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1.
Ambio ; 49(5): 1076-1089, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542888

RESUMO

The chaotic distribution and dispersal of phosphorus (P) used in food systems (defined here as disorderly disruptions to the P cycle) is harming our environment beyond acceptable limits. An analysis of P stores and flows across Europe in 2005 showed that high fertiliser P inputs relative to productive outputs was driving low system P efficiency (38 % overall). Regional P imbalance (P surplus) and system P losses were highly correlated to total system P inputs and animal densities, causing unnecessary P accumulation in soils and rivers. Reducing regional P surpluses to zero increased system P efficiency (+ 16 %) and decreased total P losses by 35 %, but required a reduction in system P inputs of ca. 40 %, largely as fertiliser. We discuss transdisciplinary and transformative solutions that tackle the P chaos by collective stakeholder actions across the entire food value chain. Lowering system P demand and better regional governance of P resources appear necessary for more efficient and sustainable food systems.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Fósforo , Agricultura , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Rios , Solo
3.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 33(1): 39-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research into how people with intellectual disabilities (ID) pursue intimate relationships in care settings presents some contradictory findings; despite increasingly liberal staff views, service users experience significant restrictions. This study attempts to explore this gap within a secure hospital, examining service user's representations of staff discourses about sexuality and intimate relationships. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews with eight service users with intellectual disability were analysed using critical discourse analysis. RESULTS: Analysis enabled construction of 11 themes falling into three categories. Dominant discourses appeared to maintain the integrity of the institution, enable staff to occupy a position of power and demonstrate service users' responses to perceived control. CONCLUSIONS: Discourses around sex appear to serve the interests of staff and the hospital, while being restrictive and often incomprehensible to service users. Implications for service development, and future research directions, are considered in the context of "Transforming Care."


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto , Criminosos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1218-1233, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589714

RESUMO

The evolution of phosphorus (P) management decision support tools (DSTs) and systems (DSS), in support of food and environmental security has been most strongly affected in developed regions by national strategies (i) to optimize levels of plant available P in agricultural soils, and (ii) to mitigate P runoff to water bodies. In the United States, Western Europe, and New Zealand, combinations of regulatory and voluntary strategies, sometimes backed by economic incentives, have often been driven by reactive legislation to protect water bodies. Farmer-specific DSSs, either based on modeling of P transfer source and transport mechanisms, or when coupled with farm-specific information or local knowledge, have typically guided best practices, education, and implementation, yet applying DSSs in data poor catchments and/or where user adoption is poor hampers the effectiveness of these systems. Recent developments focused on integrated digital mapping of hydrologically sensitive areas and critical source areas, sometimes using real-time data and weather forecasting, have rapidly advanced runoff modeling and education. Advances in technology related to monitoring, imaging, sensors, remote sensing, and analytical instrumentation will facilitate the development of DSSs that can predict heterogeneity over wider geographical areas. However, significant challenges remain in developing DSSs that incorporate "big data" in a format that is acceptable to users, and that adequately accounts for catchment variability, farming systems, and farmer behavior. Future efforts will undoubtedly focus on improving efficiency and conserving phosphate rock reserves in the face of future scarcity or prohibitive cost. Most importantly, the principles reviewed here are critical for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fósforo , Meio Ambiente , Nova Zelândia , Solo
5.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1234-1246, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589721

RESUMO

Unnecessary accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils continues to degrade water quality and linked ecosystem services. Managing both soil loss and soil P fertility status is therefore crucial for eutrophication control, but the relative environmental benefits of these two mitigation measures, and the timescales over which they occur, remain unclear. To support policies toward reduced P loadings from agricultural soils, we examined the impact of soil conservation and lowering of soil test P (STP) in different regions with intensive farming (Europe, the United States, and Australia). Relationships between STP and soluble reactive P concentrations in land runoff suggested that eutrophication control targets would be more achievable if STP concentrations were kept at or below the current recommended threshold values for fertilizer response. Simulations using the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model in three contrasting catchments predicted total P losses ranging from 0.52 to 0.88 kg ha depending on soil P buffering and erosion vulnerability. Drawing down STP in all catchment soils to the threshold optimum for productivity reduced catchment P loss by between 18 and 40%, but this would take between 30 and 40+ years. In one catchment, STP drawdown was more effective in reducing P loss than erosion control, but combining both strategies was always the most effective and more rapid than erosion control alone. By accounting for both soil P buffering interactions and erosion vulnerability, the APLE model quickly provided reliable information on the magnitude and time frame of P loss reduction that can be realistically expected from soil and STP management. Greater precision in the sampling, analysis, and interpretation of STP, and more technical innovation to lower agronomic optimum STP concentrations on farms, is needed to foster long-term sustainable management of soil P fertility in the future.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Agricultura , Austrália , Ecossistema , Eutrofização
6.
Glob Change Biol Bioenergy ; 11(12): 1444-1455, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894185

