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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor, reduces bone resorption while maintaining bone formation. Previous work has shown that odanacatib increases bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of odanacatib to reduce fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: The Long-term Odanacatib Fracture Trial (LOFT) was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven study at 388 outpatient clinics in 40 countries. Eligible participants were women aged at least 65 years who were postmenopausal for 5 years or more, with a femoral neck or total hip bone mineral density T-score between -2·5 and -4·0 if no previous radiographic vertebral fracture, or between -1·5 and -4·0 with a previous vertebral fracture. Women with a previous hip fracture, more than one vertebral fracture, or a T-score of less than -4·0 at the total hip or femoral neck were not eligible unless they were unable or unwilling to use approved osteoporosis treatment. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either oral odanacatib (50 mg once per week) or matching placebo. Randomisation was done using an interactive voice recognition system after stratification for previous radiographic vertebral fracture, and treatment was masked to study participants, investigators and their staff, and sponsor personnel. If the study completed before 5 years of double-blind treatment, consenting participants could enrol in a double-blind extension study (LOFT Extension), continuing their original treatment assignment for up to 5 years from randomisation. Primary endpoints were incidence of vertebral fractures as assessed using radiographs collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months, yearly, and at final study visit in participants for whom evaluable radiograph images were available at baseline and at least one other timepoint, and hip and non-vertebral fractures adjudicated as being a result of osteoporosis as assessed by clinical history and radiograph. Safety was assessed in participants who received at least one dose of study drug. The adjudicated cardiovascular safety endpoints were a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and new-onset atrial fibrillation or flutter. Individual cardiovascular endpoints and death were also assessed. LOFT and LOFT Extension are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT00529373) and the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT number 2007-002693-66). FINDINGS: Between Sept 14, 2007, and Nov 17, 2009, we randomly assigned 16 071 evaluable patients to treatment: 8043 to odanacatib and 8028 to placebo. After a median follow-up of 36·5 months (IQR 34·43-40·15) 4297 women assigned to odanacatib and 3960 assigned to placebo enrolled in LOFT Extension (total median follow-up 47·6 months, IQR 35·45-60·06). In LOFT, cumulative incidence of primary outcomes for odanacatib versus placebo were: radiographic vertebral fractures 3·7% (251/6770) versus 7·8% (542/6910), hazard ratio (HR) 0·46, 95% CI 0·40-0·53; hip fractures 0·8% (65/8043) versus 1·6% (125/8028), 0·53, 0·39-0·71; non-vertebral fractures 5·1% (412/8043) versus 6·7% (541/8028), 0·77, 0·68-0·87; all p<0·0001. Combined results from LOFT plus LOFT Extension for cumulative incidence of primary outcomes for odanacatib versus placebo were: radiographic vertebral fractures 4·9% (341/6909) versus 9·6% (675/7011), HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·42-0·55; hip fractures 1·1% (86/8043) versus 2·0% (162/8028), 0·52, 0·40-0·67; non-vertebral fractures 6·4% (512/8043) versus 8·4% (675/8028), 0·74, 0·66-0·83; all p<0·0001. In LOFT, the composite cardiovascular endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 273 (3·4%) of 8043 patients in the odanacatib group versus 245 (3·1%) of 8028 in the placebo group (HR 1·12, 95% CI 0·95-1·34; p=0·18). New-onset atrial fibrillation or flutter occurred in 112 (1·4%) of 8043 patients in the odanacatib group versus 96 (1·2%) of 8028 in the placebo group (HR 1·18, 0·90-1·55; p=0·24). Odanacatib was associated with an increased risk of stroke (1·7% [136/8043] vs 1·3% [104/8028], HR 1·32, 1·02-1·70; p=0·034), but not myocardial infarction (0·7% [60/8043] vs 0·9% [74/8028], HR 0·82, 0·58-1·15; p=0·26). The HR for all-cause mortality was 1·13 (5·0% [401/8043] vs 4·4% [356/8028], 0·98-1·30; p=0·10).When data from LOFT Extension were included, the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in significantly more patients in the odanacatib group than in the placebo group (401 [5·0%] of 8043 vs 343 [4·3%] of 8028, HR 1·17, 1·02-1·36; p=0·029, as did stroke (2·3% [187/8043] vs 1·7% [137/8028], HR 1·37, 1·10-1·71; p=0·0051). INTERPRETATION: Odanacatib reduced the risk of fracture, but was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, specifically stroke, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Based on the overall balance between benefit and risk, the study's sponsor decided that they would no longer pursue development of odanacatib for treatment of osteoporosis. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc, Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(17): 2132-2146, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evolocumab and other anti-PCSK9 antibodies reduced adverse cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials of high-risk patients over <3 years median treatment duration. OBJECTIVES: The OSLER-1 trial (Open Label Study of Long Term Evaluation Against LDL-C Trial) evaluated longer-term effects of evolocumab during open-label hypercholesterolemia treatment for up to 5 years. METHODS: Patients randomized to standard of care (SOC) or evolocumab 420 mg monthly (evolocumab + SOC) for year 1. After year 1, patients could enter the all-evolocumab period and receive evolocumab + SOC for an additional 4 years. The authors analyzed the persistence of lipid effects and exposure-dependent safety focusing on yearly rates of adverse events (AEs) and anti-drug antibodies over 4.951 patient-years of observation. RESULTS: A total of 1,255 patients (safety analysis population) randomized into the year 1 SOC-controlled period and received ≥1 evolocumab dose (mean ± SD age 57 ± 12 years; 53% female). A total of 1,151 patients (efficacy analysis population) progressed to the all-evolocumab period (year 2 and beyond). Evolocumab + SOC persistently lowered mean ± SE low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 56% ± 0.6% (n = 1,071), 57% ± 0.8% (n = 1,001), 56% ± 0.8% (n = 943), and 56% ± 0.8% (n = 803) after approximately 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, respectively, from randomization. Mean baseline LDL-C decreased from 140 to 61 mg/dl on treatment. Yearly serious AE rates during evolocumab + SOC ranged from 6.9% to 7.9%, comparable to the 6.8% rate in SOC patients during year 1. Evolocumab discontinuation due to AEs occurred in 5.7% of patients. Two SOC and 2 evolocumab + SOC patients developed new, transient, binding anti-drug antibodies; no neutralizing antibodies were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The OSLER-1 trial demonstrated consistently excellent LDL-C-lowering efficacy, tolerance, and safety of evolocumab, with no neutralizing antibodies detected, throughout the longest-duration study of a PCSK9 inhibitor reported to date. (Open Label Study of Long Term Evaluation Against LDL-C Trial [OSLER-1]; NCT01439880).

