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1.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-21, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019483

RESUMO

Research has examined suicide-related behaviors following exposure to suicide news articles, yet only a handful of studies utilized experimental designs. We aimed to address the limitations of these prior experimental studies by utilizing more realistic suicide articles and more empirically sound measures. 420 participants were randomly assigned to read a series of either suicide-related or neutral news articles, then complete a battery of questionnaires and the Death/Suicide Implicit Association Task. Overall, no significant differences between groups were observed, nor did we observe any moderation effect of individual vulnerabilities (e.g., lifetime suicidal ideation/behavior). We did not observe any immediate effects of exposure to suicide news articles. Further research examining potential mechanisms for imitative effects remains critically needed.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous research shows that interoceptive deficits are associated with harmful behaviors such as nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), eating disorder pathology, and suicide attempts. The present study replicates and extends this area of research by examining the association between interoceptive deficits and suicidality in a military sample. METHOD: In Study 1, respondents to an online survey (N = 134) answered self-report questionnaires related to interoceptive deficits. Study 2 consisted of a secondary data analysis of 3,764 military service members who had previously completed questionnaires on interoceptive indicators, NSSI, suicide thoughts and attempts, and other psychopathology. RESULTS: Study 1 demonstrated that our interoceptive deficits latent variable had adequate psychometric properties. In Study 2, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that scores on the interoceptive deficits latent variable were highest among suicide attempters, lowest among those with no suicide history, and intermediary among participants who had thought about but not attempted suicide. The interoceptive deficits latent variable was more strongly related to NSSI and suicidality than were posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, hopelessness, gender, and age. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm-and extend to a military sample-previous research showing that interoceptive deficits can provide important information about suicide risk.

3.
Assessment ; : 1073191119880963, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609129

RESUMO

The Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress (DAPS; Briere, 2001) is a comprehensive questionnaire that assesses posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria as well as peritraumatic responses and associated problems such as dissociation, suicidality, and substance abuse. DAPS scores have demonstrated excellent reliability, validity, and clinical utility, performing as well or better than leading PTSD questionnaires. The present study was an initial psychometric evaluation of the unreleased DAPS (DAPS-2), revised for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition (DSM-5), in an MTurk-recruited mixed trauma sample (N = 367). DAPS-2 PTSD scale and associated features scales demonstrated high internal consistency and strong convergent and discriminant validity. In confirmatory factor analyses, the DSM-5 four-factor model of PTSD provided adequate fit, but the leading seven-factor model provided superior fit. These results indicate the DAPS-2 is a psychometrically sound measure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms.

4.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 255(5): 595-608, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze data for death of veterinary professionals and veterinary students, with manner of death characterized as suicide or undetermined intent from 2003 through 2014. SAMPLE: Death records for 202 veterinary professionals and veterinary students. PROCEDURES: Decedents employed as veterinarians, veterinary technicians or technologists, or veterinary assistants or laboratory animal caretakers and veterinary students who died by suicide or of undetermined intent were identified through retrospective review of National Violent Death Reporting System records. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and mechanisms and circumstances of death were compared among veterinary occupational groups. RESULTS: 197 veterinary professionals and 5 veterinary students had deaths by suicide or of undetermined intent. Among decedents employed at the time of death, SMRs for suicide of male and female veterinarians (1.6 and 2.4, respectively) and male and female veterinary technicians or technologists (5.0 and 2.3, respectively) were significantly greater than those for the general US population, whereas SMRs for suicide of male and female veterinary assistants or laboratory animal caretakers were not. Poisoning was the most common mechanism of death among veterinarians; the drug most commonly used was pentobarbital. For most (13/18) veterinarians who died of pentobarbital poisoning, the death-related injury occurred at home. When decedents with pentobarbital poisoning were excluded from analyses, SMRs for suicide of male and female veterinarians, but not veterinary technicians or technologists, did not differ significantly from results for the general population. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested higher SMRs for suicide among veterinarians might be attributable to pentobarbital access. Improving administrative controls for pentobarbital might be a promising suicide prevention strategy among veterinarians; however, different strategies are likely needed for veterinary technicians or technologists.