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) use in global food and bioenergy production needs to become more efficient and sustainable to reduce environmental impacts and conserve a finite and critical resource (Carpenter & Bennett, Environmental Research Letters, 2011, 6, 014009; Springmann et al., Nature, 2018, 562, 519). Sugarcane is one crop with a large P footprint because production is centered on P-fixing soils with low P availability (Roy et al., Nature Plants, 2016, 2, 16043; Withers et al., Scientific Reports, 2018, 8, 2537). As global demand for processed sugar and bioethanol continues to increase, we advocate that improving P efficiency could become a key sustainability goal for the sugarcane industry. Here, we applied the 5R global P stewardship framework (Withers et al., Ambio, 2015, 44, 193) to identify more sustainable options to manage P in Brazilian sugarcane production. We show that current inputs of P fertilizer to the current crop area could be reduced by over 305 Gg, or 63%, over the next three decades by reducing unnecessary P fertilizer use, better utilization of recyclable bioresources and redesigning recommendation systems. Adoption of these 5R options would save the sugarcane industry in Brazil 528 US$ million and help safeguard global food and energy security.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 649: 90-98, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172137

RESUMO

Despite greater emphasis on holistic phosphorus (P) management, current nutrient advice delivered at farm-scale still focuses almost exclusively on agricultural production. This limits our ability to address national and international strategies for the delivery of multiple ecosystem services (ES). Currently there is no operational framework in place to manage P fertility for multiple ES delivery and to identify the costs of potentially sacrificing crop yield and/or quality. As soil P fertility plays a central role in ES delivery, we argue that soil test phosphorus (STP) concentration provides a suitable common unit of measure by which delivering multiple ES can be economically valued relative to maximum potential yield, in $ ha-1 yr-1 units. This value can then be traded, or payments made against one another, at spatio-temporal scales relevant for farmer and national policy objectives. Implementation of this framework into current P fertility management strategies would allow for the integration and interaction of different stakeholder interests in ES delivery on-farm and in the wider landscape. Further progress in biophysical modeling of soil P dynamics is needed to inform its adoption across diverse landscapes.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes/análise , Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Solo/química , Produção Agrícola/métodos
8.
J Geophys Res Space Phys ; 124(4): 3100-3109, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874820

RESUMO

Previous observations have shown that electron density and temperature in the dayside ionosphere of Mars vary between strongly and weakly magnetized regions of the planet. Here we use data from the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft to examine whether dayside ion densities and ionospheric composition also vary. We find that O+, O 2 + , and CO 2 + densities above ~200 km are greater in strongly magnetized regions than in weakly magnetized regions. Fractional abundances of ion species are also affected. The O + / O 2 + ratio at 300-km altitude increases from ~0.5 in strongly magnetized regions to ~0.8 in weakly magnetized regions. Consequently, the plasma reservoir available for escape is fundamentally different between strongly magnetized and weakly magnetized regions.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(13): 7468-7476, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847107

RESUMO

Handling of digestate produced by anaerobic digestion impacts the environment through emission of greenhouse gases, reactive nitrogen, and phosphorus. Previous life cycle assessments (LCA) evaluating the extraction of nutrients from digestate using struvite precipitation and ammonia stripping did not relate synthetic fertilizer substitution (SFS) to nutrient use efficiency consequences. We applied an expanded LCA to compare the conventional management of 1 m3 of liquid digestate (LD) from food waste against the production and use of digestate biofertilizer (DBF) extracted from LD, accounting for SFS efficacy. Avoidance of CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions from LD handling and enhanced SFS via more targeted use of nutrients in the versatile DBF product could generate environmental savings of up to 0.129 kg Sb eq, 4.16 kg SO2 eq, 1.22 kg PO4 eq, 33 kg CO2 eq, and 20.6 MJ eq per m3 LD, for abiotic resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, and cumulative energy demand burdens, respectively. However, under worst-case assumptions, DBF extraction could increase global warming and cumulative energy demand by 7.5 kg CO2e and 251 MJ eq per m3 LD owing to processing inputs. Normalizing these results against per capita environmental loadings, we conclude that DBF extraction is environmentally beneficial.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Eutrofização , Fertilizantes
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2537, 2018 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29416090

