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3.
Food Chem ; 278: 284-293, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583375

RESUMO

Modified maize starches were obtained by the esterification of native starch with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) at levels of 3% or 9%, and afterwards by its complexation with metal ions. The degree of substitution, contents of metal ions, hydrodynamic size distribution, intrinsic viscosity, pasting characteristics of the tested starches, and pastes surface tension were determined. Moreover, emulsions prepared from the modified starches were studied for oil droplet size distribution and storage stability. Reduction of hydrodynamic size and intrinsic viscosity was observed in octentyl succinate starch (OS starch) esterified with 3% OSA complexed with magnesium or calcium. The presence of potassium in both esterified starches increased their water binding capacity and solubility in water. In most cases, complexation with metal ions decreased viscosity of OS starch pastes. Emulsions prepared from the modified starches had smaller oil droplets and were more stable during storage, compared to the systems prepared from non-esterified starch.


Assuntos
Metais/química , Amido/química , Succinatos/química , Zea mays/química , Emulsões/química , Potássio/química , Solubilidade , Amido/análogos & derivados , Amido/metabolismo , Viscosidade , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 114: 1288-1294, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649532

RESUMO

The influence of glucose syrup on the retrogradation of cereal starches was investigated. Laboratory isolated starches from wheat (WS) and oats (OS - oat starch and ROS - residual oat starch) were used in this research. ROS was isolated from the flour left after the industrial separation of ß-glucans. Gelatinization temperature of oat starches (63.82°C and 64.01°C for OS and ROS, respectively) was higher than for WS (62.26°C), whereas gelatinization enthalpy for oat starches (8.87J/g and 9.09J/g for OS and ROS, respectively) was lower than for WS (9.99J/g). Moreover, retrogradation percentage (%R) was similar for both oat starches (29.76% and 27.72% for OS and ROS, respectively), and was substantially lower than for WS (42.04%). The introduction of glucose syrup into system reduced the extent of the retrogradation. Rate of the process was suppressed for WS and ROS, whereas for OS it was increased. ß-Glucan production process had no significant effect on the gelatinization and retrogradation of oat starch.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Endokrynol Pol ; 68(3): 290-298, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28660996

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was the development of models of cognitive functions in a group of post-menopausal women, according to the concentration of the selected laboratory parameters evaluating the functional state of the thyroid gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted during 2012-2014, and covered women aged 50-65 years, minimum two years after the last menstruation, without chronic diseases, cancerous diseases, mental disorders, addiction to drugs or alcohol, and who did not use hormone replacement therapy. At the stage of qualification, a brief MoCA test was performed; 383 women were qualified for the study. Blood was collected for the determination of such parameters as: TSH, TT4, fT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, and AB-TSHR. Assessment of cognitive functions was performed using the diagnostic instrument Central Nervous System - Vital Signs (CNS-VS) (Polish version). The results were statistically analysed. RESULTS: The mean age of the women in the study was 56.4 ± 3.4; the mean TSH was 1.91 ± 1.35 mU/L, fT4 14.76 ± 2.34 pmol/L, and TT4 99.12 ± 16.98 nmol/L. Mean values were: 64.74 IU/L for anti-TPO, 100.69 IU/L for anti-Tg, and 1.40 IU/L for AB-TSHR. The examined women obtained the neurocognitive index (NCI) on the level of 84.4 scores, on average. The lowest results were obtained in tests assessing cognitive flexibility (mean 78.64 scores), processing speed (mean 79.25 scores), and executive functions (mean 79.75 scores). In the tests evaluating complex attention, the mean values were 82.24 scores, psychomotor speed - mean 83.42 scores, and reaction time - mean 86.87 scores. The women examined obtained the best results in tests assessing memory (mean 90.15 scores), including verbal (mean 91.22 scores), and visual (mean 93.37 scores). The NCI and cognitive function models were assessed from the aspect of thyroid gland examinations in post-menopausal women. Based on the analyses performed, the following conclusions were drawn: The developed models of cognitive functions indicate a considerable effect of TSH, fT4, AB-TSHR, and anti-TPO, as well as TT4 and anti-Tg, on the level of cognitive functions after menopause in the group examined. The conducted study suggests the need for examination of the functional state of the thyroid gland in post-menopausal women who show cognitive function disorders.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pós-Menopausa , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 146: 301-9, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27112878

