver mutations allowing the prescription of targeted therapy, but immunotherapy has been shown to be effective in rare reported cases. More specific treatments using EZH2 inhibitors also seem promising in SMARCA4 deficient sarcomas.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , DNA Helicases/deficiência , Proteínas de Neoplasias/deficiência , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias Torácicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , DNA Helicases/fisiologia , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Neoplasias do Mediastino/genética , Neoplasias do Mediastino/patologia , Neoplasias do Mediastino/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Complexos Multiproteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos Multiproteicos/fisiologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Proteína SMARCB1/fisiologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/terapia , Neoplasias Torácicas/patologia , Neoplasias Torácicas/terapia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
5.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved cancer prognosis but have not been evaluated specifically in sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC), a rare lung cancer subtype with poor prognosis. As such, our study sought to retrospectively assess the efficacy of ICI in SC. METHODS: All consecutive patients with centrally confirmed SC treated using ICI as a second-line treatment or beyond between 2011 and 2017 were enrolled. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (SP263 clone) and the tumor mutational burden (TMB) with the Foundation One panel. TMB was considered high if it was greater than or equal to 10 mutations per megabase. RESULTS: Overall, 37 patients with SC were evaluated, predominantly men (73%) with a median age of 63.2 years (36.8-79.7) and who were current or former smokers (94.6%). Immunotherapy (nivolumab, 86.5% of cases) was given as a second-line treatment in 54% of the patients and as third-line treatment or beyond in 46% of the patients. The objective response rate was 40.5% and disease control rate was 64.8%, regardless of PD-L1 status. Median overall survival was 12.7 months (range: 0.3-45.7). One-third of patients exhibited early progression. The median PD-L1 expression was 70% (0-100). There was a trend toward higher PD-L1 expression in responsive diseases, with an objective response rate of 58.8% in patients with PD-L1+ and 0% in the one patient with PD-L1- (p = 0.44). The median TMB was 18 (4-39) mutations per megabase, with 87.5% of the cases displaying a high TMB. There was a trend toward higher TMB in responders versus stable or progressive diseases (p = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SC exhibited high response rates and prolonged overall survival under ICI treatment. These data support the prospective investigation of ICI in patients with SC who are under first-line treatment.

6.
Eur J Cancer ; 124: 170-177, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of severe, acute limiting toxicity in patients receiving anti-programmed cell death receptor-1 monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, is largely unpredictable. Sarcopenia was found to be associated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 acute toxicity. We explore the clinical and pharmacological parameters influencing nivolumab toxicity, including body composition. METHODS: From June 2015 to January 2017, all consecutive patients treated with nivolumab in our institution were prospectively included. We studied the relationship between muscle mass assessed by computed tomography, nivolumab trough level (Cmin) at day 14 assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and the occurrence of immune grade III or IV toxicity or any toxicity leading to treatment discontinuation (immune-related acute limiting toxicity [irALT]). RESULTS: In our population (n = 92) with a majority of lung cancer (72%), forty-five (51.7%) patients were sarcopenic. The median plasma nivolumab Cmin at day 14 was 15.4 µg/mL (interquartile range = 11.8-21.0). In multivariate analysis, hypoalbuminaemia (<35 g/L) was independently associated with low nivolumab Cmin on day 14 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01-0.59, p = 0.01) and overweight/obesity with high nivolumab Cmin on day 14 (OR = 5.94; 95% CI = 1.25-28.29, p = 0.03). We observed 22 irALTs in 19 patients (21%). The most frequent irALT was respiratory (6.5%) disorders and gastrointestinal (4.3%) disorders. Patients with sarcopenia were at significantly increased risk of experiencing an irALT (OR = 3.84; 95% CI = 1.02-14.46, p = 0.047). No association was found between toxicity and nivolumab plasma Cmin at day 14. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the importance of assessing body composition and suggest that sarcopenia could predict severe immune-related toxicity of nivolumab in real life.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766292

RESUMO

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data from real-world cohort are sparse in non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with nivolumab. The aim of this prospective observational study was to explore the exposure-response relationship for effectiveness and toxicity of nivolumab in 81 outpatients with metastatic lung cancer. Nivolumab plasma trough concentrations (Cmin) were assayed at days 14, 28, and 42. Prognostic factors (including Cmin) regarding progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were explored using a multivariate Cox model. A Spearman's rank test was used to investigate the relationship between Cmin and grade >2 immune-related adverse events (irAE). Mean nivolumab Cmin was 16.2 ± 6.0 µg/mL (n = 76), 25.6 ± 10.2 µg/mL (n = 64) and 33.4 ± 11.3 µg/mL (n = 53) at days 14, 28, and 42, respectively. No pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship was observed with either survival or onset of irAE. Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (hazard ratio 1.85, 95%confidence interval 1.02-3.38, p-value = 0.043) and baseline use of corticosteroids (HR 8.08, 95%CI 1.78-36.62, p-value = 0.007) as independent risk factor for PFS and only baseline use of corticosteroids (HR 6.29, 95%CI 1.46-27.08, p-value = 0.013) for OS. No PK/PD relationship for nivolumab was observed in real-world NSCLC patients. This supports the recent use of flat dose regimens without plasma drug monitoring.