RESUMO

Brazil's large land base is important for global food security but its high dependency on inorganic phosphorus (P) fertilizer for crop production (2.2 Tg rising up to 4.6 Tg in 2050) is not a sustainable use of a critical and price-volatile resource. A new strategic analysis of current and future P demand/supply concluded that the nation's secondary P resources which are produced annually (e.g. livestock manures, sugarcane processing residues) could potentially provide up to 20% of crop P demand by 2050 with further investment in P recovery technologies. However, the much larger legacy stores of secondary P in the soil (30 Tg in 2016 worth over $40 billion and rising to 105 Tg by 2050) could provide a more important buffer against future P scarcity or sudden P price fluctuations, and enable a transition to more sustainable P input strategies that could reduce current annual P surpluses by 65%. In the longer-term, farming systems in Brazil should be redesigned to operate profitably but more sustainably under lower soil P fertility thresholds.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 228: 245-255, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550797

RESUMO

Septic tank effluent (STE) contributes to catchment nutrient and pollutant loads. To assess the role of STE discharges in impairment of surface water, it is essential to identify the sources of pollution by tracing contaminants in watercourses. We examined tracers that were present in STE to establish their potential for identifying STE contamination in two stream systems (low and high dilution levels) against the background of upstream sources. The studied tracers were microbial, organic matter fluorescence, caffeine, artificial sweeteners and effluent chemical concentrations. The results revealed that tracer concentration ratios Cl/EC, Cl/NH4-N, Cl/TN, Cl/TSS, Cl/turbidity, Cl/total coliforms, Cl/sucralose, Cl/saccharin and Cl/Zn had potential as tracers in the stream with low dilution level (P < 0.05). Fluorescence spectroscopy could detect STE inputs through the presence of the tryptophan-like peak, but was limited to water courses with low level of dilution and was positively correlated with stream Escherichia coli (E. coli) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). The results also suggested that caffeine and artificial sweeteners can be suitable tracers for effluent discharge in streams with low and high level of dilution. Caffeine and saccharin were positively correlated with faecal coliforms, E. coli, total P and SRP, indicating their potential to trace discharge of a faecal origin and to be a marker for effluent P. Caffeine and SRP had similar attenuation behaviour in the receiving stream waters suggesting caffeine's potential role as a surrogate indicator for the behaviour of P downstream of effluent inputs. Taken together, results suggest that a single tracer alone was not sufficient to evaluate STE contamination of watercourses, but rather a combination of multiple chemical and physical tracing approaches should be employed. A multiple tracing approach would help to identify individual and cumulative STE inputs that pose risks to stream waters in order to prioritise and target effective mitigation measures.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Líquidos Corporais , Escherichia coli , Fezes/química , Fósforo/análise
12.
Environ Pollut ; 223: 277-285, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28109547

RESUMO

Contaminants in septic tank effluent (STE) are expected to be removed by the soil system before discharging to the environment. However, potential contaminants such as phosphorus (P), caffeine and artificial sweeteners do find their way to watercourses impacting aquatic eco systems. In this study, the attenuation of STE P, caffeine and saccharin were investigated in untreated soil and in soil with reduced microbial activity, in aqueous solutions and in the complex matrix of STE. Time series sorption and desorption experiments using batch equilibrium and a column experiment of STE P attenuation were conducted. The results revealed that the soil distribution coefficients (Kd) were: P 81.57 > caffeine 22.16 > saccharin 5.98 cm3/g, suggesting greater soil affinity to P adsorption. The data revealed that 80% of saccharin and 33% of caffeine attenuation was associated with microbial activities rather than adsorption processes. However, a complete removal of saccharin and caffeine did not occur during the equilibration period, suggesting their leaching potential. The dominant mechanism of P attenuation was adsorption (chemical and physical), yielding P retention of >73% and 35% for P in aqueous solution and in STE matrix, respectively, for batch equilibrium. The soil in the column acted as effluent P sink retaining 125 µg P/g soil of effluent P. The attenuation of P, caffeine and saccharin in the aqueous solution was greater than in STE, suggesting that the complex composition of STE reduced soil adsorption ability, and that other substances present in STE may be competing for soil binding sites. The data revealed that caffeine and P had similarities in the interaction with soils and thus caffeine may be considered as a STE tracer of anthropogenic source of P in receiving waters.


