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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 970, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579919

RESUMO

Even distinct cancer types share biological hallmarks. Here, we investigate polygenic risk score (PRS)-specific pleiotropy across 16 cancers in European ancestry individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort (16,012 cases, 50,552 controls) and UK Biobank (48,969 cases, 359,802 controls). Within cohorts, each PRS is evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models against all other cancer types. Results are then meta-analyzed across cohorts. Ten positive and one inverse cross-cancer associations are found after multiple testing correction. Two pairs show bidirectional associations; the melanoma PRS is positively associated with oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer and vice versa, whereas the lung cancer PRS is positively associated with oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer, and the oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer PRS is inversely associated with lung cancer. Overall, we validate known, and uncover previously unreported, patterns of pleiotropy that have the potential to inform investigations of risk prediction, shared etiology, and precision cancer prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/classificação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
2.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453114

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: While gene-environment (GxE) interactions contribute importantly to many different phenotypes, detecting such interactions requires well-powered studies and has proven difficult. To address this, we combine two approaches to improve GxE power: simultaneously evaluating multiple phenotypes and using a two-step analysis approach. Previous work shows that the power to identify a main genetic effect can be improved by simultaneously analyzing multiple related phenotypes. For a univariate phenotype, two-step methods produce higher power for detecting a GxE interaction compared to single step analysis. Therefore, we propose a two-step approach to test for an overall GxE effect for multiple phenotypes. RESULTS: Using simulations we demonstrate that, when more than one phenotype has GxE effect (i.e., GxE pleiotropy), our approach offers substantial gain in power (18%-43%) to detect an aggregate-level GxE effect for a multivariate phenotype compared to an analogous two-step method to identify GxE effect for a univariate phenotype. We applied the proposed approach to simultaneously analyze three lipids, LDL, HDL and Triglyceride with the frequency of alcohol consumption as environmental factor in the UK Biobank. The method identified two loci with an overall GxE effect on the vector of lipids, one of which was missed by the competing approaches. AVAILABILITY: We provide an R package MPGE implementing the proposed approach which is available from CRAN: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MPGE/index.html.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293427

RESUMO

To identify rare variants associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility and better characterize the mechanisms and cumulative disease risk associated with common risk variants, we conducted an integrated study of PrCa genetic etiology in two cohorts using custom genotyping microarrays, large imputation reference panels, and functional annotation approaches. Specifically, 11,984 men (6,196 PrCa cases, 5,788 controls) of European ancestry from Northern California Kaiser Permanente were genotyped and meta-analyzed with 196,269 men of European ancestry (7,917 PrCa cases, 188,352 controls) from the UK Biobank. Three novel loci, including two rare variants (European ancestry minor allele frequency < 0.01, at 3p21.31 and 8p12), were significant genome-wide in a meta-analysis. Gene-based rare variant tests implicated a known PrCa gene (HOXB13), as well as a novel candidate gene (ILDR1), which encodes a receptor highly expressed in prostate tissue and is related to the B7/CD28 family of T cell immune checkpoint markers. Haplotypic patterns of long-range linkage disequilibrium were observed for rare genetic variants at HOXB13 and other loci, reflecting their evolutionary history. Additionally, a polygenic risk score (PRS) of 188 PrCa variants was strongly associated with risk (90th vs. 40-60th percentile OR = 2.62, P = 2.55*10-191). Many of the 188 variants exhibited functional signatures of gene expression regulation or transcription factor binding, including a six-fold difference in log-probability of Androgen Receptor binding at the variant rs2680708 (17q22). Rare variant and PRS associations, with concomitant functional interpretation of risk mechanisms can help clarify the full genetic architecture of PrCa and other complex traits.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025515, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185677