8.
Lung Cancer ; 136: 109-114, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Brigatinib is a next-generation ALK inhibitor initially developed in ALK-positive NSCLC pretreated with crizotinib. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective multicentric study analyzed ALK-positive advanced NSCLC patients pretreated with at least one tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, including crizotinib, and enrolled in the brigatinib French early access program. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: 104 patients were included (mean age, 56.6 years; never smokers, 61.5%; adenocarcinoma, 98.1%). Patients had received a median of 3 previous treatment lines, including at least 2 ALK inhibitors (mainly crizotinib then ceritinib). At brigatinib initiation, 59.1% had performance status 0-1, 51.9% had ≥ 3 metastatic sites, 74.5% had central nervous system metastases (CNS) and 8.8% had carcinomatous meningitis. Median duration of brigatinib treatment was 6.7 (95% CI, 0.06-20.7) months. Median PFS was 6.6 (4.8-9.9) months for the entire population. For patients who received 2, 3-4 and >4 lines of treatment before brigatinib, PFS was 4.3 (2.5-8.9), 10.4 (5.9-13.9) and 3.8 (0.8-7.4) months, respectively. In the 91 evaluable patients, disease control rate was 78.2%. From brigatinib start, median overall survival was 17.2 (11.0-not reached) months. Among the 68 patients with progressive disease after brigatinib, CNS was involved in 29.4% of cases. Median OS from the diagnosis of NSCLC was 75.3 (38.2-174.6) months. CONCLUSION: These real-world results confirm the efficacy of brigatinib in a cohort of patients heavily pretreated for ALK-positive advanced NSCLC.

9.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the first cause of cancer death worldwide. Increased resting energy expenditure (REE) is frequent among cancer patients and may contribute to cancer cachexia. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic value of increased REE in metastatic NSCLC patients. METHODS: This observational study was conducted between June 2012 and November 2017 in the outpatient unit of the oncology department of Cochin hospital, Paris. Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed stage IV NSCLC underwent measurement of REE by indirect calorimetry before treatment initiation. Uni- and multivariate analysis of overall survival (OS, Cox models) included age, sex, smoking habit, histological subtype, performance status, body mass index, weight loss, albumin and CRP levels and the ratio of measured REE to the REE predicted by the Harris Benedict formula (mREE/pREE). RESULTS: 144 patients were enrolled: mean age 64 years, 63% male, 90% non-squamous carcinoma, including 17% with ALK/EGFR alteration. In univariate analysis, tobacco consumption (p = 0.007), histo-molecular subtype (p < 10-3), performance status (p = 0.04), weight loss (p < 10-4), albumin (p < 10-4), CRP (p = 0.001) and mREE/pREE ratio (>vs ≤ 120%: HR = 2.16, p < 10-3) were significant prognostic factors of OS. Median OS were 6.1 and 17.3 months in patients with mREE/pREE ratio > and ≤120%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, histo-molecular subtype (non-squamous ALK/EGFR mutated vs squamous carcinoma: HR = 0.25, p = 0.006), weight loss (>vs ≤ 5%: HR = 1.98, p = 0.004), albumin (≥vs < 35 g/L: HR = 0.56, p = 0.02) and mREE/pREE ratio (> vs ≤120%: HR = 1.90, p = 0.004) were identified as independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated resting energy expenditure emerges as an independent prognostic factor in metastatic NSCLC.