Assuntos
Cafeína/análise , Fósforo/análise , Sacarina/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , Cafeína/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fósforo/química , Sacarina/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Edulcorantes/análise , Edulcorantes/química , Reino Unido , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
13.
Geophys Res Lett ; 44(21): 10812-10821, 2017 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873995

RESUMO

Mars lacks a global magnetic field but possesses concentrated regions of crustal magnetic field that influence the planet's interaction with the solar wind and the structure of the Martian ionosphere. In this study we survey 17 months of MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves dayside electron density and temperature measurements to study how these quantities are affected in regions with strong crustal magnetic fields. Above 200 km altitude, we find that regions of strong crustal magnetic fields feature cooler electron temperatures and enhanced electron densities compared to regions with little or no crustal magnetic field. Neutral densities and temperatures are not significantly affected. Closed field lines on which electrons can be trapped are more prevalent in strong crustal field regions than elsewhere. Trapped on closed field lines, electrons are protected against loss processes involving the solar wind. This would lead to longer plasma lifetimes, higher densities, and lower temperatures.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This research is about people who have intellectual disabilities and live in a secure hospital. It is about a group of people who meet at a support group. The support group is for people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender. METHODS: These people with intellectual disabilities helped with planning, doing, and telling other people about the research. They told their stories about going to the support group. RESULTS: Their stories were joined together into a group story. The story said that the group helped people in lots of different ways. For some people going to the group was difficult at first because it was ?coming out'. This means telling other people you are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Then it got easier and people started to feel better about themselves. Then they wanted to help others and this was important in their lives. CONCLUSIONS: This group seemed to help people get better. We have given some ideas for setting up other groups and doing more research.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 571: 1275-83, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27474989

RESUMO

Discharges from the widely distributed small point sources of pollutants such as septic tanks contribute to microbial and nutrient loading of streams and can pose risks to human health and stream ecology, especially during periods of ecological sensitivity. Here we present the first comprehensive data on the compositional variability of septic tank effluents (STE) as a potential source of water pollution during different seasons and the associated links to their influence on stream waters. To determine STE parameters and nutrient variations, the biological and physicochemical properties of effluents sampled quarterly from 12 septic tank systems were investigated with concurrent analyses of upstream and downstream receiving waters. The study revealed that during the warmer dryer months of spring and summer, effluents were similar in composition, as were the colder wetter months of autumn and winter. However, spring/summer effluents differed significantly (P<0.05) from autumn/winter for concentrations of biological oxygen demand (BOD), arsenic, barium (Ba), cobalt, chromium, manganese, strontium (Sr), titanium, tungsten (W) and zinc (Zn). With the exception of BOD, Ba and Sr which were greater in summer and spring, the concentrations of these parameters were greater in winter. Receiving stream waters also showed significant seasonal variation (P≤0.05) in alkalinity, BOD, dissolved organic carbon, sulphate, sulphur, lithium, W, Zn and Escherichiacoli abundance. There was a clear significant influence of STE on downstream waters relative to upstream from the source (P<0.05) for total suspended solids, total particulate P and N, ammonium-N, coliforms and E. coli. The findings of this study found seasonal variation in STE and place effluent discharges as a factor affecting adjacent stream quality and call for appropriate measures to reduce or redirect STE discharges away from water courses.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Escócia , Estações do Ano
16.
Plant Soil ; 401: 109-123, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27429478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recycled sources of phosphorus (P), such as struvite extracted from wastewater, have potential to substitute for more soluble manufactured fertilisers and help reduce the long-term threat to food security from dwindling finite reserves of phosphate rock (PR). This study aimed to determine whether struvite could be a component of a sustainable P fertiliser management strategy for arable crops. METHODS: A combination of laboratory experiments, pot trials and mathematical modelling of the root system examined the P release properties of commercial fertiliser-grade struvite and patterns of P uptake from a low-P sandy soil by two different crop types, in comparison to more soluble inorganic P fertilisers (di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and triple super phosphate (TSP)). RESULTS: Struvite had greatly enhanced solubility in the presence of organic acid anions; buckwheat, which exudes a high level of organic acids, was more effective at mobilising struvite P than the low level exuder, spring wheat. Struvite granules placed with the seed did not provide the same rate of P supply as placed DAP granules for early growth of spring wheat, but gave equivalent rates of P uptake, yield and apparent fertiliser recovery at harvest, even though only 26 % of struvite granules completely dissolved. Fertiliser mixes containing struvite and DAP applied to spring wheat have potential to provide both optimal early and late season P uptake and improve overall P use efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the potential resource savings and potential efficiency benefits of utilising a recycled slow release fertiliser like struvite offers a more sustainable alternative to only using conventional, high solubility, PR-based fertilisers.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 542(Pt B): 1050-61, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26351200

