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1.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD73, a newly recognized immune checkpoint mediator, is expressed in several types of malignancies. However, CD73 expression and its impact on tumor microenvironment and clinical outcomes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unclear. METHODS: This study included two cohorts: 138 patients from our institution (MDA) and 176 patients from TCGA dataset. CD73 expression, CD4+, CD8+, CD21+ and CD45RO + tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The results of CD73 expression were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters, survival and TILs. RESULTS: CD73 overexpression correlated with poor differentiation (P = 0.002) and tumor size (P = 0.049). For CD73-low group, median overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were 26.9 ± 3.8 months and 12.6 ± 2.6 months, respectively, compared to 16.9 ± 4.4 months (P = 0.01) and 7.9 ± 1.2 months (P = 0.01), respectively, in CD73-high group. CD73 was an independent predictor for both RFS (P = 0.02) and OS (P = 0.01) by multivariate variate analysis. Similarly, CD73-high tumors had significantly shorter OS than CD73-low tumors in TCGA dataset (P < 0.0001). CD73-high correlated with decreased CD4+ TILs in MDA cohort and decreased CD8A and CR2 (CD21) expression in TCGA cohort. CONCLUSIONS: CD73 overexpression is associated with poor differentiation, tumor size, and shorter survival, and is an independent prognostic factor in PDAC patients. CD73 overexpression is associated with decreased CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+ TILs. Our data support that CD73 plays an important role in immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and promote tumor progression in PDAC.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which immune cells regulate metastasis is unclear. Understanding the role of immune cells in metastasis will guide the development of treatments improving patient survival. METHODS: We used syngeneic orthotopic mouse tumour models (wild-type, NOD/scid and Nude), employed knockout (CD8 and CD4) models and administered CXCL4. Tumours and lungs were analysed for cancer cells by bioluminescence, and circulating tumour cells were isolated from blood. Immunohistochemistry on the mouse tumours was performed to confirm cell type, and on a tissue microarray with 180 TNBCs for human relevance. TCGA data from over 10,000 patients were analysed as well. RESULTS: We reveal that intratumoral immune infiltration differs between metastatic and non-metastatic tumours. The non-metastatic tumours harbour high levels of CD8+ T cells and low levels of platelets, which is reverse in metastatic tumours. During tumour progression, platelets and CXCL4 induce differentiation of monocytes into myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which inhibit CD8+ T-cell function. TCGA pan-cancer data confirmed that CD8lowPlatelethigh patients have a significantly lower survival probability compared to CD8highPlateletlow. CONCLUSIONS: CD8+ T cells inhibit metastasis. When the balance between CD8+ T cells and platelets is disrupted, platelets produce CXCL4, which induces MDSCs thereby inhibiting the CD8+ T-cell function.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major pathologic response (MPR), defined as ≤10% residual viable tumor, currently serves as a surrogate endpoint for survival for patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, the significance of pathologic response in lymph nodes harboring metastatic tumor in such patients remains uncertain. Therefore, we studied the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on resected positive lymph nodes and determined if the degree of pathologic response in the lymph nodes alone (LN-MPR) or in combination with that of the primary tumor (PT-MPR) was able to predict outcome. METHODS: Seventy-five NSCLC patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and complete surgical resection were included in this study. Tissue specimens were retrospectively evaluated by two pathologists blinded to the patients' treatments and outcomes. Specimens were reviewed for the degree of pathologic response in the primary tumor and in any involved lymph nodes. The prognostic performance of LN-MPR alone or in combination with PT-MPR with respect to overall survival (OS) was examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox regression model. RESULTS: LN-MPR was significantly predictive of long-term OS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A combination of PT-MPR with LN-MPR was significantly associated with outcome and allowed stratification of patients into 3 prognostic groups (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LN-MPR in isolation is a reliable predictor of OS in NSCLC patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A combination of LN-MPR with PT-MPR appears to correlate well with outcome and can be used to predict prognosis in this patient population.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the prognostic importance of immune infiltrate in colorectal cancer, immunotherapy has demonstrated limited clinical activity in refractory metastatic proficient mismatch-repair (pMMR) colorectal cancer. This study explores combining anti-CTLA-4 and an anti-PD-L1 therapy in the preoperative management of resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases with the intent to improve immune responses in this disease setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with resectable colorectal cancer liver-only metastases received one dose of tremelimumab and durvalumab preoperatively followed by single-agent durvalumab postoperatively. Primary objectives were to determine feasibility and safety. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients were enrolled between November 2016 and November 2019. Twenty-three patients received treatment [21 pMMR and 2 deficient mismatch-repair (dMMR)] and subsequently 17 (74%; 95% CI: 53%-88%) underwent surgical resection. Grade 3/4 treatment-related immune toxicity and postoperative grade 3/4 toxicity were seen in 5/23 (22%; 95% CI: 10%-44%) and 2/17 (12%; 95% CI: 2%-38%) patients. The median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 9.7 (95% CI: 8.1-17.8) months, and overall survival was 24.5 (95% CI: 16.5-28.4) months. Four patients demonstrated complete pathologic response, two dMMR patients and two POLE mutation patients. Pre- and post-tumor tissue analysis by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and RNA sequencing revealed similar levels of T-cell infiltration, but did demonstrate evidence of CD8+ and CD4+ activation posttreatment. An increase in B-cell transcriptome signature and B-cell density was present in posttreatment samples from patients with prolonged RFS. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the safety of neoadjuvant combination tremelimumab and durvalumab prior to colorectal cancer liver resection. Evidence for T- and B-cell activation following this therapy was seen in pMMR metastatic colorectal cancer.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809063