4.
Circulation ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597460

RESUMO

Background: Numerous scales exist for classification of major bleeding events. There are limited data comparing the most commonly used bleeding scales within a single at-risk cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Here we analyze bleeding outcomes according to the ISTH, TIMI, GUSTO, and BARC bleeding scales in the ENGAGE AF (Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation)-TIMI 48 trial of edoxaban vs warfarin. Methods: 21,105 patients with AF at risk for stroke (CHADS2 ≥2) were enrolled in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial (NCT00781391) comparing warfarin to a higher (HDER; 60/30 mg daily) or lower (LDER; 30/15 mg daily) dose edoxaban regimen. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Bleeding events occurring among on-treatment patients were examined. Annualized event rates were calculated by the ISTH, TIMI, GUSTO, and BARC scales and compared across treatment arms. Cox proportional hazards for a first bleeding event of each type were calculated for HDER vs warfarin and LDER vs warfarin. Results: 10,311 total bleeding events were reported. Comparing the most severe events in each scale, ISTH Major bleeding was the most common (n=1,289) followed by TIMI Major (n=548), GUSTO Severe/Life-Threatening (n=347), and BARC 3c+5 (n=276). Lower bleeding risk with edoxaban as compared with warfarin was seen regardless of bleeding scale (HDER range: HR 0.47 [0.35-0.62] for BARC 3c+5 to HR 0.80 [0.71-0.91] for ISTH Major; LDER range: HR 0.32 [0.23-0.45] for BARC 3c+5 to HR 0.47 [0.41-0.55] for ISTH Major). Further, a gradient of more pronounced risk reduction with edoxaban was observed for with greater severity of first bleeding event (HDER: HR 0.47 [0.35-0.62] for BARC 3c+5 bleeds vs HR 0.86 [0.81-0.91] for any BARC bleed; LDER: HR 0.32 [0.23-0.45] for BARC 3c+5 bleeds vs HR 0.68 [0.63-0.72] for any BARC bleed). The direction of this trend was consistent for both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal bleeding. Conclusions: Among patients with AF at risk for stroke, there was an approximately four-fold difference in the frequency of the most severe bleeding events across commonly used bleeding scales. Further, the relative safety of edoxaban as compared with warfarin tended to increase with greater severity of bleeding. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00781391.

5.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1569-1577, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing heart failure. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in patients with T2DM. We aimed to develop and validate a practical clinical risk score for HHF in patients with T2DM and assess whether this score can identify high-risk patients with T2DM who have the greatest reduction in risk for HHF with a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor. METHODS: We developed a clinical risk score for HHF in 8212 patients with T2DM in the placebo arm of SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53). Candidate variables were assessed using multivariable Cox regression, and independent clinical risk indicators achieving statistical significance of P<0.001 were included in the risk score. We externally validated the score in 8578 patients with T2DM in the placebo arm of DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58). The relative and absolute risk reductions in HHF with the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin were assessed by baseline HHF risk. RESULTS: Five clinical variables were independent risk predictors of HHF: prior heart failure, history of atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A simple integer-based score (0-7 points) using these predictors identified a >20-fold gradient of HHF risk (P for trend <0.001) in both the derivation and validation cohorts, with C indices of 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. Although relative risk reductions with dapagliflozin were similar for patients across the risk scores (25%-34%), absolute risk reductions were greater in those at higher baseline risk (1-sided P for trend=0.04), with high-risk (2 points) and very-high-risk (≥3 points) patients having 1.5% and 2.7% absolute reductions in Kaplan-Meier estimates of HHF risk at 4 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Risk stratification using a novel clinical risk score for HHF in patients with T2DM identifies patients at higher risk for HHF who derive greater absolute benefit from sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01107886 and NCT01730534.

6.
Circulation ; 140(16): 1308-1317, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials of therapies that primarily lowered triglycerides have not consistently shown reductions in cardiovascular events. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and trial-level meta-regression analysis of 3 classes of lipid-lowering therapies that reduce triglycerides to a greater extent than they do low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C): fibrates, niacin, and marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Key inclusion criteria were a randomized controlled trial that reported major vascular events. We also incorporated data from a previous meta-regression of 25 statin trials. The main outcome measure was the risk ratio (RR) for major vascular events associated with absolute reductions in lipid parameters. RESULTS: A total of 197 270 participants from 24 trials of nonstatin therapy with 25 218 major vascular events and 177 088 participants from 25 trials of statin therapy with 20 962 major vascular events were included, for a total of 374 358 patients and 46 180 major cardiovascular events. Starting with non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a surrogate for very-low-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins, the RR per 1-mmol/L reduction in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.82; P<0.0001; 0.78 per 40 mg/dL). In a multivariable meta-regression model that included terms for both LDL-C and triglyceride (surrogates for low-density lipoproteins and very-low-density lipoproteins, respectively), the RR was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.76-0.85; P<0.0001) per 1-mmol/L (0.79 per 40 mg/dL) reduction in LDL-C and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.94; P=0.0026) per 1-mmol/L (0.92 per 40 mg/dL) reduction in triglycerides. REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) was a significant outlier and strongly influential trial in the meta-regression. When removed, the RRs became 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.83; P<0.0001) per 1-mmol/L (0.78 per 40 mg/dL) reduction in LDL-C and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81-1.006; P=0.06) per 1-mmol/L (0.96 per 40 mg/dL) reduction in triglycerides. In regard to omega-3 dose, each 1 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid administered was associated with a 7% relative risk reduction in major vascular events (RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.91-0.95]; P<0.0001), whereas there was no significant association between the dose of docosahexaenoic acid and the relative risk reduction in major vascular events (RR 0.96 [95% CI, 0.89-1.03]). CONCLUSIONS: In randomized controlled trials, triglyceride lowering is associated with a lower risk of major vascular events, even after adjustment for LDL-C lowering, although the effect is less than that for LDL-C and attenuated when REDUCE-IT is excluded. Furthermore, the benefits of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids, particularly high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid, appear to exceed their lipid-lowering effects.