10.
Bull Cancer ; 106(9): 725-733, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recent progress, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) first-line treatment remains a platinum-based doublet in most cases. No guidelines exist beyond third line. Chemotherapy rechallenge is an option, but little data is available in NSCLC. Our study aims to describe patients who underwent chemotherapy rechallenge while assessing its efficacy and safety. METHODS: Consecutive patients with advanced-stage NSCLC receiving first-line treatment in Tenon hospital in 2011 were included, with a 5-year follow-up. Patients were analyzed according to chemotherapy rechallenge or not. Chemotherapy rechallenge was defined as re-initiation of a previously administered chemotherapy agent at any point in the treatment sequence, with at least one treatment regimen between first use and rechallenge. RESULTS: Of 149 patients, 18 underwent chemotherapy rechallenge (12%). They were younger (56 vs. 61 years, P=0.04), mostly women (61% vs. 30%, P=0.02), with lepidic adenocarcinoma (23% vs. 3.5%, P=0.03), a better general state of health (100% performance status 0-1 vs. 74%, P=0.04), and fewer cardiovascular comorbidities (16% vs. 42%, P=0.04). They were more likely to have received a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment (89% vs. 43%, P=0.0003). Progression-free survival was longer at first use than at rechallenge (median 9.2 vs. 2.7 months, P=0.002). No increased toxicity was observed at rechallenge compared to first use. Finally, a subsequent line of treatment was given after rechallenge in 61% of the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients eligible for chemotherapy rechallenge were those with good prognostic factors. Chemotherapy rechallenge may provide a well-tolerated additional line of treatment, with decreased efficacy compared to its first application.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Ex-Fumantes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Retratamento/métodos , Retratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes
11.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(4): 297-304.e1, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown efficacy in the treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the disease eventually progresses in all patients. In many cases, resistance to ALK TKIs arises through ALK mutations. Although clinical and biological data suggest variations in TKI efficacy according to the mechanism of resistance, ALK mutations are still rarely investigated in routine practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentric study with an aim to determine the frequency and clinical relevance of ALK alterations detected using targeted next-generation sequencing in patients with advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC after progression during an ALK TKI treatment. Data on clinical, pathological, and molecular characteristics and patient outcomes were collected. RESULTS: We identified 23 patients with advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC who, between January 2012 and May 2017, had undergone at least 1 repeat biopsy at progression during an ALK TKI treatment. A resistance mechanism was identified in 9 of the 23 patients (39%). The anomalies involved included 9 ALK mutations in 8 patients and one ALK amplification. The ALK mutation rate was 15% after failure of a first ALK TKI and 33% after failure of 2 ALK TKI treatments. Five of 7 patients who received a different ALK TKI after detection of an ALK mutation achieved an objective response. All of the patients who received a TKI presumed to act on the detected ALK mutant achieved disease control. CONCLUSION: Targeted next-generation sequencing is suitable for detecting ALK resistance mutations in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients in routine practice. It might help select the best treatment at the time of disease progression during treatment with an ALK TKI.

12.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(12): 2107-2116, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In a previous controlled trial, 1-year adjunction of AZA to glucocorticoids (GC) for patients with non-severe, newly diagnosed eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) failed to lower remission failure, vasculitis relapse and isolated asthma/rhinosinus exacerbation rates, or cumulative GC use at month (M) 24. The aim of this study was to analyse longer-term outcomes to determine whether subsequent vasculitis relapse or isolated asthma/rhinosinus exacerbation (IARE) rates differed. METHODS: After M24, patients were followed prospectively, being treated based on physicians' best judgment. Flares and reasons for increased GC dose or immunosuppressant use were recorded, and reviewed according to randomization group to distinguish vasculitis relapses from IAREs according to EGPA Task Force recommendations. RESULTS: Fifty EGPA trial participants were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 6.3 (5.4-7.6) years; two (4%) died 11 months post-inclusion. By M24, vasculitis had relapsed in 21/49 (43%) patients and 14/50 (28%) had IAREs. Another patient died 4.8 years post-inclusion (infection). Among nine patients with subsequent vasculitis relapses, three had a major relapse and three had their first relapse after M24; among 25 patients with later IAREs, 17 occurred after M24. At 5 years, respective vasculitis relapse and IARE rates were 48% (95% CI 34.0, 62.6) and 56% (95% CI 41.7, 70.8), with no between-arm differences (P = 0.32 and 0.13). No entry clinical or biological parameter was associated with these outcomes during follow-up. CONCLUSION: These results confirmed that 1-year AZA and GC induction obtained good overall survival but no long-term benefit for non-severe EGPA patients. Vasculitis relapses, occurring mostly during the first 2 years, and IAREs, occurring throughout follow-up, require other preventive treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00647166.