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies consistently report inverse associations between cancer and Alzheimer disease (AD). Shared inverse etiological mechanisms might explain this phenomenon, but a systematic evaluation of methodological biases in existing studies is needed. Objectives: To systematically review and meta-analyze evidence on the association between cancer and subsequent AD, systematically identify potential methodological biases in studies, and estimate the influence of these biases on the estimated pooled association between cancer and AD. Data Sources: All-language publications were identified from PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases through September 2, 2020. Study Selection: Longitudinal cohort studies and case-control studies on the risk of AD in older adults with a history of any cancer type, prostate cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, or nonmelanoma skin cancer, relative to those with no cancer history. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently abstracted the data and evaluated study biases related to confounding, diagnostic bias, competing risks, or survival bias. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to provide pooled estimates of the association between cancer and AD. Metaregressions were used to evaluate whether the observed pooled estimate could be attributable to each bias. The study was designed and conducted according to the Preferring Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence, hazard, or odds ratios for AD comparing older adults with vs without a previous cancer diagnosis. Results: In total, 19 cohort studies and 3 case-control studies of the associations between any cancer type (n = 13), prostate cancer (n = 5), breast cancer (n = 1), and nonmelanoma skin cancer (n = 3) with AD were identified, representing 9 630 435 individuals. In all studies combined, cancer was associated with decreased AD incidence (cohort studies: random-effects hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00; case-control studies: random-effects odds ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Studies with insufficient or inappropriate confounder control or greater likelihood of AD diagnostic bias had mean hazard ratios closer to the null value, indicating that these biases could not explain the observed inverse association. Competing risks bias was rare. Studies with greater likelihood of survival bias had mean hazard ratios farther from the null value. Conclusions and Relevance: The weak inverse association between cancer and AD may reflect shared inverse etiological mechanisms or survival bias but is not likely attributable to diagnostic bias, competing risks bias, or insufficient or inappropriate control for potential confounding factors.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6084, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247094

RESUMO

Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of environmental and heritable factors. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) provide a personalized genetic susceptibility profile that may be leveraged for disease prediction. Using data from the UK Biobank (413,753 individuals; 22,755 incident cancer cases), we quantify the added predictive value of integrating cancer-specific PRS with family history and modifiable risk factors for 16 cancers. We show that incorporating PRS measurably improves prediction accuracy for most cancers, but the magnitude of this improvement varies substantially. We also demonstrate that stratifying on levels of PRS identifies significantly divergent 5-year risk trajectories after accounting for family history and modifiable risk factors. At the population level, the top 20% of the PRS distribution accounts for 4.0% to 30.3% of incident cancer cases, exceeding the impact of many lifestyle-related factors. In summary, this study illustrates the potential for improving cancer risk assessment by integrating genetic risk scores.

6.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 93, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans and viruses have co-evolved for millennia resulting in a complex host genetic architecture. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of immune response to viral infection provides insight into disease etiology and therapeutic opportunities. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive study including genome-wide and transcriptome-wide association analyses to identify genetic loci associated with immunoglobulin G antibody response to 28 antigens for 16 viruses using serological data from 7924 European ancestry participants in the UK Biobank cohort. RESULTS: Signals in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region dominated the landscape of viral antibody response, with 40 independent loci and 14 independent classical alleles, 7 of which exhibited pleiotropic effects across viral families. We identified specific amino acid (AA) residues that are associated with seroreactivity, the strongest associations presented in a range of AA positions within DRß1 at positions 11, 13, 71, and 74 for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), human herpesvirus 7, (HHV7), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV). Genome-wide association analyses discovered 7 novel genetic loci outside the HLA associated with viral antibody response (P < 5.0 × 10-8), including FUT2 (19q13.33) for human polyomavirus BK (BKV), STING1 (5q31.2) for MCV, and CXCR5 (11q23.3) and TBKBP1 (17q21.32) for HHV7. Transcriptome-wide association analyses identified 114 genes associated with response to viral infection, 12 outside of the HLA region, including ECSCR: P = 5.0 × 10-15 (MCV), NTN5: P = 1.1 × 10-9 (BKV), and P2RY13: P = 1.1 × 10-8 EBV nuclear antigen. We also demonstrated pleiotropy between viral response genes and complex diseases, from autoimmune disorders to cancer to neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the importance of the HLA region in host response to viral infection and elucidates novel genetic determinants beyond the HLA that contribute to host-virus interaction.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4423, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887889

RESUMO

Deciphering the shared genetic basis of distinct cancers has the potential to elucidate carcinogenic mechanisms and inform broadly applicable risk assessment efforts. Here, we undertake genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and comprehensive evaluations of heritability and pleiotropy across 18 cancer types in two large, population-based cohorts: the UK Biobank (408,786 European ancestry individuals; 48,961 cancer cases) and the Kaiser Permanente Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohorts (66,526 European ancestry individuals; 16,001 cancer cases). The GWAS detect 21 genome-wide significant associations independent of previously reported results. Investigations of pleiotropy identify 12 cancer pairs exhibiting either positive or negative genetic correlations; 25 pleiotropic loci; and 100 independent pleiotropic variants, many of which are regulatory elements and/or influence cross-tissue gene expression. Our findings demonstrate widespread pleiotropy and offer further insight into the complex genetic architecture of cross-cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881307