7.
Circulation ; 140(2): 80-91, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390169

RESUMO

Recent developments in cancer therapeutics have improved outcomes but have also been associated with cardiovascular complications. Therapies harnessing the immune system have been associated with an immune-mediated myocardial injury described as myocarditis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are one such therapy with an increasing number of case and cohort reports describing a clinical syndrome of immune checkpoint inhibitor­associated myocarditis. Although the full spectrum of immune checkpoint inhibitor­associated cardiovascular disease still needs to be fully defined, described cases of myocarditis range from syndromes with mild signs and symptoms to fatal events. These observations in the clinical setting stand in contrast to outcomes from randomized clinical trials in which myocarditis is a rare event that is investigator reported and lacking in a specific case definition. The complexities associated with diagnosis, as well as the heterogeneous clinical presentation of immune checkpoint inhibitor­associated myocarditis, have made ascertainment and identification of myocarditis with high specificity challenging in clinical trials and other data sets, limiting the ability to better understand the incidence, outcomes, and predictors of these rare events. Therefore, establishing a uniform definition of myocarditis for application in clinical trials of cancer immunotherapies will enable greater understanding of these events. We propose an operational definition of cancer therapy-associated myocarditis that may facilitate case ascertainment and report and therefore may enhance the understanding of the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of this novel clinical syndrome.