5.
Am Psychol ; 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192621

RESUMO

Since the turn of the century, interdisciplinary research on networks-their formation, structure, and influence-has advanced so rapidly, it is now a science unto itself, offering new and powerful quantitative tools for studying human behavior, whose potential psychologists are just beginning to glimpse. Among these tools is a formula for quantifying assortativity, the propensity of similar people to be socially connected with one another more often than their dissimilar counterparts. With this formula, this investigation establishes a foundation for examining assortative patterns in suicidal behavior and highlights how they can be exploited for improved prevention. Specifically, the established clustering of suicide fatalities in time and space implies such fatalities have assortative features. This suggests other forms of suicide-related behavior may as well. Thus, the assortativity of suicide-related verbalizations (SRVs) was examined by machine coding 64 million posts from 17 million users of a large social media platform-Twitter-over 2 distinct 28-day periods. Users were defined as socially linked in the network if they mutually replied to each other at least once. Results show SRVs were significantly more assortative than chance, through 6 degrees of separation. This implies that if a person posts SRVs, their friends' friends' friends' friends' friends' friends are more likely than chance to do the same even though they have never met. SRVs also remained significantly assortative through 2 degrees, even when mood was controlled. Discussion illustrates how these assortative patterns can be exploited to improve the true-positive rate of suicide risk screenings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 254(8): 979-985, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between demographic, occupational, and mental health characteristics and negative attitudes toward mental illness among veterinarians. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE: 9,522 veterinarians employed in the United States. PROCEDURES: Data from a previously conducted voluntary, anonymous, web-based survey were used. Negative attitude was defined as slight or strong disagreement with 2 statements: "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (social support). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with negative attitudes. RESULTS: Of the 9,522 respondents, 6,585 (69.2%) were female, 4,523 (47.5%) were 40 to 59 years old, 291 (3.1%) had a negative attitude toward treatment effectiveness, and 4,504 (47.3%) had a negative attitude toward social support. After adjusting for other variables, negative attitude toward treatment effectiveness was significantly more likely in males, those with 10 to 19 (vs 1 to 9) years of practice experience, solo practitioners, those in government (vs "other") practice, those with evidence of serious psychological distress, and those reporting suicidal ideation after veterinary school and significantly less likely in those receiving mental health treatment. A negative attitude toward social support was significantly less likely in males and significantly more likely in 40 to 59 (vs 20 to 39) year olds, childless respondents, solo practitioners, those without membership in a veterinary association, those with evidence of serious psychological distress, those reporting depression during or after veterinary school, and those reporting suicidal ideation after veterinary school. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Characteristics such as age, sex, practice setting, and mental illness history might be useful to consider when targeting interventions to support and educate veterinarians about mental illness.

7.
Psychiatry Res ; 268: 46-52, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986178

RESUMO

According to the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, fearlessness about death is proposed to increase monotonically (i.e., either increasing or remaining stable) and thus, not be amenable to intervention; however, this assumption has not been explicitly tested. We utilized latent class growth modeling to examine the trajectory of this construct over a brief interval (i.e., data collected every three days over a 15-day time period) among college students (N = 716), and found evidence that fearlessness does not monotonically increase. Specifically, our analyses revealed three classes, each with distinct trajectories over time: a High/Increasing class (i.e., high intercept, significantly increasing slope), Average/Stable class (i.e., average intercept, flat and non-significant slope), and Low/Decreasing class (i.e., low intercept, significantly decreasing slope). The emergence of a Low/Decreasing group is in contrast to the assertion that fearlessness cannot decrease over time. Exploratory results also indicated that lifetime exposure to certain events (e.g., abuse, injury) was associated with membership in the Low/Decreasing class, suggesting that some individuals may be responding differently to painful and/or fear-inducing stimuli than the IPTS predicts. Our findings contradict the current conceptualization of fearlessness about death, and suggest instead that this construct fluctuates upward and downward over a brief interval.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Medo/psicologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Trauma Stress ; 31(3): 448-453, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958338