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Severely symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with lung inflammation, pneumonia, and respiratory failure, thereby raising concerns of elevated risk of COVID-19-associated mortality among lung cancer patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into lung cells. The single-cell expression landscape of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung cancer patients remains unknown. We sought to delineate single-cell expression profiles of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. We examined the expression levels and cellular distribution of ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2-priming proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 in 5 LUADs and 14 matched normal tissues by single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis. scRNA-seq of 186,916 cells revealed epithelial-specific expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS4. Analysis of 70,030 LUAD- and normal-derived epithelial cells showed that ACE2 levels were highest in normal alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells and that TMPRSS2 was expressed in 65% of normal AT2 cells. Conversely, the expression of TMPRSS4 was highest and most frequently detected (75%) in lung cells with malignant features. ACE2-positive cells co-expressed genes implicated in lung pathobiology, including COPD-associated HHIP, and the scavengers CD36 and DMBT1. Notably, the viral scavenger DMBT1 was significantly positively correlated with ACE2 expression in AT2 cells. We describe normal and tumor lung epithelial populations that express SARS-CoV-2 receptor and proteases, as well as major host defense genes, thus comprising potential treatment targets for COVID-19 particularly among lung cancer patients.

6.
Immunity ; 54(3): 586-602.e8, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691136

RESUMO

To identify disease-relevant T cell receptors (TCRs) with shared antigen specificity, we analyzed 778,938 TCRß chain sequences from 178 non-small cell lung cancer patients using the GLIPH2 (grouping of lymphocyte interactions with paratope hotspots 2) algorithm. We identified over 66,000 shared specificity groups, of which 435 were clonally expanded and enriched in tumors compared to adjacent lung. The antigenic epitopes of one such tumor-enriched specificity group were identified using a yeast peptide-HLA A∗02:01 display library. These included a peptide from the epithelial protein TMEM161A, which is overexpressed in tumors and cross-reactive epitopes from Epstein-Barr virus and E. coli. Our findings suggest that this cross-reactivity may underlie the presence of virus-specific T cells in tumor infiltrates and that pathogen cross-reactivity may be a feature of multiple cancers. The approach and analytical pipelines generated in this work, as well as the specificity groups defined here, present a resource for understanding the T cell response in cancer.