13.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(5): 844-856, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721797

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple nodules in the lung are being diagnosed with an increasing frequency thanks to high-quality computed tomography imaging. In patients with lung cancer, this situation represents up to 10% of patients who have an operation. For clinical management, it is important to classify the disease as intrapulmonary metastasis or multiple primary lung carcinoma to define TNM classification and optimize therapeutic options. In the present study, we evaluated the respective and combined input of histological and molecular classification to propose a classification algorithm for multiple nodules. METHODS: We studied consecutive patients undergoing an operation with curative intent for lung adenocarcinoma (N = 120) and harboring two tumors (N = 240). Histological diagnosis according to the WHO 2015 classification and molecular profiling using next-generation sequencing targeting 22 hotspot genes allowed classification of samples as multiple primary lung adenocarcinomas or as intrapulmonary metastasis. RESULTS: Next-generation sequencing identified molecular mutations in 91% of tumor pairs (109 of 120). Genomic and histological classification showed a fair agreement when the κ test was used (κ = 0.43). Discordant cases (30 of 109 [27%]) were reclassified by using a combined histomolecular algorithm. EGFR mutations (p = 0.03) and node involvement (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with intrapulmonary metastasis, whereas KRAS mutations (p = 0.00005) were significantly associated with multiple primary lung adenocarcinomas. EGFR mutations (p = 0.02) and node involvement (p = 0.004) were the only independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: We showed that combined histomolecular algorithm represents a relevant tool to classify multifocal lung cancers, which could guide adjuvant treatment decisions. Survival analysis underlined the good prognosis of EGFR-mutated adenocarcinoma in patients with intrapulmonary metastasis.

14.
Bull Cancer ; 106(3): 179-188, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683309

RESUMO

Calpain 1 is a proinflammatory calcium-activated cysteine protease, which can be partly externalized. Extracellular calpains limit inflammatory processes and promote tissue repair, through cell proliferation and migration. Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 has been identified as a target of extracellular calpains in lymphocytes. The aim was to investigate the externalization of calpain 1 and the release of soluble TLR2 during tumor progression of pulmonary lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA). Extracellular calpain 1, soluble fragment of TLR2 and cytokines were analyzed by ELISA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) supernatants from patients with LPA (n=68). Source of calpain was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and soluble TLR2 by flow cytometry on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and human lung cancer cell lines. Extracellular calpain 1, secreted by tumor cells, was associated to tumor progression, neutrophilic inflammation, with a poor prognostic factor on survival (P=0.003). TLR2 was expressed on PMN and tumor cells and decreased after calpain exposure. Soluble fragment of TLR2 in BALF supernatants was correlated to the extracellular calpain 1 concentration (r=0.624; P<0.001), and its high level was associated with tumor progression and a pro-inflammatory environment. Extracellular calpain 1 secreted by tumor cells, could participate in inflammatory microenvironment and tumor progression through TLR2 in LPA.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Calpaína/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Calpaína/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/análise , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Prognóstico
15.
Lung Cancer ; 127: 96-102, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642559

RESUMO

Objectives The efficacy of osimertinib in pretreated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR T790 M resistance mutation was demonstrated in clinical trials. However, data on efficacy of osimertinib in real world remain rare. Materials and methods This retrospective multicentric study analyzed T790M-positive advanced NSCLC patients enrolled in French early access program for osimertinib. Patients were pretreated with first- or second-generation EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor and for a majority with chemotherapy. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from osimertinib initiation. Results 205 patients (mean age, 69.5 years; female, 68.8%; adenocarcinoma, 97.5%, never-smokers, 71.5%) were analyzed. Osimertinib was used in second and third line in 18.0% and 82.0% of patients, respectively. Median PFS was 12.4 (95% CI, 10.1-15.1) months. In patients with and without cerebral metastasis, PFS was 9.7 (7.7-13.5) and 15.1 (12.0-17.1) months (p = 0.21), respectively. PFS in second and third line or more was 12.6 (6.7-17.5) and 12.4 (9.7-15.3) months, respectively. Median PFS in patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion and exon 21 mutation was 13.5 (10.1-16.0) and 9.7 (7.4-13.2) months, respectively (p = 0.049). Median OS since osimertinib initiation was 20.5 (16.9-24.3) months: 23.1 (18.6-27.8) and 18.0 (12.2-22.2) months in patients without and with cerebral metastasis (p = 0.11); 17.5 (11.6-27.8) and 21.7 (17.3-24.3) months as second or third line of treatment or more (p = 0.46), respectively. Median OS in patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion and exon 21 mutation was 23.1 (18.6-25.7) and 15.3 (11.6-21.7) months, respectively (p = 0.03). Osimertinib dosage was modified in 8.0% of patients and definitively discontinued for adverse events in 5.9%. Fifty patients benefited from rebiopsy (persistence of T790 M mutation, 44.7%; C797S mutation, 21.1%; cMET amplification, 8.0%). Conclusion In pretreated patients with T790M-mutated advanced NSCLC, the efficacy of osimertinib appears similar in real-world setting to that of clinical trials.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Resistência a Medicamentos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Bull Cancer ; 106(1): 12-23, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612698

RESUMO

The editorial board of Bulletin du Cancer presents some hot topics published or presented in major oncology meetings in 2018. This selection is related to pediatric oncology and to solid and hemato-malignancies in adults, with immunotherapy approaches (checkpoints or CAR-T) as one of the major breakthroughs. Putative impacts on daily practices are discussed, in order to detail what will really change our practice.