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of chemical modification of starch (cross-linking and/or stabilisation) on selected rheological and functional properties of maltodextrins of dextrose equivalent of 6, 11 and 16. It was found that values of glass transition temperatures were decreasing with dextrose equivalent of maltodextrin. The highest values of glass transition temperature (TG) were determined for maltodextrin of DE 6-obtained from distarch phosphate and acetylated distarch phosphate. Increase in DE value of maltodextrin was also accompanied by decrease and increase in values of intrinsic viscosity and the critical concentration, respectively; however, there was no significant effect of kind of chemical modification of starch on the values of these parameters. Maltodextrin solutions at concentrations of from 10 to 70 % exhibited Newtonian flow behaviour. In the case of 50% solutions of maltodextrins of DE 6 the highest viscosity was produced by maltodextrin from native potato starch, while the lowest one by maltodextrin from acetylated starch. On the other hand, among the maltodextrin of DE 11 this one produced from acetylated starch showed the highest viscosity. All the maltodextrins exhibited surfactant properties in a water-air system, with the strongest effect observed for maltodextrins produced from double chemically modified starches and from acetylated starch. The surface activity was increasing with increasing of the DE value of maltodextrin. Moreover, values of surface tension were decreasing with increasing in maltodextrin concentration in the system.

7.
J Food Sci Technol ; 53(1): 571-80, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787976

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate the effects of selected protein isolates and concentrates on quality and staling of gluten-free bread, in the absence of other structure-forming agents such as guar gum and pectin. The applied preparations included albumin, collagen, pea, lupine and soy. Their addition had various effects on rheological properties of the dough and volume of the bread. Volumes of the loaves baked with soy and pea protein were smaller, while those with albumin significantly larger than control. Presence of non-gluten protein caused changes in crumb structure (higher porosity, decrease in cell density, higher number of pores with a diameter above 5 mm) and its color, which was usually darker than of unsupplemented starch-based bread. The least consumer's acceptance was found for bread baked with soy protein. The presence of pea and lupine preparations improved sensory parameters of the final product, providing more acceptable color and smell in comparison to control, while soy caused a decrease of all analyzed consumer's scores. The addition of protein caused an increase in bread hardness and in enthalpy of retrograded amylopectin, during bread storage.

8.
Ginekol Pol ; 86(10): 765-73, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677587

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Numerous publications suggest that many cognitive domains deteriorate with age. As far as postmenopausal women are concerned, the question remains whether the process is caused only by an ageing brain or also by the menopause. The objective of this research was to analyze a possible correlation between intensity and duration of menopausal symptoms and the level of cognitive domains measured with CNS-VS tests among post-menopausal women. METHODOLOGY: The group under examination included 383 postmenopausal women (at least 2 years after their last menstruation) from South-Eastern Poland. The following inclusion criteria were used: age 50-65, good overall health status, at least primary level of education, and FSH>30 mlU/ml. Cognitive domains were assessed using the CNS - VitalSigns diagnostic device. The intensity of menopausal symptoms was measured with the Kupperman Index and the Greene Scale. The statistical analysis was conducted with the use of the Statistica software. RESULTS: There were no significant relations between age at last menstruation and cognitive domains. BMI was oositively correlated with the Neurocognitive index (NCI) and memory visual memory processing speed, and executive functions. The intensity of menopausal symptoms measured with the Greene Scale was negatively correlated with NCI and most of the cognitive domains, whereas symptoms measured with the Kupperman Index were negatively correlated with NCI and visual memory CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a correlation of the intensity and duration of menopausal symptoms with the revel of cognitive domain among menopausal women. The most significant consequences resulting from changes in the cognitive domains included psychological and vasomotor symptoms, as well as - to a lesser extent - somatic symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Cognição , Depressão/diagnóstico , Fogachos/diagnóstico , Menopausa , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Fogachos/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Saúde da Mulher
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 21: 1625-33, 2015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26042394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. RESULTS: In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values of TSH, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, and AB-TSHR were higher and FT4 was lower in examined women. The results were poorer in examination of cognitive functions measured with a battery of CNS-VS tests.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polônia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 22(1): 178-84, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25780851

