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1.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 556155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194891

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare immunological disease, which can be mistaken for sepsis easily. Among the infectious causes that may trigger secondary HLH, tuberculosis (TBC), a rather rare pathogen nowadays, is typical. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of an infant suffering from TBC-associated HLH-induced acute respiratory failure who was treated successfully using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. An 8-month-old boy with fever (over the last 8 wk) and pancytopenia was transferred to our institution with acute respiratory failure and for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. Bone marrow biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis. Immunological work-up for familial HLH was negative. In a desperate search for the cause of secondary HLH, an interferon-gamma release assay for TBC returned positive. However, microscopy for acid-fast bacteria as well as polymerase chain reaction for TBC were initially negative. Despite this, the child was treated with tuberculostatic therapy. TBC was finally confirmed. The child remained on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 28 d. Further work-up showed typical lesions of disseminated TBC. The mother was identified as the source of TBC. The boy presents with mild sequelae (fine motor skills). In infants with suspected septicemia, TBC should be considered as differential diagnosis even if the results are initially negative.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 142: 112-122, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extracranial rhabdoid tumours are rare, highly aggressive malignancies primarily affecting young children. The EU-RHAB registry was initiated in 2009 to prospectively collect data of rhabdoid tumour patients treated according to the EU-RHAB therapeutic framework. METHODS: We evaluated 100 patients recruited within EU-RHAB (2009-2018). Tumours and matching blood samples were examined for SMARCB1 mutations by sequencing and cytogenetics. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients presented with extracranial, extrarenal tumours (eMRT) and 30 with renal rhabdoid tumours (RTK). Nine patients demonstrated synchronous tumours. Distant metastases at diagnosis (M+) were present in 35% (35/100), localised disease (M0) with (LN+) and without (LN-) loco-regional lymph node involvement in 65% (65/100). SMARCB1 germline mutations (GLM) were detected in 21% (17/81 evaluable) of patients. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 45.8 ± 5.4% and 35.2 ± 5.1%, respectively. On univariate analyses, age at diagnosis (≥12 months), M0-stage, absence of synchronous tumours, absence of a GLM, gross total resection (GTR), radiotherapy and achieving a CR were significantly associated with favourable outcomes. In an adjusted multivariate model presence of a GLM, M+ and lack of a GTR were the strongest significant negative predictors of outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest to stratify patients with localised disease (M0), GTR+ and without proof of a GLM (5-year OS 72.2 ± 9.9%) as 'standard risk'. Patients presenting with one of the features M+ and/or GTR- and/or GLM+ belong to a high risk group (5-year, OS 32.5 ± 6.2%). These patients need novel therapeutic strategies such as combinations of targeted agents with conventional chemotherapy or novel experimental approaches ideally within international phase I/II trials.

3.
Blood ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152759

RESUMO

T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is a heterogeneous malignancy of lymphoblasts committed to T-cell lineage. Dismal outcomes (15-30%) in case of T-LBL relapses warrants for establishing risk-based treatment in future. This is a first comprehensive, systematic, integrated genome-wide analysis including relapse cases aimed towards identifying molecular markers of prognostic relevance for T-LBL. NOTCH1 was identified as putative driver for T-LBL. Activated NOTCH/PI3K-AKT signaling axis and alterations in cell cycle regulators constitutes the core oncogenic program for T-LBL. Mutated KMT2D was identified as a prognostic marker. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 47±17% in patients with KMT2D mutations compared with 14±3% in KMT2D wildtype. Structural analysis of the mutated domains of KMT2D revealed plausible impact on the structure and functional consequences. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of T-LBL including high translational potential. The ongoing trial LBL 2018 (NCT04043494) allows prospective validation and subsequent fine-tuning of the stratification criteria for T-LBL risk groups to improve survival of the pediatric patients.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987765

