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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

2.
Geroscience ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332674

RESUMO

Five healthy aging phenotypes were developed in the Long Life Family Study to uncover longevity pathways and determine if healthy aging across multiple systems clustered in a subset of long-lived families. Using blood pressure, memory, pulmonary function, grip strength, and metabolic measures (body mass index, waist circumference and fasting levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, lipids, and inflammatory markers), offspring were ranked according to relative health using gender-, age-, and relevant confounder-adjusted z-scores. Based on our prior work, families met a healthy aging phenotype if ≥ 2 and ≥ 50% of their offspring were exceptionally healthy for that respective phenotype. Among 426 families, only two families met criteria for three healthy aging phenotypes and none met criteria for four or more healthy aging phenotypes. Using Spearman correlation, the proportion of offspring within families with exceptionally healthy pulmonary function was correlated with the proportion of offspring within families with exceptional strength (r = 0.19, p = 0.002). The proportion of offspring within families meeting the healthy blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes were also correlated (r = 0.14, p = 0.006), and more families were classified as meeting healthy blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes (Kappa = 0.10, p = 0.02), as well as the healthy pulmonary and blood pressure phenotypes than expected by chance (Kappa = 0.09, p = 0.03). Other phenotypes were weakly correlated (|r| ≤ 0.07) with low pairwise agreement (Kappa ≤ 0.06). Among these families selected for familial longevity, correspondence between healthy aging phenotypes was weak, supporting the heterogeneous nature of longevity and suggesting biological underpinnings of each individual phenotype should be examined separately to determine their shared and unique determinants.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Long Life Family Study (LLFS) enrolled families exhibiting exceptional longevity. The goal of this paper was to determine the prevalence and predictors of remaining independent after 7 years in the oldest generation. METHODS: We examined 7-year change in physical (free of ADL difficulty), cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination score≥24) and overall independence (physically/cognitively independent) in adults aged 90.3±6.3 from LLFS's oldest generation. Potential predictors (n = 28) of remaining independent included demographics, diseases, biomarkers, anthropometrics and physical/cognitive performance tasks and were determined using generalized estimating equations (α: p<0.05). This was a discovery/exploratory analysis, so no multiple testing correction was employed and the results require independent replication. RESULTS: At baseline (n=1442), 67.3%, 83.8% and 79.7% were overall, physically and cognitively independent, respectively. After 7 years, 66% died,7.5% were lost-to-follow-up and the prevalence of overall independence decreased, to 59.1% in survivors (-8.2%, 95% CI: -14.1, 2.2%). Of those with baseline independence, 156/226 (69.0%), remained independent. Predictors of remaining physically independent included younger age, better Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score and lung function, smaller waist-circumference and lower soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-product (sRAGE) levels (p<0.05). Predictors of remaining cognitively independent included no cancer history, better Digit Symbol Substitution Test performance, and higher body weight (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of independence decreased by only 8.2% after 7 years, demonstrating the close correspondence between disability and mortality. Further, despite a mean baseline age of 90 years, a large proportion of survivors remained independent, suggesting this exceptional subgroup may harbor protective mechanisms.

4.
Metabolism ; 94: 28-38, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-lived individuals and their offspring have healthier metabolic characteristics than expected, such as more favorable levels of fasting glucose, insulin, and lipids than controls without longevity. Dysregulation in metabolic pathways has also shown to predict accelerated aging. Using information from the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), a multi-center study of two-generation families selected for exceptional longevity, we developed an indicator of healthy metabolism to determine whether metabolic health was more prevalent in a subset of LLFS families and whether it was heritable and associated with other metrics of healthy aging. METHODS: A Latent Profile Analysis was applied to age- and gender-adjusted z-scores of fasting levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, waist circumference, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Families were defined as meeting the healthy metabolic phenotype if ≥2 and ≥50% of their offspring were classified into a latent subgroup with a profile of healthier metabolic markers than expected given age and gender relative to all LLFS offspring. RESULTS: The log odds of being classified into the latent subgroup with a healthy profile of metabolic markers was heritable (h2 = 0.40, p < 0.001). Among 388 families, 39 (10%) met the healthy metabolic phenotype. Participants from these families had somewhat better cognition than those from remaining families. Proband-generation participants from families who met the healthy metabolic phenotype also had better pulmonary functioning and physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: The better cognition, pulmonary function, and physical performance among probands from families with the healthy metabolic phenotype may indicate that this subset of LLFS families have a more extreme longevity phenotype than other LLFS families since cognitive, physical, and pulmonary function are top mortality predictors for older adults. Future work is needed to determine if rare or protective alleles confer a healthy metabolic phenotype in this subset of LLFS families with exceptional metabolism.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206873, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412599