RESUMO

Posttraumatic growth, defined as positive transformation following trauma, is commonly measured using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) and is postulated to comprise five distinct domains: Changes in Relationships, Life Possibilities, Personal Strength, Spirituality, and Appreciation of Life. However, research has indicated that the model fit is not good and the factors are highly intercorrelated. Further, no studies have formally examined the heterogeneity of correlations of the five factors with external constructs. In an effort to examine the construct validity of the five-factor model of the PTGI, the present study aimed to examine the degree to which the theorized five factors demonstrate meaningful differential associations with relevant external correlates. Participants were 400 undergraduate students who reported having experienced a stressful event and completed the Life Events Checklist for DSM-5, PTGI, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5, Grit Scale-12, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale. We found few instances of significant differentiation, and effect sizes for pairwise comparisons were generally small, Cohen's qs = 0.01-0.35. Although factor analytic evidence suggests there are five distinct underlying constructs, our results indicated that these factors do not significantly differ in their associations with external correlates. Implications for use of the PTGI and future research directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Inventário de Personalidade , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Psychol ; 74(9): 1607-1625, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to determine the potency of externalizing psychopathology as a risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). METHOD: We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 174 prospective studies (839 unique statistical tests) examining externalizing psychopathology and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) published prior to December 8, 2017. The weighted mean odds ratios for the overall relationship between externalizing psychopathology and STBs were below 2.00 in magnitude, and all risk factor subcategories were also fairly modest predictors of STBs. Taking publication bias into account reduced the magnitude of these associations, particularly for death. Although externalizing psychopathology modestly predicts STBs, this may be due to design limitations of existing studies. Future research should employ shorter follow-up periods, consider risk factors in combination, and focus on forms of externalizing psychopathology that have not been studied extensively. RESULTS: The weighted mean odds ratios for the overall relationship between externalizing psychopathology and STBs were below 2.00 in magnitude, and all risk factor subcategories were also fairly modest predictors of STBs. Taking publication bias into account reduced the magnitude of these associations, particularly for death. Additionally, our results were mostly consistent regardless of sample age, sample severity, follow-up length, and predictor scale. CONCLUSIONS: Although externalizing psychopathology modestly predicts STBs, this may be due to design limitations of existing studies. Future research should employ shorter follow-up periods, consider risk factors in combination, and focus on forms of externalizing psychopathology that have not been studied extensively.


Assuntos
Controle Interno-Externo , Psicopatologia , Ideação Suicida , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tentativa de Suicídio
10.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 252(2): 227-233, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors. PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents' main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved. RESULTS A taxonomy of 15 categories of broad practice-related stressors and 40 subcategories of more specific practice-related stressors was developed. The most common practice-related stressor categories included financial insecurity (n = 289 [20.3%]), client issues (254 [17.9%]), coworker or interpersonal issues (181 [12.7%]), and work-life balance (166 [11.7%]). The most common subcategories were clients unwilling to pay (118 [8.3%]), low income (98 [6.9%]), cost of maintaining practice (56 [3.9%]), and government or state board policies (48 [3.4%]). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided a comprehensive list of the types of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians, building a foundation for future research into relationships between job stress and mental health in this population. Frequency data on the various stressors provided an initial understanding of factors that might be contributing to high stress rates among US veterinarians.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/classificação , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 48(3): 253-270, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504315

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of exposure to a suicide news article on a variety of outcome variables and whether adhering to one specific media guideline (i.e., including psychoeducational information and preventative resources) buffered any of the negative effects of exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three articles and then asked to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires. Overall, we found no effect of exposure to a suicide news article, regardless of the inclusion of resources and information, with a few minor exceptions. Although researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of media guidelines in the aggregate at reducing imitative suicidal behavior, it remains unclear which guidelines in particular are responsible for this effect.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento Imitativo , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/normas , Psiquiatria Preventiva/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Humanos , Masculino , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
12.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 48(5): 544-558, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833378

RESUMO

This study evaluated the synergy hypothesis of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are positively interactive in their association with suicide ideation, in a group of juvenile offenders. It also examined whether this prediction is differentially applicable across race/ethnicity or offense type. Participants included 590 adjudicated and confined male juveniles. Regression was used to test the association between suicide ideation and thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and their interaction term. Subsequent analyses included tests of group interactions related to race/ethnicity and offense type. No interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness was observed, despite adequate power. No significant group interactions were observed for race/ethnicity or offense type. However, results did show significant linear relationships between thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and ideation, highlighting their potential utility as intervention targets in this at-risk population. Thus, although the current results are the first to show the basic IPTS risk factors generalize across race/ethnicity and offense type, they also failed to support that those factors were interactive, a primary IPTS claim. The absence of an interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness suggests their role in suicide ideation for juvenile offenders may be more parsimonious than the IPTS proposes.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 48(4): 438-448, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833450