RESUMO

With the aim of describing the long-term follow-up and to define the prognostic role of the clinical/pathological/molecular characteristics at diagnosis for childhood, adolescent and young adults affected by anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), we analyzed 420 patients aged up to 22 years homogeneously treated within the international ALCL99 trial. The 10-year progression free survival (PFS) was 70% and overall survival was 90%, rare late relapses occurred but no secondary malignancies were reported. Among clinical/pathological characteristics, only patients presenting a small cell/lymphohistiocytic (SC/LH) pattern were independently associated with risk of failure (hazard ratio = 2.49). Analysis of minimal disseminated disease (MDD), available for 162 patients, showed that both SC/LH pattern (hazard ratio = 2.4) and MDD positivity (hazard ratio = 2.15) were significantly associated with risk of failure in multivariate analysis. Considering MDD and SC/LH results, patients were separated into three biological/pathological (bp) risk groups: a high-risk group (bpHR) including MDD-positive patients with SC/LH pattern; a low-risk group (bpLR) including MDD-negative patients without SC/LH pattern; and an intermediate-risk group (bpIR) including remaining patients. The 10-year PFS was 40%, 75% and 86% for bpHR, bpIR and bpLR, respectively (p < 0.0001). These results should be considered in the design of future ALCL trials to tailor individual treatments.

5.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648260

RESUMO

Relapses involving the central nervous system (CNS) are rare in children and adolescents with ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) treated with regimens including CNS prophylaxis. Early identification of patients at high-risk for CNS relapse would enable stratification and better adaptation of initial treatment especially in the light of the upcoming targeted therapies with limited CNS penetration. We analyzed clinical and histological data of all ALK+ALCL patients with CNS relapse registered in ALCL99-database with the aim to describe risk factors and outcome. Characteristics of patients with no relapse, relapse without CNS involvement and CNS relapse were compared. At a median follow-up of 8 years (0.05-18 years), a CNS involvement was reported at first or subsequent relapse in 26/618 patients. Median interval between initial diagnosis and first CNS relapse was 8 months (IQR 5.55-10.61/range 1.31-130.69). The 5-year cumulative risk of CNS relapse was 4% (95% CI 2.9-5.5). Bone marrow involvement, peripheral blasts and CNS involvement at diagnosis were more frequent in patients with CNS relapse than in patients with no relapse or with relapse with no CNS involvement. The treatment of CNS relapse was heterogeneous. The median survival after CNS relapse was 23.7 months. Eleven patients were alive at last follow-up. Three-year overall survival after CNS relapse was 48.70% (95% CI 30.52-67.23).

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(34): 3999-4009, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730187

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the efficacy of a risk-stratified treatment of children with relapsed anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The ALCL-Relapse trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00317408) stratified patients according to the time of relapse and CD3 expression to prospectively test reinduction approaches combined with consolidation by allogeneic or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and vinblastine monotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with progression during frontline therapy (very high risk) or a CD3-positive relapse (high risk) were scheduled for allogeneic SCT after reinduction chemotherapy. Patients with a CD3-negative relapse within 1 year after initial diagnosis or prior exposure to vinblastine (intermediate risk) received autologous SCT after carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan. This arm was terminated prematurely, and subsequent patients received vinblastine monotherapy instead. Patients with a CD3-negative relapse > 1 year after initial diagnosis (low risk) received vinblastine monotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria; 105 evaluable patients with CNS-negative disease had a 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of 53% ± 5% and a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 78% ± 4%. Before termination of autologous SCT, EFS rates of patients in the very-high- (n = 17), high- (n = 26), intermediate- (n = 32), and low- (n = 21) risk groups were 41% ± 12%, 62% ± 10%, 44% ± 9%, and 81% ± 9%; the respective OS rates were 59% ± 12%, 73% ± 9%, 78% ± 7%, and 90% ± 6%. Analyzing only the patients in the intermediate-risk group consolidated per protocol by autologous SCT, EFS and OS of 23 patients were 30% ± 10% and 78% ± 9%, respectively. All 5 patients with intermediate risk receiving vinblastine monotherapy after the amendment experienced relapse again. CONCLUSION: Shorter time to relapse was the strongest predictor of subsequent relapse. Allogeneic SCT offers a chance for cure in patients with high-risk ALCL relapse. For early relapsed ALCL autologous SCT was not effective. Vinblastine monotherapy achieved cure in patients with late relapse; however, it was not effective for early relapses.