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated whether competing risk of death or selective survival could explain the reported inverse association between cancer history and dementia incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] ≈ 0.62-0.85). METHODS: A multistate simulation model of a cancer- and dementia-free cohort of 65-year-olds was parameterized with real-world data (cancer and dementia incidence, mortality), assuming no effect of cancer on dementia (true IRR = 1.00). To introduce competing risk of death, cancer history increased mortality. To introduce selective survival, we included a factor (prevalence ranging from 10% to 50%) that reduced cancer mortality and dementia incidence (IRRs ranged from 0.30 to 0.90). We calculated IRRs for cancer history on dementia incidence in the simulated cohorts. RESULTS: Competing risk of death yielded unbiased cancer-dementia IRRs. With selective survival, bias was small (IRRs = 0.89 to 0.99), even under extreme scenarios. DISCUSSION: The bias induced by selective survival in simulations was too small to explain the observed inverse cancer-dementia link, suggesting other mechanisms drive this association.

9.
Birth Defects Res ; 112(18): 1475-1483, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We examined the association of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with maternal dietary intake, using semi-Bayes hierarchical models and principal components analysis to consider intake of nutrients that contribute to one-carbon metabolism and oxidative stress pathways, and a diet quality index. METHODS: We included data on 825 cases and 11,108 nonmalformed controls born from 1997-2011 whose mother participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a multisite, population-based case-control study. Exposure data were from maternal telephone interviews, which included a food frequency questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated from logistic regression models that included nutritional factors as continuous variables and were adjusted for maternal energy intake, race-ethnicity, parity, and vitamin supplement intake. RESULTS: In the semi-Bayes hierarchical model that included all nutrients and confounders, riboflavin was the only nutrient for which the 95% CI excluded 1.0; the aOR for a 1 SD increase was 0.83. The aORs were 0.79 (95% CI 0.69-0.91) for the one-carbon metabolism pathway score, 0.90 (95% CI 0.80-1.01) for oxidative stress, and 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.93) for diet quality (the aORs correspond to a 1 SD increase). CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study provide some support for the hypothesis that better prepregnancy nutrition is associated with reduced risk for CDH. These results provide etiologic clues but should be interpreted with caution given the novelty of the investigation.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 820, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell-free DNA's (cfDNA) use as a biomarker in cancer is challenging due to genetic heterogeneity of malignancies and rarity of tumor-derived molecules. Here we describe and demonstrate a novel machine-learning guided panel design strategy for improving the detection of tumor variants in cfDNA. Using this approach, we first generated a model to classify and score candidate variants for inclusion on a prostate cancer targeted sequencing panel. We then used this panel to screen tumor variants from prostate cancer patients with localized disease in both in silico and hybrid capture settings. METHODS: Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) data from 550 prostate tumors was analyzed to build a targeted sequencing panel of single point and small (< 200 bp) indel mutations, which was subsequently screened in silico against prostate tumor sequences from 5 patients to assess performance against commonly used alternative panel designs. The panel's ability to detect tumor-derived cfDNA variants was then assessed using prospectively collected cfDNA and tumor foci from a test set 18 prostate cancer patients with localized disease undergoing radical proctectomy. RESULTS: The panel generated from this approach identified as top candidates mutations in known driver genes (e.g. HRAS) and prostate cancer related transcription factor binding sites (e.g. MYC, AR). It outperformed two commonly used designs in detecting somatic mutations found in the cfDNA of 5 prostate cancer patients when analyzed in an in silico setting. Additionally, hybrid capture and 2500X sequencing of cfDNA molecules using the panel resulted in detection of tumor variants in all 18 patients of a test set, where 15 of the 18 patients had detected variants found in multiple foci. CONCLUSION: Machine learning-prioritized targeted sequencing panels may prove useful for broad and sensitive variant detection in the cfDNA of heterogeneous diseases. This strategy has implications for disease detection and monitoring when applied to the cfDNA isolated from prostate cancer patients.