RESUMO

Crop production in the Brazilian Cerrado is limited by soil phosphorus (P) supply without large inputs of inorganic P fertilizer, which may become more costly and scarce in the future. Reducing dependency on fertilizer P requires a greater understanding of soil P supply in the highly weathered soils in this important agricultural region. We investigated the impact of no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) agriculture on accumulated (legacy) soil P and P forms in four long-term sites. Compared to the native savanna soils, tilled soils receiving regular annual P fertilizer inputs (30-50 kg P ha(-1)) increased all forms of inorganic and organic P, except highly recalcitrant P associated with the background lithology. However, 70-85% of the net added P was bound in moderately labile and non-labile forms associated with Fe/Al oxyhydroxides rather than in plant available forms. Under NT agriculture, organic P forms and labile and non-labile inorganic P forms were all significantly (P<0.05) increased in the surface soil, except for one site with maize residues where labile inorganic P was increased more under CT agriculture. The contribution of organic P cycling in these tropical soils increased after conversion to agriculture and was proportionally greater under NT. The results highlight the large amounts of unutilized legacy P present in Brazil's Cerrado soils that could be better exploited to reduce dependency on imports of finite phosphate rock. No tillage agriculture confers a positive albeit relatively small benefit for soil P availability and overall soil function.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 542(Pt A): 854-63, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26556750

RESUMO

Small point sources of pollutants such as septic tanks are recognised as significant contributors to streams' pathogen and nutrient loadings, however there is little data in the UK on which to judge the potential risks that septic tank effluents (STEs) pose to water quality and human health. We present the first comprehensive analysis of STE to help assess multi-pollutant characteristics, management-related risk factors and potential tracers that might be used to identify STE sources. Thirty-two septic tank effluents from residential households located in North East of Scotland were sampled along with adjacent stream waters. Biological, physical, chemical and fluorescence characterisation was coupled with information on system age, design, type of tank, tank management and number of users. Biological characterisation revealed that total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration ranges were: 10(3)-10(8) and 10(3)-10(7)MPN/100 mL, respectively. Physical parameters such as electrical conductivity, turbidity and alkalinity ranged 160-1730 µS/cm, 8-916 NTU and 15-698 mg/L, respectively. Effluent total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonium-N (NH4-N) concentrations ranged 1-32, <1-26, 11-146 and 2-144 mg/L, respectively. Positive correlations were obtained between phosphorus, sodium, potassium, barium, copper and aluminium. Domestic STE may pose pollution risks particularly for NH4-N, dissolved P, SRP, copper, dissolved N, and potassium since enrichment factors were >1651, 213, 176, 63, 14 and 8 times that of stream waters, respectively. Fluorescence characterisation revealed the presence of tryptophan peak in the effluent and downstream waters but not detected upstream from the source. Tank condition, management and number of users had influenced effluent quality that can pose a direct risk to stream waters as multiple points of pollutants.


Assuntos
Esgotos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Escócia
19.
Ambio ; 44 Suppl 2: S163-79, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25681975

RESUMO

The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.


Assuntos
Agricultura/tendências , Fósforo/análise , Água/análise
20.
Ambio ; 44 Suppl 2: S193-206, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25681977

RESUMO

The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe's dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fósforo , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente)
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