7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(4): 686-696, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662578

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is required to determine the eligibility for pembrolizumab monotherapy in advanced NSCLC worldwide and for several other indications depending on the country. Four assays have been approved/ Communauté Européene-In vitro Diagnostic (CV-IVD)-marked, but PD-L1 IHC seems diversely implemented across regions and laboratories with the application of laboratory-developed tests (LDTs). METHOD: To assess the practice of PD-L1 IHC and identify issues and disparities, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Pathology Committee conducted a global survey for pathologists from January to May 2019, comprising multiple questions on preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical conditions. RESULT: A total of 344 pathologists from 64 countries participated with 41% from Europe, 24% from North America, and 18% from Asia. Besides biopsies and resections, cellblocks were used by 75% of the participants and smears by 11%. The clone 22C3 was most often used (69%) followed by SP263 (51%). They were applied as an LDT by 40% and 30% of the users, respectively, and 76% of the participants developed at least one LDT. Half of the participants reported a turnaround time of less than or equal to 2 days, whereas 13% reported that of greater than or equal to 5 days. In addition, quality assurance (QA), formal training for scoring, and standardized reporting were not implemented by 18%, 16%, and 14% of the participants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity in PD-L1 testing is marked across regions and laboratories in terms of antibody clones, IHC assays, samples, turnaround times, and QA measures. The lack of QA, formal training, and standardized reporting stated by a considerable minority identifies a need for additional QA measures and training opportunities.

8.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 314, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750914

RESUMO

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is classified as a high-grade neuroendocrine (NE) tumor, but a subset of SCLC has been termed "variant" due to the loss of NE characteristics. In this study, we computed NE scores for patient-derived SCLC cell lines and xenografts, as well as human tumors. We aligned NE properties with transcription factor-defined molecular subtypes. Then we investigated the different immune phenotypes associated with high and low NE scores. We found repression of immune response genes as a shared feature between classic SCLC and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells of the healthy lung. With loss of NE fate, variant SCLC tumors regain cell-autonomous immune gene expression and exhibit higher tumor-immune interactions. Pan-cancer analysis revealed this NE lineage-specific immune phenotype in other cancers. Additionally, we observed MHC I re-expression in SCLC upon development of chemoresistance. These findings may help guide the design of treatment regimens in SCLC.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669241

RESUMO

Lung cancer is consistently the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and it ranks as the second most frequent type of new cancer cases diagnosed in the United States, both in males and females. One subtype of lung cancer, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), is an aggressive, poorly differentiated, and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma that accounts for 13% of all lung carcinomas. SCLC is the most frequent neuroendocrine lung tumor, and it is commonly presented as an advanced stage disease in heavy smokers. Due to its clinical presentation, it is typically diagnosed in small biopsies or cytology specimens, with routine immunostaining only. However, immunohistochemistry markers are extremely valuable in demonstrating neuroendocrine features of SCLC and supporting its differential diagnosis. The 2015 WHO classification grouped all pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas in one category and maintained the SCLC combined variant that was previously recognized. In this review, we explore multiple aspects of the pathologic features of this entity, as well as clinically relevant immunohistochemistry markers expression and its molecular characteristics. In addition, we will focus on characteristics of the tumor microenvironment, and the latest pathogenesis findings to better understand the new therapeutic options in the current era of personalized therapy.