7.
Blood ; 136(14): 1657-1669, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573700

RESUMO

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a T-cell malignancy predominantly driven by a hyperactive anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion protein. ALK inhibitors, such as crizotinib, provide alternatives to standard chemotherapy with reduced toxicity and side effects. Children with lymphomas driven by nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1)-ALK fusion proteins achieved an objective response rate to ALK inhibition therapy of 54% to 90% in clinical trials; however, a subset of patients progressed within the first 3 months of treatment. The mechanism for the development of ALK inhibitor resistance is unknown. Through genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) activation and knockout screens in ALCL cell lines, combined with RNA sequencing data derived from ALK inhibitor-relapsed patient tumors, we show that resistance to ALK inhibition by crizotinib in ALCL can be driven by aberrant upregulation of interleukin 10 receptor subunit alpha (IL10RA). Elevated IL10RA expression rewires the STAT3 signaling pathway, bypassing otherwise critical phosphorylation by NPM1-ALK. IL-10RA expression does not correlate with response to standard chemotherapy in pediatric patients, suggesting that a combination of crizotinib and chemotherapy could prevent ALK inhibitor resistance-specific relapse.

8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(8): e28416, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452165

RESUMO

Pediatric-type follicular (PTFL), marginal zone (MZL), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) account each for <2% of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We present clinical and histopathological features of PTFL, MZL, and few subtypes of PTCL and provide treatment recommendations. For localized PTFL and MZL, watchful waiting after complete resection is the therapy of choice. For PTCL, therapy is subtype-dependent and ranges from a block-like anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)-derived and, alternatively, leukemia-derived therapy in PTCL not otherwise specified and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma to a block-like mature B-NHL-derived or, preferentially, ALCL-derived treatment followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission in hepatosplenic and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B , Linfoma Folicular , Linfoma de Células T Periférico , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/terapia , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/terapia , Masculino
9.
Leukemia ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393843

RESUMO

Data on the spectrum of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after primary childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are scarce. One-hundred-and-eighty-nine NHL patients diagnosed in a 30 years period of 1980-2010 developing an SMN were retrieved from 19 members of the European Intergroup for Childhood NHL and/or the international Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. Five subgroups of SMNs were identified: (1) myeloid neoplasms (n = 43; 23%), (2) lymphoid neoplasms (n = 51; 27%), (3) carcinomas (n = 48; 25%), (4) central nervous system (CNS) tumors (n = 19; 10%), and (5) "other" SMNs (n = 28; 15%). In 37 patients (20%) preexisting disorders were reported with 90% having any kind of cancer predisposition syndrome (CPS). For the 189 primary NHL patients, 5-year overall survival (OS) after diagnosis of an SMN was 56 ± 4%, being worst for patients with preexisting disorders at 28 ± 8%. Five-year OS rates were 38 ± 8%, 59 ± 7%, 79 ± 8%, 34 ± 12%, and 62 ± 11%, respectively, for patients with myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, carcinomas, CNS tumors, and "other" SMNs (p < 0.0001). Patients with SMNs after childhood NHL having a reported CPS, mostly mismatch repair disorders, carried a very poor prognosis. Moreover, although outcome was favorable in some subtypes of SMNs after childhood NHL (carcinomas, lymphoid neoplasms), other SMNs such as myeloid neoplasms and CNS tumors had a dismal prognosis.

10.
Haematologica ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327503

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) are still treated with toxic multi-agent chemotherapy and as many as 25-50% of patients relapse. To understand disease pathology and to uncover novel targets for therapy, Whole-Exome Sequencing (WES) of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)+ ALCL was performed as well as Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis. This revealed that the T-cell receptor (TCR) and Notch pathways were the most enriched in mutations. In particular, variant T349P of NOTCH1, which confers a growth advantage to cells in which it is expressed, was detected in 12% of ALK+ and ALK- ALCL patient samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NPM-ALK promotes NOTCH1 expression through binding of STAT3 upstream of NOTCH1. Moreover, inhibition of NOTCH1 with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) or silencing by shRNA leads to apoptosis; co-treatment in vitro with the ALK inhibitor Crizotinib led to additive/synergistic anti-tumour activity suggesting this may be an appropriate combination therapy for future use in the circumvention of ALK inhibitor resistance. Indeed, Crizotinib-resistant and sensitive ALCL were equally sensitive to GSIs. In conclusion, we show a variant in the extracellular domain of NOTCH1 that provides a growth advantage to cells and confirm the suitability of the Notch pathway as a second-line druggable target in ALK+ ALCL.