9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(8): 606-617, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown beneficial effects on renal outcomes mainly in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Here we report analyses of renal outcomes with the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in the DECLARE-TIMI 58 cardiovascular outcomes trial, which included patients with type 2 diabetes both with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and mostly with preserved renal function. METHODS: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 6·5-12·0% (47·5-113·1 mmol/mol), with either established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or multiple risk factors, and creatinine clearance of at least 60 mL/min were randomly assigned (1:1) to 10 mg dapagliflozin or placebo once daily. A prespecified secondary cardiorenal composite outcome was defined as a sustained decline of at least 40% in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] to less than 60 mL/min per 1·73m2, end-stage renal disease (defined as dialysis for at least 90 days, kidney transplantation, or confirmed sustained eGFR <15mL/min per 1·73 m2), or death from renal or cardiovascular causes; a prespecified renal-specific composite outcome was the same but excluding death from cardiovascular causes. In this renal analysis, we report findings for the components of these composite outcomes, subgroup analysis of these composite outcomes, and changes in eGFR at different timepoints. DECLARE-TIMI 58 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01730534. FINDINGS: The trial took place between April 25, 2013, and Sept 18, 2018; median follow-up was 4·2 years (IQR 3·9-4·4). Of the 17 160 participants who were randomly assigned, 8162 (47·6%) had an eGFR of at least 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2, 7732 (45·1%) had an eGFR of 60 to less than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2, and 1265 (7·4%) had an eGFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m2 at baseline (one participant had missing data for eGFR); 6974 (40·6%) had established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 186 (59·4%) had multiple risk factors. As previously reported, the cardiorenal secondary composite outcome was significantly reduced with dapagliflozin versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·67-0.87; p<0·0001); excluding death from cardiovascular causes, the HR for the renal-specific outcome was 0·53 (0·43-0·66; p<0·0001). We identified a 46% reduction in sustained decline in eGFR by at least 40% to less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (120 [1·4% vs 221 [2·6%]; HR 0·54 [95% CI 0·43-0·67]; p<0·0001). The risk of end-stage renal disease or renal death was lower in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group (11 [0·1%] vs 27 [0·3%]; HR 0·41 [95% CI 0·20-0·82]; p=0·012). Both the cardiorenal and renal-specific composite outcomes were improved with dapagliflozin versus placebo across various prespecified subgroups, including those defined by baseline eGFR (cardiorenal outcome pinteraction=0·97; renal-specific outcome pinteraction=0·87) and the presence or absence of established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (cardiorenal outcome pinteraction=0·67; renal-specific outcome pinteraction=0·72). 6 months after randomisation, the mean decrease in eGFR was larger in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group. The mean change equalised by 2 years, and at 3 and 4 years the mean decrease in eGFR was less with dapagliflozin than with placebo. INTERPRETATION: Dapagliflozin seemed to prevent and reduce progression of kidney disease compared with placebo in this large and diverse population of patients with type 2 diabetes with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, most of whom had preserved renal function. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(7): 613-619, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116355

RESUMO

Importance: The PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and first cardiovascular events in the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial, but patients remain at high risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Objective: To evaluate the effect of evolocumab on total cardiovascular events, given the importance of total number of cardiovascular events to patients, clinicians, and health economists. Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The FOURIER trial compared evolocumab or matching placebo and followed up patients for a median of 2.2 years. The study included 27 564 patients with stable atherosclerotic disease receiving statin therapy. Data were analyzed between May 2017 and February 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point (PEP) was time to first cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization; the key secondary end point was time to first cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. In a prespecified analysis, total cardiovascular events were evaluated between treatment arms. Results: The mean age of patients was 63 years, 69% of patients were taking high-intensity statin therapy, and the median LDL-C at baseline was 92 mg/dL (to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259). There were 2907 first PEP events and 4906 total PEP events during the trial. Evolocumab reduced total PEP events by 18% (incidence rate ratio [RR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90; P < .001) including both first events (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.92; P < .001) and subsequent events (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.85). There were 2192 total primary events in the evolocumab group and 2714 total events in the placebo group. For every 1000 patients treated for 3 years, evolocumab prevented 22 first PEP events and 52 total PEP events. Reductions in total events were driven by fewer total myocardial infarctions (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84; P < .001), strokes (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93; P = .007), and coronary revascularizations (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.71-0.87; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The addition of the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab to statin therapy improved clinical outcomes, with significant reductions in total PEP events, driven by decreases in myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary revascularization. More than double the number of events were prevented with evolocumab vs placebo as compared with the analysis of only first events. These data provide further support for the benefit of continuing aggressive lipid-lowering therapy to prevent recurrent cardiovascular events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01764633.