10.
Nature ; 590(7846): 504-508, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536620

RESUMO

Amplification of chromosomal region 8p11-12 is a common genetic alteration that has been implicated in the aetiology of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC)1-3. The FGFR1 gene is the main candidate driver of tumorigenesis within this region4. However, clinical trials evaluating FGFR1 inhibition as a targeted therapy have been unsuccessful5. Here we identify the histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) methyltransferase NSD3, the gene for which is located in the 8p11-12 amplicon, as a key regulator of LUSC tumorigenesis. In contrast to other 8p11-12 candidate LUSC drivers, increased expression of NSD3 correlated strongly with its gene amplification. Ablation of NSD3, but not of FGFR1, attenuated tumour growth and extended survival in a mouse model of LUSC. We identify an LUSC-associated variant NSD3(T1232A) that shows increased catalytic activity for dimethylation of H3K36 (H3K36me2) in vitro and in vivo. Structural dynamic analyses revealed that the T1232A substitution elicited localized mobility changes throughout the catalytic domain of NSD3 to relieve auto-inhibition and to increase accessibility of the H3 substrate. Expression of NSD3(T1232A) in vivo accelerated tumorigenesis and decreased overall survival in mouse models of LUSC. Pathological generation of H3K36me2 by NSD3(T1232A) reprograms the chromatin landscape to promote oncogenic gene expression signatures. Furthermore, NSD3, in a manner dependent on its catalytic activity, promoted transformation in human tracheobronchial cells and growth of xenografted human LUSC cell lines with amplification of 8p11-12. Depletion of NSD3 in patient-derived xenografts from primary LUSCs containing NSD3 amplification or the NSD3(T1232A)-encoding variant attenuated neoplastic growth in mice. Finally, NSD3-regulated LUSC-derived xenografts were hypersensitive to bromodomain inhibition. Thus, our work identifies NSD3 as a principal 8p11-12 amplicon-associated oncogenic driver in LUSC, and suggests that NSD3-dependency renders LUSC therapeutically vulnerable to bromodomain inhibition.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Histonas/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Feminino , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/deficiência , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/deficiência , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 504-514, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603241

RESUMO

Ipilimumab improves clinical outcomes when combined with nivolumab in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy and impact on the immune microenvironment in operable NSCLC remain unclear. We report the results of the phase 2 randomized NEOSTAR trial (NCT03158129) of neoadjuvant nivolumab or nivolumab + ipilimumab followed by surgery in 44 patients with operable NSCLC, using major pathologic response (MPR) as the primary endpoint. The MPR rate for each treatment arm was tested against historical controls of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The nivolumab + ipilimumab arm met the prespecified primary endpoint threshold of 6 MPRs in 21 patients, achieving a 38% MPR rate (8/21). We observed a 22% MPR rate (5/23) in the nivolumab arm. In 37 patients resected on trial, nivolumab and nivolumab + ipilimumab produced MPR rates of 24% (5/21) and 50% (8/16), respectively. Compared with nivolumab, nivolumab + ipilimumab resulted in higher pathologic complete response rates (10% versus 38%), less viable tumor (median 50% versus 9%), and greater frequencies of effector, tissue-resident memory and effector memory T cells. Increased abundance of gut Ruminococcus and Akkermansia spp. was associated with MPR to dual therapy. Our data indicate that neoadjuvant nivolumab + ipilimumab-based therapy enhances pathologic responses, tumor immune infiltrates and immunologic memory, and merits further investigation in operable NSCLC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4530, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633208

RESUMO

Immune profiling is becoming a vital tool for identifying predictive and prognostic markers for translational studies. The study of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in paraffin tumor tissues such as malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) could yield insights to actionable targets to improve patient outcome. Here, we optimized and tested a new immune-profiling method to characterize immune cell phenotypes in paraffin tissues and explore the co-localization and spatial distribution between the immune cells within the TME and the stromal or tumor compartments. Tonsil tissues and tissue microarray (TMA) were used to optimize an automated nine-color multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) panel to study the TME using eight antibodies: PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD8, Foxp3, CD68, KI67, and pancytokeratin. To explore the potential role of the cells into the TME with this mIF panel we applied this panel in twelve MPM cases to assess the multiple cell phenotypes obtained from the image analysis and well as their spatial distribution in this cohort. We successful optimized and applied an automated nine-color mIF panel to explore a small set of MPM cases. Image analysis showed a high degree of cell phenotype diversity with immunosuppression patterns in the TME of the MPM cases. Mapping the geographic cell phenotype distribution in the TME, we were able to identify two distinct, complex immune landscapes characterized by specific patterns of cellular distribution as well as cell phenotype interactions with malignant cells. Successful we showed the optimization and reproducibility of our mIF panel and their incorporation for comprehensive TME immune profiling into translational studies that could refine our ability to correlate immunologic phenotypes with specific patterns of cells distribution and distance analysis. Overall, this will improve our ability to understand the behavior of cells within the TME and predict new treatment strategies to improve patient outcome.