Assuntos
Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/tendências
17.
Eur Respir J ; 53(2)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523160

RESUMO

Regulator of telomere length 1 (RTEL1) mutations have been evidenced in 5-9% of familial pulmonary fibrosis; however, the phenotype of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and RTEL1 mutations is poorly understood.Whole exome sequencing was performed in 252 probands with ILD and we included all patients with ILD and RTEL1 mutation. RTEL1 expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in the lungs of controls, as well as in RTEL1 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) mutation carriers.We identified 35 subjects from 17 families. Median age at diagnosis of ILD was 53.1 years (range 28.0-80.6). The most frequent pulmonary diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n=20, 57%), secondary ILD (n=7, 20%) and unclassifiable fibrosis or interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (n=7, 20%). The median transplant-free and overall survival periods were 39.2 months and 45.3 months, respectively. Forced vital capacity at diagnosis was the only factor associated with decreased transplant-free survival. Extra-pulmonary manifestations were less frequent as compared to other telomere-related gene mutation carriers. A systematic analysis of the literature identified 110 patients with ILD and RTEL1 mutations (including this series) and confirmed the heterogeneity of the pulmonary phenotype, the prevalence of non-idiopathic diseases and the low prevalence of extra-pulmonary manifestations.Immunohistochemistry showed that RTEL1 was expressed by bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, as well as by alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes, but not by fibroblasts.

19.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(6): 3829-3844, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069384

RESUMO

The association between lung cancer (LC) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) can be explained by the shared risk factors like smoking and physiopathology of fibrogenesis and cancerogenesis. The relative LC risk is shown to be 3.5- to 7.3-times higher in ILD, with LC occurrence estimated at 10-20% in ILD, with >15% of ILD patients likely to die from LC. ILD incidence upon LC diagnosis varied from 2.4-10.9%. Primary radiological presentations consist of peripheral lesions, mostly in the inferior pulmonary lobes, either close to or within the ILD areas. There is a trend towards inverted proportion of adenocarcinomas and squamous-cell carcinomas, with EGFR mutations very rarely found. ILD negatively impacted LC prognosis, with surgery associated with increased morbidity-mortality, particularly due to acute exacerbation (AE) of ILD. Limited resection reduced this risk, whilst increasing that of cancer mortality. Studies on radiotherapy that can induce AE-ILD are scarce. Chemotherapy was associated with similar response rates to those in LC patients without ILD, yet worse survival. This difference may be accounted for by ILD patients' poorer health and higher risk of drug-induced pneumonitis. Further studies are warranted to better understand cancer physiopathology within the fibrotic areas, along with the therapeutic strategies required.

20.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(12): 1962-1967, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: MNNG HOS transforming gene (MET) abnormalities such as amplification and exon 14 mutations may be responsive to targeted therapies. They are prevalent in lung sarcomatoid carcinomas (LSCs) and must be diagnosed as efficiently as possible. Hypothetically, c-MET overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) may prove effective as a screening test for MET abnormalities. METHODS: Tissue samples were obtained from consecutive patients with a resected LSC in four oncologic centers. IHC was performed using the SP44 antibody (Ventana, Tucson, Arizona) and evaluated using the MetMab score and H-score. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied with the dual color probe set from Zytovision (Clinisciences, Nanterre, France). True MET amplification was diagnosed when MET gene copy number was 5 or greater and the ratio between MET gene copy number and chromosome 7 number was greater than 2. All MET exon 14 alterations including those affecting splice sites occurring within splice donor and acceptor sites were detected in the routine molecular testing on genetic platforms. RESULTS: A total of 81 LSCs were included. Fourteen (17%) exhibited positive IHC using the MetMab score and 15 (18.5%) using the H-score. MET amplification was detected in six tumors (8.5%) and MET exon 14 mutation in five (6%). A weak positive correlation between IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization was found (r = 0.27, p = 0.0001). IHC sensitivity for MET amplification was 50%, with a specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 21.4%, and negative predictive value of 94.7%. IHC sensitivity for MET exon 14 mutations was 20%, with a specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 7%, and negative predictive value of 94%. CONCLUSION: IHC is not a relevant screening tool for MET abnormalities in LSC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Éxons/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Gigantes/genética , Carcinoma de Células Gigantes/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/metabolismo
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