12.
Circulation ; 139(22): 2516-2527, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Because of their baseline risk, patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) may derive even greater benefit from sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitor therapy. METHODS: DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58) randomized 17 160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and either established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (n=6974) or multiple risk factors (n=10 186) to dapagliflozin versus placebo. The 2 primary end points were composite of MACE (cardiovascular death, MI, or ischemic stroke) and the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. Those with previous MI (n=3584) made up a prespecified subgroup of interest. RESULTS: In patients with previous MI (n=3584), dapagliflozin reduced the relative risk of MACE by 16% and the absolute risk by 2.6% (15.2% versus 17.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99; P=0.039), whereas there was no effect in patients without previous MI (7.1% versus 7.1%; HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88-1.13; P=0.97; P for interaction for relative difference=0.11; P for interaction for absolute risk difference=0.048), including in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but no history of MI (12.6% versus 12.8%; HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.81-1.19). There seemed to be a greater benefit for MACE within 2 years after the last acute event ( P for interaction trend=0.007). The relative risk reductions in cardiovascular death/hospitalization for heart failure were more similar, but the absolute risk reductions tended to be greater: 1.9% (8.6% versus 10.5%; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-1.00; P=0.046) and 0.6% (3.9% versus 4.5%; HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-1.00; P=0.055) in patients with and without previous MI, respectively ( P interaction for relative difference=0.69; P interaction for absolute risk difference=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and previous MI are at high risk of MACE and cardiovascular death/hospitalization for heart failure. Dapagliflozin appears to robustly reduce the risk of both composite outcomes in these patients. Future studies should aim to confirm the large clinical benefits with sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors we observed in patients with previous MI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01730534.

13.
Circulation ; 139(22): 2528-2536, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58), the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the composite end point of cardiovascular death/hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in a broad population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the impact of baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) on the clinical benefit of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition is unknown. METHODS: In the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial, baseline heart failure (HF) status was collected from all patients, and EF was collected when available. HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) was defined as EF <45%. Outcomes of interest were the composite of cardiovascular death/HHF, its components, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Of 17 160 patients, 671 (3.9%) had HFrEF, 1316 (7.7%) had HF without known reduced EF, and 15 173 (88.4%) had no history of HF at baseline. Dapagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death/HHF more in patients with HFrEF (hazard ratio [HR], 0.62 [95% CI, 0.45-0.86]) than in those without HFrEF (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.76-1.02]; P for interaction=0.046), in whom the treatment effect of dapagliflozin was similar in those with HF without known reduced EF (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.66-1.17]) and those without HF (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.74-1.03]). Whereas dapagliflozin reduced HHF both in those with (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.43-0.95]) and in those without HFrEF (HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.62-0.92]), it reduced cardiovascular death only in patients with HFrEF (HR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.34-0.90]) but not in those without HFrEF (HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.89-1.31]; P for interaction=0.012). Likewise, dapagliflozin reduced all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF (HR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.40-0.88;) but not in those without HFrEF (HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.86-1.10]; P for interaction=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: In the first sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor cardiovascular outcome trial to evaluate patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus stratified by EF, we found that dapagliflozin reduced HHF in patients with and without HFrEF and reduced cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01730534.

14.
Circulation ; 139(7): 874-876, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742536
15.
Circulation ; 139(17): 2022-2031, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have emerged as 2 new classes of antihyperglycemic agents that also reduce cardiovascular risk. The relative benefits in patients with and without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease for different outcomes with these classes of drugs remain undefined. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and trial-level meta-analysis of GLP1-RA and SGLT2i cardiovascular outcomes trials using the PubMed and EMBASE databases (Excerpta Medica Database). The primary outcomes were the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death (MACE); hospitalization for heart failure; and progression of kidney disease. RESULTS: In total, data from 8 trials and 77 242 patients, 42 920 (55.6%) in GLP1-RA trials, and 34 322 (44.4%) in SGLT2i trials, were included. Both drug classes reduced MACE in a similar magnitude with GLP1-RA reducing the risk by 12% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94; P<0.001) and SGLT2i by 11% (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96; P=0.001). For both drug classes, this treatment effect was restricted to a 14% reduction in those with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.93; P=0.002), whereas no effect was seen in patients without established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.87-1.19; P=0.81; P interaction, 0.028). SGLT2i reduced hospitalization for heart failure by 31% (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.61-0.79; P<0.001), whereas GLP1-RA did not have a significant effect (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.04; P=0.20). Both GLP1-RA (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.89; P<0.001) and SGLT2i (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58-0.67; P<0.001) reduced the risk of progression of kidney disease including macroalbuminuria, but only SGLT2i reduced the risk of worsening estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, or renal death (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.48-0.64; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In trials reported to date, GLP1-RA and SGLT2i reduce atherosclerotic MACE to a similar degree in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, whereas SGLT2i have a more marked effect on preventing hospitalization for heart failure and progression of kidney disease. Their distinct clinical benefit profiles should be considered in the decision-making process when treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