13.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580222

RESUMO

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have already substantially improved the outcomes of patients with many types of cancer, although only 20-40% of patients derive benefit from these new therapies. PD-L1, quantified using immunohistochemistry assays, is currently the most widely validated, used and accepted biomarker to guide the selection of patients to receive anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies. However, many challenges remain in the clinical use of these assays, including the necessity of using different companion diagnostic assays for specific agents, high levels of inter-assay variability in terms of both performance and cut-off points, and a lack of prospective comparisons of how PD-L1+ disease diagnosed using each assay relates to clinical outcomes. In this Review, we describe the current role of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assays used to inform the selection of patients to receive anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies, we discuss the various technical and clinical challenges associated with these assays, including regulatory issues, and we provide some perspective on how to optimize PD-L1 as a selection biomarker for the future treatment of patients with solid tumours.

14.
Cancer Cell ; 39(3): 346-360.e7, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482121

RESUMO

Despite molecular and clinical heterogeneity, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is treated as a single entity with predictably poor results. Using tumor expression data and non-negative matrix factorization, we identify four SCLC subtypes defined largely by differential expression of transcription factors ASCL1, NEUROD1, and POU2F3 or low expression of all three transcription factor signatures accompanied by an Inflamed gene signature (SCLC-A, N, P, and I, respectively). SCLC-I experiences the greatest benefit from the addition of immunotherapy to chemotherapy, while the other subtypes each have distinct vulnerabilities, including to inhibitors of PARP, Aurora kinases, or BCL-2. Cisplatin treatment of SCLC-A patient-derived xenografts induces intratumoral shifts toward SCLC-I, supporting subtype switching as a mechanism of acquired platinum resistance. We propose that matching baseline tumor subtype to therapy, as well as manipulating subtype switching on therapy, may enhance depth and duration of response for SCLC patients.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419780

RESUMO

Immunoprofiling to identify biomarkers and integration with clinical trials outcome are critical to improve immunotherapy approaches for cancer patients. However, the translational potential of individual studies is often limited by small sample size of trials and the complexity of immuno-oncology biomarkers. Variability in assays further limits comparison and interpretation of data across studies and laboratories. To enable a systematic approach to biomarker identification and correlation with clinical outcome across trials, the Cancer Immune Monitoring and Analysis Centers and Cancer Immunologic Data Commons (CIMAC-CIDC) Network was established through support of the Cancer MoonshotSM Initiative of the National Cancer Institute and the Partnership for Accelerating Cancer Therapies (PACT) with industry partners via the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. The CIMAC-CIDC Network is composed of four academic centers (CIMACs) with multidisciplinary expertise in the field of cancer immunotherapy that provide validated and harmonized assays for immune profiling. A data coordinating center (CIDC) provides the computational expertise and resources for biomarker data storage and analysis platforms for correlation with clinical data. This overview highlights strategies for assay harmonization to enable cross-trial and cross-site data analysis and describes key elements for establishing a network to enhance immuno-oncology biomarker development. These include an operational infrastructure; validation and harmonization of core immunoprofiling assays; platforms for data ingestion and integration; and access to specimens from clinical trials. Published in the same volume are reports of harmonization for core analyses: whole exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, cytometry by time of flight, and immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence.

17.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(4): 583-600, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations do not respond to immune checkpoint blockade therapy and their EGFR wildtype counterpart. The mechanisms underlying this lack of clinical response have been investigated but remain incompletely understood. METHODS: We analyzed three cohorts of resected lung adenocarcinomas (Profiling of Resistance Patterns of Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancer of Thorax, Immune Genomic Profiling of NSCLC, and The Cancer Genome Atlas) and compared tumor immune microenvironment of EGFR-mutant tumors to EGFR wildtype tumors, to identify actionable regulators to target and potentially enhance the treatment response. RESULTS: EGFR-mutant NSCLC exhibited low programmed death-ligand 1, low tumor mutational burden, decreased number of cytotoxic T cells, and low T cell receptor clonality, consistent with an immune-inert phenotype, though T cell expansion ex vivo was preserved. In an analysis of 75 immune checkpoint genes, the top up-regulated genes in the EGFR-mutant tumors (NT5E and ADORA1) belonged to the CD73/adenosine pathway. Single-cell analysis revealed that the tumor cell population expressed CD73, both in the treatment-naive and resistant tumors. Using coculture systems with EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, T regulatory cell proportion was decreased with CD73 knockdown. In an immune-competent mouse model of EGFR-mutant lung cancer, the CD73/adenosine pathway was markedly up-regulated and CD73 blockade significantly inhibited tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our work revealed that EGFR-mutant NSCLC has an immune-inert phenotype. We identified the CD73/adenosine pathway as a potential therapeutic target for EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 687, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514726