11.
Br J Haematol ; 190(5): 753-763, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239695

RESUMO

Large B-cell lymphoma with IRF4 rearrangement, and Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration are two provisional lymphoma entities in the 2017 revision of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Despite being more frequent in young patients, knowledge regarding their true incidence and clinical features in unselected cohorts of paediatric and adolescent patients is limited. We screened for both entities among paediatric patients (<18 years of age) in the German NHL-BFM (Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) group. Among follicular lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 7/34 cases (21%) showed an IRF4 break-apart pattern by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and are associated with stages I and II disease (P = 0·043). Among lymphomas morphologically resembling Burkitt lymphoma, DLBCL and high-grade B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, 13/102 cases (13%) lacked a MYC break-apart pattern but were positive for 11q proximal gain and telomeric loss by FISH. MYC-negative Burkitt-like lymphomas with the typical 11q gain-loss pattern by FISH were older (P = 0·004), showed less male predominance (P = 0·003), lower stage (P = 0·040), lower serum LDH level (P = 0·01) and less abdominal involvement (P = 0·008) compared to high grade B-cell lymphomas without 11q gain-loss pattern. Both entities showed excellent outcome with overall survival of 100% when managed according to NHL-BFM strategies and may provide candidates for future therapy de-escalation in clinical trials.

12.
Haematologica ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299903

RESUMO

Second malignant neoplasms pose a concern for survivors of childhood cancer. We evaluated incidence, type and risk factors for second malignant neoplasms in patients included in Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster protocols for childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. 3590 patients <15 years of age at diagnosis registered between 01/1981 and 06/2010 were analyzed. Second malignant neoplasms were reported by the treating institutions and the German Childhood Cancer Registry. After median follow-up of 9.4 years (Quartile, Q1 6.7 and Q3 12.1) 95 second malignant neoplasms were registered (26 carcinomas including 9 basal cell carcinomas, 21 acute myeloid leukemias/myelodysplastic syndromes, 20 lymphoid malignancies, 12 CNS-tumors, and 16 other). Cumulative incidence at 20 years was 5.7±0.7%, standard incidence ratio excluding basal cell carcinomas was 19.8 (95% CI 14.5-26.5). Median time from initial diagnosis to second malignancy was 8.7 years (range: 0.2-30.3). Acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-type therapy, cumulative anthracycline dose, and cranial radiotherapy for brain tumor-development were significant risk factors in univariate analysis only. In multivariate analysis including risk factors significant in univariate analysis, female sex (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.23-2.86, p=0.004), CNS-involvement (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.03-4.88, p=0.042), lymphoblastic lymphoma (HR 2.60, 95% CI 1.69-3.97, p<0.001), and cancer-predisposing condition (HR 11.2, 95% CI 5.52-22.75, p<0.001) retained an independent risk. Carcinomas were the most frequent second malignant neoplasms after non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood followed by acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoid malignancies. Female sex, lymphoblastic lymphoma, CNS-involvement, or/and known cancer-predisposing condition were risk factors for second malignant neoplasm-development. Our findings set the basis for individualized long-term follow-up and risk assessment of new therapies.