17.
Circulation ; 139(3): 366-375, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is thought to increase renal hyperfiltration, thereby increasing albuminuria and the progression of renal disease. The effect of pharmacologically mediated weight loss on renal outcomes is not well-described. Lorcaserin, a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist that promotes appetite suppression, led to sustained weight loss without any increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in the CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 trial (Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects of Lorcaserin in Overweight and Obese Patients-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 61). METHODS: CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 randomly assigned 12 000 overweight or obese patients with or at high risk for atherosclerotic CV disease to lorcaserin or placebo on a background of lifestyle modification. The primary renal outcome was a composite of new or worsening persistent micro- or macroalbuminuria, new or worsening chronic kidney disease, doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, renal transplant, or renal death. RESULTS: At baseline, 23.8% of patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 and 19.0% had albuminuria (urinary albumin:creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g). Lorcaserin reduced the risk of the primary renal composite outcome (4.2% per year versus 4.9% per year; hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.96; P=0.0064). The benefit was consistent across subpopulations at increased baseline CV and renal risk. Lorcaserin improved both eGFR and urinary albumin:creatinune ratio within the first year after randomization. The effect of lorcaserin on weight, hemoglobin A1c, and systolic blood pressure was consistent regardless of baseline renal function. Likewise, there was no excess in cardiovascular events in patients assigned to lorcaserin in comparison with placebo, regardless of renal function. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, those with evidence of kidney disease were at increased risk of major CV events. Compared with patients with an eGFR ≥90 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2, those with an eGFR 60-90 and those <60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 had HRs of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.01, 1.56) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.17, 1.95), respectively ( P for trend 0.0015). Likewise, compared with patients with no albuminuria (<30 mg/g), those microalbuminuria and those with macroalbuminuria had HRs of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.22, 1.74) and 2.10 (95% CI, 1.58, 2.80), respectively ( P for trend <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Renal dysfunction was associated with increased CV risk in overweight and obese patients. When added to diet and lifestyle, lorcaserin reduced the rate of new-onset or progressive renal impairment in comparison with placebo. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02019264.


Assuntos
Depressores do Apetite/uso terapêutico , Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzazepinas/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Depressores do Apetite/efeitos adversos , Benzazepinas/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Redutora , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(22): e009260, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571502

RESUMO

Background Ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke in patients with prior MI in PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events [eg, Death From Heart or Vascular Disease, Heart Attack, or Stroke] in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin). MI can occur in diverse settings and with varying severity; therefore, understanding the types and sizes of MI events prevented is of clinical importance. Methods and Results MIs were adjudicated by a blinded clinical events committee and categorized by subtype and fold elevation of peak cardiac troponin over the upper limit of normal. A total of 1042 MIs occurred in 898 of the 21 162 randomized patients over a median follow-up of 33 months. The majority of the MIs (76%) were spontaneous (Type 1), with demand MI (Type 2) and stent thrombosis (Type 4b) accounting for 13% and 9%, respectively; sudden death (Type 3), percutaneous coronary intervention-related (Type 4a) and coronary artery bypass graft-related (Type 5) each accounted for <1%. Half of MIs (520, 50%) had a peak troponin ≥10x upper limit of normal and 21% of MIs (220) had a peak troponin ≥100× upper limit of normal. A total of 21% (224) were ST-segment-elevation MI STEMI. Overall ticagrelor reduced MI (4.47% versus 5.25%, hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.95, P=0.0055). The benefit was consistent among the subtypes, including a 31% reduction in MIs with a peak troponin ≥100× upper limit of normal (hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.92, P=0.0096) and a 40% reduction in ST-segment elevation MI (hazard ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.78, P=0.0002). Conclusions In stable outpatients with prior MI, the majority of recurrent MIs are spontaneous and associated with a high biomarker elevation. Ticagrelor reduces the MI consistently among subtypes and sizes including large MIs and ST-segment elevation MI. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01225562.