RESUMO

People with eating disorders (EDs) have an elevated risk for both nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide compared to the general population. This study tests two theoretically derived models examining interoceptive deficits as a risk factor for NSSI, and examining interoceptive deficits, NSSI, fearlessness about death, and pain tolerance as risk factors for suicide. Ninety-six adult, treatment-seeking women with EDs completed self-report questionnaires at a single time point. Interoceptive deficits were significantly associated with NSSI, and NSSI was in turn associated with both pain tolerance and fearlessness about death. Further, pain tolerance was in turn associated with past suicide attempts, although fearlessness about death was not associated with suicide attempts. Interoceptive deficits had a direct association with fearlessness about death but not pain tolerance. Results regarding the relation between interoceptive deficits and suicide attempts were mixed, yet overall suggest that interoceptive deficits are related to suicide attempts largely indirectly, through the effects of mediating variables such as NSSI, fearlessness about death, and pain tolerance. Results suggest that interoceptive deficits and pain tolerance merit further investigation as potential risk factors for fatal and nonfatal self-harm among individuals with EDs.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Morte , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interocepção , Limiar da Dor , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Estatística como Assunto , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 48(1): 105-115, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28261858

RESUMO

This study used the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide to explore the relationships among DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters derived from the six-factor anhedonia model and facets of acquired capability for suicide (ACS). In a sample of 373 trauma-exposed undergraduates, most PTSD symptom clusters were negatively associated with facets of ACS in bivariate correlations, but the anhedonia cluster was positively associated with ACS in regression models. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis indicated that anhedonia served as a suppressor variable for the other symptom clusters. Our findings further elucidate the complex relationship between specific PTSD symptom clusters and ACS.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Suicídio , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse/psicologia
15.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 126(6): 739-749, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28557509

RESUMO

Insomnia is robustly associated with suicidal behavior, but methodological limitations in existing studies hinder nuanced understanding of this relationship. The current study addressed these limitations by utilizing a longitudinal design and advanced statistical modeling. Participants who endorsed lifetime experience of suicidal behavior were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 589) and completed self-report online surveys at 6 time points over a 15-day period. Latent difference score modeling was utilized to investigate whether levels and/or changes in insomnia symptoms drive subsequent changes in suicide ideation, or vice versa. Results revealed that previous level of insomnia symptoms was predictive of positive changes in suicide ideation (i.e., level of insomnia symptoms predicted lagged increases in suicide ideation). This relationship was not bidirectional (i.e., suicide ideation exerted no effects on insomnia symptoms). Additionally, only previous level, and not previous changes, in insomnia symptoms were predictive of changes in suicide ideation. Our results help clarify the nature of the relationship between insomnia symptoms and suicide ideation as one that is unidirectional, thereby offering evidence of insomnia symptoms as a variable risk factor for suicide ideation. These findings yield clinical implications, including the importance of screening for insomnia symptoms, and provide support for exploring the potential effectiveness of insomnia treatments to target suicide ideation. Moreover, our study design and methodology establish a foundation for more rigorous and nuanced investigations of imminent suicide risk in future studies, which can ultimately promote better clinical practice in the reduction of suicidal behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Psychol Assess ; 29(4): 382-393, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27280745

RESUMO

Although suicide risk is often thought of as existing on a graded continuum, its latent structure (i.e., whether it is categorical or dimensional) has not been empirically determined. Knowledge about the latent structure of suicide risk holds implications for suicide risk assessments, targeted suicide interventions, and suicide research. Our objectives were to determine whether suicide risk can best be understood as a categorical (i.e., taxonic) or dimensional entity, and to validate the nature of any obtained taxon. We conducted taxometric analyses of cross-sectional, baseline data from 16 independent studies funded by the Military Suicide Research Consortium. Participants (N = 1,773) primarily consisted of military personnel, and most had a history of suicidal behavior. The Comparison Curve Fit Index values for MAMBAC (.85), MAXEIG (.77), and L-Mode (.62) all strongly supported categorical (i.e., taxonic) structure for suicide risk. Follow-up analyses comparing the taxon and complement groups revealed substantially larger effect sizes for the variables most conceptually similar to suicide risk compared with variables indicating general distress. Pending replication and establishment of the predictive validity of the taxon, our results suggest the need for a fundamental shift in suicide risk assessment, treatment, and research. Specifically, suicide risk assessments could be shortened without sacrificing validity, the most potent suicide interventions could be allocated to individuals in the high-risk group, and research should generally be conducted on individuals in the high-risk group. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
17.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 47(2): 142-154, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27291684