13.
Blood ; 135(14): 1124-1132, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961927

RESUMO

Children with refractory or relapsed Burkitt lymphoma (BL) or Burkitt leukemia (B-AL) have a poor chance to survive. We describe characteristics, outcome, reinduction, and transplantation approaches and evaluate risk factors among children with progression of a BL/B-AL included in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster studies between 1986 and 2016. Treatment recommendation was reinduction including rituximab from the early 2000s followed by blood stem cell transplantation. The 3-year survival of the 157 children was 18.5 ± 3%. Survival significantly improved from 11 ± 3% before to 27 ± 5% after 2000 (P < .001), allowing for risk factor analyses among the latter 75 patients. Survival of 14 patients with relapse after initial therapy for low-risk disease (R1/R2) was 50 ± 13% compared with 21 ± 5% for 61 patients progressing after R3/R4 therapy (P < .02). A total of 25 of 28 patients with progression during first-line therapy, 31 of 32 with progression during reinduction, 15 of 16 not reaching a complete remission (CR) before transplantation, 9 of 10 treated with rituximab front-line, and all 13 patients not receiving rituximab during reinduction died. Forty-six patients received stem cell transplantation (20 autologous, 26 allogeneic). Survival after a regimen combining rituximab with continuous-infusion chemotherapy followed by allogeneic transplantation was 67 ± 12% compared with 18 ± 5% for all other regimen and transplantations (P = .003). Patients with relapsed BL/B-AL have a poor chance to survive after current effective front-line therapies. Progression during initial or reinduction chemotherapy and initial high-risk disease are risk factors in relapse. Time-condensed continuous-infusion reinduction followed by stem cell transplantation forms the basis for testing new drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Burkitt/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Leukemia ; 34(2): 613-624, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578451

RESUMO

AML SCT-BFM 2007 was the first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) trial in Germany to comply with the European Clinical Trials Directive, and aimed to standardize pediatric HCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) across centers in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic. Children with high-risk features and a good early response achieving a complete first remission (CR-1) and those in CR-2 after a first relapse were stratified to receive HCT from a matched donor after myeloablative conditioning consisting of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan. Four-year EFS and OS were 61 and 70%. Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was 22%. TRM was 15% and correlated with age reaching 9% (SE 3%) in children younger than 12 years and 31% (SE 9%) in older children and adolescents. Children with poorly responding primary disease or relapse were allocated to receive early HCT after a cytoreductive regimen with fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine, followed by reduced intensity conditioning and prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions. Four-year EFS and OS were 49 and 53%. CIR was 38% and TRM 11%. For patients with primary poor response disease, early use of RIC HCT followed by prophylactic DLI can induce long-term remissions in more than 50% (EFS 46% (SE 9%)).

15.
Haematologica ; 105(8): 2141-2149, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649129

RESUMO

Detection of minimal disseminated disease is a validated prognostic factor in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We previously reported that quantification of minimal disease by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) in bone marrow applying a cut-off of 10 copies NPM-ALK/104 copies of ABL1 identifies very high-risk patients. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the prognostic value of quantitative minimal disseminated disease evaluation and to validate digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) as an alternative method. Among 91 patients whose bone marrow was analyzed by RQ-PCR, more than 10 normalized copy-numbers correlated with stage III/IV disease, mediastinal and visceral organ involvement and low anti-ALK antibody titers. The cumulative incidence of relapses of 18 patients with more than 10 normalized copy-numbers of NPM-ALK was 61±12% compared to 21±5% for the remaining 73 patients (P=0.0002). Results in blood correlated with those in bone marrow (r=0.74) in 70 patients for whom both materials could be tested. Transcripts were quantified by RQ-PCR and dPCR in 75 bone marrow and 57 blood samples. Copy number estimates using dPCR and RQ-PCR correlated in 132 samples (r=0.85). Applying a cut-off of 30 copies NPM-ALK/104 copies ABL1 for quantification by dPCR, almost identical groups of patients were separated as those separated by RQ-PCR. In summary, the prognostic impact of quantification of minimal disseminated disease in bone marrow could be confirmed for patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Blood can substitute for bone marrow. Quantification of minimal disease by dPCR provides a promising tool to facilitate harmonization of minimal disease measurement between laboratories and for clinical studies.