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The objective of the study was an evaluation of the relationship between the level of cognitive functions and contents of micro- and macro-components in the diet of postmenopausal women. A group of 402 women was recruited to the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation, FSH concentration 30 U/ml and no dementia signs on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). A computerized battery of the Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnose cognitive functions. The dietary questionnaire was evaluated based on observation of a seven-day diet. The data obtained were introduced into the database and analyzed using computer software DIETICIAN. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical software STATISTICA. RESULTS: The results of the study concerning diet unequivocally indicate a very poor quality of diet in the group of postmenopausal women examined. The daily diet had a too high energetic value. The women consumed an excessive amount of total fat, including definitely too much monounsaturated fatty acids, and insufficient polyunsaturated fatty acids. The dietary intake of sodium and phosphorus was too high, whereas deficiencies were observed in the consumption of iron, copper, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc. No significant correlations were found in the analysis of cognitive functions according to the energetic value of daily diet and contents of macro- and micro-components. The results concerning verbal memory significantly depended on the daily intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Women who consumed polyunsaturated fatty acids below the daily normal or normal level obtained significantly higher results in verbal memory.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dieta , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Prz Menopauzalny ; 13(4): 233-41, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26327860

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between normative and non-normative thyroid tests (TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR) and the level of cognitive functions in postmenopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 383 women from south-eastern Poland, aged 50-65 years. The cognitive functions were evaluated using a diagnostic instrument - Central Nervous System - Vital Signs (CNS-VS). Blood was collected for determination of the following parameters: TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR. RESULTS: There were significant differences in NCI, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time, complex attention and cognitive flexibility, depending on the normative and non-normative level of TSH. Women whose level of FT3 was at the lower limit of the normal range obtained poorer results in psychomotor speed, while subjects with levels of FT4 below the standard achieved significantly lower scores for this function. The relationship between NCI and cognitive functions, and the normative and non-normative anti-TPO results, showed significant differences in verbal memory, visual memory, processing speed and reaction time. The level of AB-TSHR reported as normal or above the norm significantly differentiated from the results of NCI, processing speed, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention and cognitive flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of laboratory parameters assessing the thyroid function located within the upper limits of the normal range showed a different relationship with the cognitive performance than concentrations located within the lower limits of the standard.

12.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 20(4): 865-8, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24364470

RESUMO

The objective of the presented study was determination of the effect of selected agents on sperm DNA fragmentation--superoxide dismutase in seminal plasma, the patients' age, and burdening with the tobacco smoking habit. An attempt was also undertaken to evaluate the effect of DNA fragmentation on the effectiveness of infertility treatment. The study covered 186 men who received treatment due to infertility. The database and statistical analyses were performed using computer software STATISTICA 7.1. A relationship was observed between sperm DNA fragmentation and superoxide dismutase activity, the higher the SOD activity, the lower the percentage of sperm fragmentation (rs=-0.324; P=0.000; r = -0.2110). A statistical relationship was found between sperm DNA fragmentation and the percentage of pregnancies obtained during the first year of treatment--patients with the lower DFI more frequently became fathers during the first year of trying, compared to the remainder (t=2.51; P=0.013). A statistically significant relationship was confirmed (rs=-0.370; P=0.000) consisting in an increase in the DFI with respondents' age. No significant differences were noted between the DFI and the tobacco smoking habit (Chi2=0.29; P=0.926). The percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation was inversely proportional to superoxide dismutase activity in seminal plasma. DNA fragmentation becomes intensified with patients' age. Cigarette smoking has no effect on sperm DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation exerts an effect on the effectiveness of infertility treatment.


Assuntos
Fragmentação do DNA , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Espermatozoides/patologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 90(1): 353-60, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24751052

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of inulins with varying degree of polymerization on rheological and thermal properties of gluten-free starch-based dough. The share of inulin reduced the values of consistency coefficient, as well as storage and loss moduli, and increased creep compliance. Inulin preparation with the highest average degree of polymerization had the strongest impact on viscoelastic properties of the obtained dough. The presence of inulin also caused a significant decrease of viscosity upon pasting, and an increase of gelatinization temperatures TOg, TP1g, TP2g, and TEg. Addition of inulin had no effect on gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHg), while it strongly reduced the enthalpies of retrograded amylopectin after storage. Water binding properties of inulin seem to be the key factor, responsible for modification of dough properties, because they influence solvent availability for other constituents of such system.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Temperatura Alta , Inulina/química , Reologia , Galactanos/administração & dosagem , Galactanos/química , Glutens/química , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Mananas/química , Gomas Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Gomas Vegetais/química , Reologia/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/química , Viscosidade/efeitos dos fármacos
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