11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008725, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603359

RESUMO

Risk factors that contribute to inter-individual differences in the age-of-onset of allergic diseases are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify genetic risk variants associated with the age at which symptoms of allergic disease first develop, considering information from asthma, hay fever and eczema. Self-reported age-of-onset information was available for 117,130 genotyped individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank study. For each individual, we identified the earliest age at which asthma, hay fever and/or eczema was first diagnosed and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this combined age-of-onset phenotype. We identified 50 variants with a significant independent association (P<3x10-8) with age-of-onset. Forty-five variants had comparable effects on the onset of the three individual diseases and 38 were also associated with allergic disease case-control status in an independent study (n = 222,484). We observed a strong negative genetic correlation between age-of-onset and case-control status of allergic disease (rg = -0.63, P = 4.5x10-61), indicating that cases with early disease onset have a greater burden of allergy risk alleles than those with late disease onset. Subsequently, a multivariate GWAS of age-of-onset and case-control status identified a further 26 associations that were missed by the univariate analyses of age-of-onset or case-control status only. Collectively, of the 76 variants identified, 18 represent novel associations for allergic disease. We identified 81 likely target genes of the 76 associated variants based on information from expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and non-synonymous variants, of which we highlight ADAM15, FOSL2, TRIM8, BMPR2, CD200R1, PRKCQ, NOD2, SMAD4, ABCA7 and UBE2L3. Our results support the notion that early and late onset allergic disease have partly distinct genetic architectures, potentially explaining known differences in pathophysiology between individuals.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Asma/patologia , Criança , Eczema/patologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia
12.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511533

RESUMO

Introduction: Humans and viruses have co-evolved for millennia resulting in a complex host genetic architecture. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of immune response to viral infection provides insight into disease etiology and informs public health interventions. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive study linking germline genetic variation and gene expression with antibody response to 28 antigens for 16 viruses using serological data from 7924 participants in the UK Biobank cohort. Using test results from 2010 UK Biobank subjects, we also investigated genetic determinants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Results: Signals in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region dominated the landscape of viral antibody response, with 40 independent loci and 14 independent classical alleles, 7 of which exhibited pleiotropic effects across viral families. Genome-wide association analyses discovered 7 novel genetic loci associated with viral antibody response (P<5.0×10-8), including FUT2 (19q13.33) for human polyomavirus BK (BKV), STING1 (5q31.2) for Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), as well as CXCR5 (11q23.3) and TBKBP1 (17q21.32) for human herpesvirus 7. Transcriptome-wide association analyses identified 114 genes associated with response to viral infection, 12 outside of the HLA region, including ECSCR: P=5.0×10-15 (MCV), NTN5: P=1.1×10-9 (BKV), and P2RY13: P=1.1×10-8 (Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen). We also demonstrated pleiotropy between viral response genes and complex diseases, such as C4A expression in varicella zoster virus and schizophrenia. Finally, our analyses of SARS-CoV-2 revealed the first genome-wide significant infection susceptibility signal in EHF, an epithelial-specific transcriptional repressor implicated in airway disease. Targeted analyses of expression quantitative trait loci suggest a possible role for tissue-specific ACE2 expression in modifying SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. Conclusions: Our study confirms the importance of the HLA region in host response to viral infection and elucidates novel genetic determinants of host-virus interaction. Our results may have implications for complex disease etiology and COVID-19.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568784

RESUMO

Cancer diagnoses are associated with better long-term memory in older adults, possibly reflecting a range of social confounders that increase cancer risk but improve memory. We used spouse's memory as a negative control outcome to evaluate this possible confounding, since spouses share social characteristics and environments, and individuals' cancers are unlikely to cause better memory among their spouses. We estimated the association of an individual's incident cancer diagnosis (exposure) with their own (primary outcome) and their spouse's (negative control outcome) memory decline in 3601 couples from 1998 to 2014 in the Health and Retirement Study, using linear mixed-effects models. Incident cancer predicted better long-term memory for the diagnosed individual. We observed no association between an individual's cancer diagnosis and rate of spousal memory decline. This negative control study suggests that the inverse association between incident cancer and rate of memory decline is unlikely to be attributable to social/behavioral factors shared between spouses.