RESUMO

Previous findings on the relationship between suicide ideation (SI) and alcohol misuse among college students are inconsistent, leading to conflicting clinical implications. We aimed to clarify this relationship in order to determine the utility of regarding alcohol misuse as a risk factor for SI in this population. Unselected college students (N = 545) completed an online survey including measures of alcohol consumption, problems, drinking motives, SI, and related variables. Our results suggest alcohol misuse is not a correlate of SI among college students; therefore, one should not assume that students who misuse alcohol are necessarily at increased risk for SI.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Motivação , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 47(2): 155-167, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27291861

RESUMO

A nonlinear indirect effects framework was used to investigate potential interpersonal indirect effects (i.e., perceived burden and thwarted belonging) accounting for the nonlinear relationship between body mass index (BMI) and suicide ideation. Using a sample of 338 undergraduates, results revealed a significant quadratic effect of BMI on suicide ideation via perceived burden only, which became significant as BMI fell below 18.00 kg/m2 and above 28.00 kg/m2 . Our results provide novel information relevant for suicide risk screening in the context of weight- and health-related interventions and provide justification for future longitudinal trials assessing suicide risk across the BMI spectrum.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Autoimagem , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Estudantes/psicologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Psychol Trauma ; 9(5): 553-560, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27929309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic growth (PTG), or multidimensional positive change following a traumatic event (TE), is conceptualized as qualitatively distinct from growth following a nontraumatic stressful event (NTSE; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004; Zoellner & Maercker, 2006). However, the degree to which PTG is a trauma-specific phenomenon has yet to be established. Although research indicates that individuals who experience TEs endorse greater PTG than those who experience NTSEs (Kastenmüller et al., 2012; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996), factorial invariance and latent mean differences in PTG between these groups have yet to be examined. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to extend previous findings by examining the factorial invariance of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) across groups whose worst stressor was a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) Criterion A event or a non-Criterion A event. METHOD: Participants were 644 undergraduates who reported experiencing a stressful event and completed the Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5) and PTGI. RESULTS: Results indicated that the previously identified 5-factor model of the PTGI provided the best fit, although fit was mediocre. A higher order model significantly worsened model fit and thus was rejected. Unexpectedly, strong factorial invariance and equivalence of latent means were found, indicating that the factor structure and latent means of PTG were identical across groups. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that PTG might not be qualitatively or quantitatively distinct from growth due to NTSEs, and TEs and NTSEs elicit similar levels of PTG. Limitations include cross-sectional design. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Eat Disord ; 49(12): 1082-1086, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27528050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study tested whether the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) provides a useful framework for understanding elevated suicide rates among individuals with eating disorders (EDs). METHOD: Based on predictions of the IPTS, we tested whether the combination of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness was associated with suicidal desire, and whether the combination of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and fearlessness about death was associated with past suicide attempts in an ED sample (n = 100). We also compared these IPTS constructs in an ED sample versus general psychiatric inpatients (n = 85) and college students (i.e., non-clinical comparison group; n = 93). RESULTS: Within the ED sample, no hypothesized interactions were found, but perceived burdensomeness was associated with suicidal desire, and perceived burdensomeness and fearlessness about death were associated with past suicide attempts. The ED and psychiatric samples had greater thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal desire than the non-clinical comparison group. DISCUSSION: The IPTS constructs of perceived burdensomeness and fearlessness about death appear to explain some facets of suicidality among people with EDs, but overall, support for the IPTS was limited. Future research on EDs and suicidality should look beyond the IPTS and consider other biological and sociocultural factors for suicide. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1082-1086).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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