RESUMO

The evolution of DNA methylome and methylation intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) during early carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma has not been systematically studied. We perform reduced representation bisulfite sequencing of invasive lung adenocarcinoma and its precursors, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. We observe gradual increase of methylation aberrations and significantly higher level of methylation ITH in later-stage lesions. The phylogenetic patterns inferred from methylation aberrations resemble those based on somatic mutations suggesting parallel methylation and genetic evolution. De-convolution reveal higher ratio of T regulatory cells (Tregs) versus CD8 + T cells in later-stage diseases, implying progressive immunosuppression with neoplastic progression. Furthermore, increased global hypomethylation is associated with higher mutation burden, copy number variation burden and AI burden as well as higher Treg/CD8 ratio, highlighting the potential impact of methylation on chromosomal instability, mutagenesis and tumor immune microenvironment during early carcinogenesis of lung adenocarcinomas.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigenoma/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinogênese/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Hiperplasia/genética , Hiperplasia/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênese , Taxa de Mutação , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(3): 439-451, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309987

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors in combination with EGFR inhibitors provides a greater benefit than EGFR inhibition alone, suggesting that EGFR mutation status may define a patient subgroup with greater benefit from VEGF blockade. The mechanisms driving this potentially enhanced VEGF dependence are unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the effect of EGFR inhibition on VEGF and HIF-1α in NSCLC models in vitro and in vivo. We determined the efficacy of VEGF inhibition in xenografts and analyzed the impact of acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance on VEGF and HIF-1α. RESULTS: NSCLC cells with EGFR-activating mutations exhibited altered regulation of VEGF compared with EGFR wild-type cells. In EGFR-mutant cells, EGFR, not hypoxia, was the dominant regulator of HIF-1α and VEGF. NSCLC tumor models bearing classical or exon 20 EGFR mutations were more sensitive to VEGF inhibition than EGFR wild-type tumors, and a combination of VEGF and EGFR inhibition delayed tumor progression. In models of acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance, whereas VEGF remained overexpressed, the hypoxia-independent expression of HIF-1α was delinked from EGFR signaling, and EGFR inhibition no longer diminished HIF-1α or VEGF expression. CONCLUSIONS: In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, EGFR signaling is the dominant regulator of HIF-1α and VEGF in a hypoxia-independent manner, hijacking an important cellular response regulating tumor aggressiveness. Cells with acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance retained elevated expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, and the pathways were no longer EGFR-regulated. This supports VEGF targeting in EGFR-mutant tumors in the EGFR inhibitor-naive and refractory settings.

20.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327833

RESUMO

Venetoclax, a BCL-2 inhibitor, is highly effective for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and dependence on alternative proteins may result in resistance to BCL-2 inhibition. Patients with CLL treated with venetoclax as monotherapy at MD Anderson Cancer Center between 05/2012 and 01/2016 were included and pretreatment bone marrow was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for BCL-W, BCL-XL, BCL2-A1 and MCL-1. Twenty-seven patients were included. BCL-W + and BCL-2A1+ was found in 15% and 7% of the patients, respectively. Both BCL-XL and MCL-1 were negative in all samples. A higher CR and longer PFS rates were observed in patients with BCL-W+ (p = .60, p = .46), BCL-2A1+ (p = .60, p = .29), and either BCL-W + or BCL-2A1+ (p = .33, p = .20), though not statistically significant. Pretreatment IHC expression of BCL-2 alternative proteins does not predict response to venetoclax in CLL, but may be a surrogate for an indolent biology. Sensitive techniques are needed to explore anti-apoptotic pathways.

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