14.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(3): 625-634, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562552

RESUMO

Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) are anticancer therapies commonly prescribed for breast cancer and other solid tumors. Sensory peripheral neuropathy (PN) is the major dose-limiting toxicity for MTAs and can limit clinical efficacy. The current pharmacogenomic study aimed to identify genetic variations that explain patient susceptibility and drive mechanisms underlying development of MTA-induced PN. A meta-analysis of genomewide association studies (GWAS) from two clinical cohorts treated with MTAs (Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 40502 and CALGB 40101) was conducted using a Cox regression model with cumulative dose to first instance of grade 2 or higher PN. Summary statistics from a GWAS of European subjects (n = 469) in CALGB 40502 that estimated cause-specific risk of PN were meta-analyzed with those from a previously published GWAS of European ancestry (n = 855) from CALGB 40101 that estimated the risk of PN. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in an enhancer region downstream of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1 encoding S1PR1 ; e.g., rs74497159, ßCALGB 40101 per allele log hazard ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.591 (0.254-0.928), ßCALGB 40502 per allele log hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.693 (0.334-1.053); PMETA  = 3.62 × 10-7 ) were the most highly ranked associations based on P values with risk of developing grade 2 and higher PN. In silico functional analysis identified multiple regulatory elements and potential enhancer activity for S1PR1 within this genomic region. Inhibition of S1PR1 function in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human sensory neurons shows partial protection against paclitaxel-induced neurite damage. These pharmacogenetic findings further support ongoing clinical evaluations to target S1PR1 as a therapeutic strategy for prevention and/or treatment of MTA-induced neuropathy.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2735-2742, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399975

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. Recent reports suggesting IBD is also a risk factor for prostate cancer (PC) require further investigation. We studied 218 084 men in the population-based UK Biobank cohort, aged 40 to 69 at study entry between 2006 and 2010, with follow-up through mid-2015. We assessed the association between IBD and subsequent PC using multivariable Cox regression analyses, adjusting for age at assessment, ethnic group, UK region, smoking status, alcohol drinking frequency, body mass index, Townsend Deprivation Index, family history of PC and previous prostate-specific antigen testing. Mean age at study entry was 56 years, 94% of the men were white, and 1.1% (n = 2311) had a diagnosis of IBD. After a median follow-up of 78 months, men with IBD had an increased risk of PC (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.67, P = .029). The association with PC was only among men with the ulcerative colitis (UC; aHR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.11-1.95, P = .0070), and not Crohn's disease (aHR 1.06, 95% CI = 0.63-1.80, P = .82). Results are limited by lack of data on frequency of health care interactions. In a large-scale, prospective cohort study, we detected an association between IBD, and UC specifically, with incident PC diagnosis.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 27, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911640

RESUMO

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV1/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
17.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1819-1826, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226226

RESUMO

Latinos represent <1% of samples analyzed to date in genome-wide association studies of cancer. The clinical value of genetic information in guiding personalized medicine in populations of non-European ancestry will require additional discovery and risk locus characterization efforts across populations. In the present study, we performed a GWAS of prostate cancer (PrCa) in 2,820 Latino PrCa cases and 5,293 controls to search for novel PrCa risk loci and to examine the generalizability of known PrCa risk loci in Latino men. We also conducted a genetic admixture-mapping scan to identify PrCa risk alleles associated with local ancestry. Genome-wide significant associations were observed with 84 variants all located at the known PrCa risk regions at 8q24 (128.484-128.548) and 10q11.22 (MSMB gene). In admixture mapping, we observed genome-wide significant associations with local African ancestry at 8q24. Of the 162 established PrCa risk variants that are common in Latino men, 135 (83.3%) had effects that were directionally consistent as previously reported, among which 55 (34.0%) were statistically significant with p < 0.05. A polygenic risk model of the known PrCa risk variants showed that, compared to men with average risk (25th-75th percentile of the polygenic risk score distribution), men in the top 10% had a 3.19-fold (95% CI: 2.65, 3.84) increased PrCa risk. In conclusion, we found that the known PrCa risk variants can effectively stratify PrCa risk in Latino men. Larger studies in Latino populations will be required to discover and characterize genetic risk variants for PrCa and improve risk stratification for this population.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Can J Urol ; 26(5 Suppl 2): 31-33, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629425

RESUMO

Men with germline mutations in DNA repair genes are at an increased risk of prostate cancer. These germline mutations are commonly seen in conjunction with somatic DNA repair gene mutations in prostate tumors. This indicates that men with a personal or family history of prostate cancer-as well as other cancer syndromes arising from mutations in DNA repair genes-should be considered for genetic testing and counseling.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3948, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462633

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

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