18.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(9): e1625688, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428523

RESUMO

The oncoantigen nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) induces cellular and humoral immune responses in patients with NPM-ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). We characterize the NPM-ALK-specific T-cell responses in a cohort of pediatric and adolescent ALCL-patients in remission without Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-preselection. First, we assessed NPM-ALK-reactive T-cell responses and their HLA-class I restriction in patients by using dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with in vitro transcribed (IVT) NPM-ALK-RNA for CD8 (n = 20) or CD3 (n = 9) T-cell stimulation. NPM-ALK-specific T-cells were detected in twelve of 29 patients (nine of 20 with CD8-selected and three of nine with CD3-selected cells). Recognition of NPM-ALK was restricted by HLA-C alleles in six of eight, and by HLA-B alleles in four of eight analyzed patients. No NPM-ALK-reactivity was detected in 20 healthy individuals. Second, in order to define possible immunogenic NPM-ALK-epitope regions, DCs pulsed with pools of overlapping long NPM-ALK-peptides were used to stimulate T-cells in further 22 patients and ten controls. Responsive T-cells were detected in 15 patients and in five controls. A peptide pool located in the middle of the kinase domain induced ALK-reactive T-cells in 14 of 15 responsive patients. We could narrow to single peptides between p327-p370 of NPM-ALK in four patients. In conclusion, using IVT-RNA, 40% of NPM-ALK-positive ALCL-patients in remission had detectable NPM-ALK-specific T-cell responses which were mainly restricted by HLA-B and -C alleles. Peptide stimulation of T-cells revealed responses in almost 70% of patients and allowed describing an immunogenic region located in the ALK-kinase domain.

19.
Hematol Oncol ; 37 Suppl 1: 53-61, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187530

RESUMO

Pediatric-type follicular lymphoma (PTFL), pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma (pnMZL), and large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) with IRF4 rearrangement have been introduced into the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification. They account for 5% to 10% of mature B-cell lymphomas in children and adolescents. Both PTFL and pnMZL predominantly affect male adolescents and usually present with localized lymphadenopathy in the head and neck region. The cells within the follicles of PTFL typically show high-grade cytology, IGH monoclonality and lack the t(14;18) chromosomal alteration. In contrast, pnMZL is characterized by progressive transformation of germinal center (PTGC)-like features and interfollicular proliferation of the cells with expansion of the marginal zones with diffuse areas. Watch and wait after complete resection seems an adequate therapy with chemotherapy restricted to incompletely resected disease. All children with PTFL and pnMZL reported, so far, survived. B-cell lymphomas presenting in the Waldeyer's ring are characterized by the expression of IRF4/MUM1 and often associated with IRF4 rearrangements. Because of the frequent diffuse component, treatment often follows current protocols for mature B-NHL. The prognosis is excellent.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Biópsia , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Células B/etiologia , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/terapia , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Am J Hematol ; 94(8): 880-890, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095771

RESUMO

Severe infections (SI) significantly impact on non-relapse mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We assessed 432 children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after total body irradiation based myeloablative HSCT within the multicenter ALL-BFM-SCT 2003 trial for SI grade 3 or higher according to common terminology criteria for adverse events. A total 172 patients experienced at least one SI. Transplantation from matched unrelated donors (MUD) was associated with any type of SI in the pre-engraftment period (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57; P < .001), and with any SI between day +30 and + 100 (HR: 2.91; P = .011). Bacterial (HR: 2.24; P = .041) and fungal infections (HR: 4.06; P = .057) occurred more often in the pre-engraftment phase and viral infections more often before day +30 (HR: 2.66; P = .007) or between day +30 and + 100 (HR: 3.89; P = .002) after HSCT from MUD as compared to matched sibling donors. Chronic GvHD was an independent risk factor for any type of SI after day +100 (HR: 2.57; P < .002). We conclude that allogeneic HSCT from MUD in children and adolescents with pediatric ALL is associated with higher infection rates, which seems attributable to an intensified GvHD prophylaxis including serotherapy and methotrexate.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Micoses/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Doadores não Relacionados , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Micoses/etiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transplante Homólogo , Doadores não Relacionados/estatística & dados numéricos , Viroses/etiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Irradiação Corporal Total
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