19.
Lancet ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The magnitude of effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on specific cardiovascular and renal outcomes and whether heterogeneity is based on key baseline characteristics remains undefined. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled, cardiovascular outcome trials of SGLT2i in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched PubMed and Embase for trials published up to Sept 24, 2018. Data search and extraction were completed with a standardised data form and any discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Efficacy outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death), the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure, and progression of renal disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were pooled across trials, and efficacy outcomes were stratified by baseline presence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and degree of renal function. FINDINGS: We included data from three identified trials and 34 322 patients (60·2% with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease), with 3342 major adverse cardiovascular events, 2028 cardiovascular deaths or hospitalisation sfor heart failure events, and 766 renal composite outcomes. SGLT2i reduced major adverse cardiovascular events by 11% (HR 0·89 [95% CI 0·83-0·96], p=0·0014), with benefit only seen in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (0·86 [0·80-0·93]) and not in those without (1·00 [0·87-1·16], p for interaction=0·0501). SGLT2i reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure by 23% (0·77 [0·71-0·84], p<0·0001), with a similar benefit in patients with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and with and without a history of heart failure. SGLT2i reduced the risk of progression of renal disease by 45% (0·55 [0·48-0·64], p<0·0001), with a similar benefit in those with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The magnitude of benefit of SGLT2i varied with baseline renal function, with greater reductions in hospitalisations for heart failure (p for interaction=0·0073) and lesser reductions in progression of renal disease (p for interaction=0·0258) in patients with more severe kidney disease at baseline. INTERPRETATION: SGLT2i have moderate benefits on atherosclerotic major adverse cardiovascular events that seem confined to patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, they have robust benefits on reducing hospitalisation for heart failure and progression of renal disease regardless of existing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or a history of heart failure. FUNDING: None.

20.
N Engl J Med ; 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular safety profile of dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 that promotes glucosuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, is undefined. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes who had or were at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to receive either dapagliflozin or placebo. The primary safety outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. The primary efficacy outcomes were MACE and a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. Secondary efficacy outcomes were a renal composite (≥40% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate to <60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area, new end-stage renal disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes) and death from any cause. RESULTS: We evaluated 17,160 patients, including 10,186 without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, who were followed for a median of 4.2 years. In the primary safety outcome analysis, dapagliflozin met the prespecified criterion for noninferiority to placebo with respect to MACE (upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval [CI], <1.3; P<0.001 for noninferiority). In the two primary efficacy analyses, dapagliflozin did not result in a lower rate of MACE (8.8% in the dapagliflozin group and 9.4% in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03; P=0.17) but did result in a lower rate of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (4.9% vs. 5.8%; hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.95; P=0.005), which reflected a lower rate of hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.88); there was no between-group difference in cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.17). A renal event occurred in 4.3% in the dapagliflozin group and in 5.6% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.87), and death from any cause occurred in 6.2% and 6.6%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.04). Diabetic ketoacidosis was more common with dapagliflozin than with placebo (0.3% vs. 0.1%, P=0.02), as was the rate of genital infections that led to discontinuation of the regimen or that were considered to be serious adverse events (0.9% vs. 0.1%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes who had or were at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, treatment with dapagliflozin did not result in a higher or lower rate of MACE than placebo but did result in a lower rate of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, a finding that reflects a lower rate of hospitalization for heart failure. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DECLARE-TIMI 58 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01730534 .).

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