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Murine studies have shown that apolipoprotein E modulates pulmonary function during development, aging, and allergen-induced airway disease. It is not known whether the polymorphic human APOE gene influences pulmonary function. OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether an association exists between the polymorphic human APOE ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles and pulmonary function among participants in the Long Life Family Study. METHODS: Data from 4,468 Caucasian subjects who had genotyping performed for the APOE ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles were analyzed, with and without stratification by sex. Statistical models were fitted considering the effects of the ε2 allele, defined as ε2/2 or ε2/3 genotypes, and the ε4 allele, defined as ε3/4 or ε4/4 genotypes, which were compared to the ε3/3 genotype. RESULTS: The mean FEV1/FVC ratio (the forced expiratory volume in one second divided by the forced vital capacity) was lower among women with the ε4 allele as compared to women with the ε3/3 genotype or the ε2 allele. Carriage of the APOE ε4 allele was associated with FEV1/FVC, which implied lower values. Further analysis showed that the association primarily reflected women without lung disease who were older than 70 years. The association was not mediated by lipid levels, smoking status, body mass index, or cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time identifies that the APOE gene is associated with modified lung physiology in women. This suggests that a link may exist between the APOE ε4 allele, female sex, and a reduction in the FEV1/FVC ratio in older individuals.

7.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 73(11): 1472-1481, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299504

RESUMO

The special design of the Long Life Family Study provides a unique opportunity to investigate the genetics of human longevity by analyzing data on exceptional lifespans in families. In this article, we performed two series of genome wide association studies of human longevity which differed with respect to whether missing lifespan data were predicted or not predicted. We showed that the use of predicted lifespan is most beneficial when the follow-up period is relatively short. In addition to detection of strong associations of SNPs in APOE, TOMM40, NECTIN2, and APOC1 genes with longevity, we also detected a strong new association with longevity of rs1927465, located between the CYP26A1 and MYOF genes on chromosome 10. The association was confirmed using data from the Health and Retirement Study. We discuss the biological relevance of the detected SNPs to human longevity.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2976, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061609

RESUMO

Nearly 100 loci have been identified for pulmonary function, almost exclusively in studies of European ancestry populations. We extend previous research by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies of 1000 Genomes imputed variants in relation to pulmonary function in a multiethnic population of 90,715 individuals of European (N = 60,552), African (N = 8429), Asian (N = 9959), and Hispanic/Latino (N = 11,775) ethnicities. We identify over 50 additional loci at genome-wide significance in ancestry-specific or multiethnic meta-analyses. Using recent fine-mapping methods incorporating functional annotation, gene expression, and differences in linkage disequilibrium between ethnicities, we further shed light on potential causal variants and genes at known and newly identified loci. Several of the novel genes encode proteins with predicted or established drug targets, including KCNK2 and CDK12. Our study highlights the utility of multiethnic and integrative genomics approaches to extend existing knowledge of the genetics of lung function and clinical relevance of implicated loci.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198166, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912962

RESUMO

Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol consumption interaction for BP might identify additional BP loci and contribute to the understanding of alcohol-related BP regulation. We conducted a large two-stage investigation incorporating joint testing of main genetic effects and single nucleotide variant (SNV)-alcohol consumption interactions. In Stage 1, genome-wide discovery meta-analyses in ≈131K individuals across several ancestry groups yielded 3,514 SNVs (245 loci) with suggestive evidence of association (P < 1.0 x 10-5). In Stage 2, these SNVs were tested for independent external replication in ≈440K individuals across multiple ancestries. We identified and replicated (at Bonferroni correction threshold) five novel BP loci (380 SNVs in 21 genes) and 49 previously reported BP loci (2,159 SNVs in 109 genes) in European ancestry, and in multi-ancestry meta-analyses (P < 5.0 x 10-8). For African ancestry samples, we detected 18 potentially novel BP loci (P < 5.0 x 10-8) in Stage 1 that warrant further replication. Additionally, correlated meta-analysis identified eight novel BP loci (11 genes). Several genes in these loci (e.g., PINX1, GATA4, BLK, FTO and GABBR2) have been previously reported to be associated with alcohol consumption. These findings provide insights into the role of alcohol consumption in the genetic architecture of hypertension.

11.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(3)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941034

RESUMO

SCOPE: Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: A genome-wide interaction study to discover genetic variants that account for variation in BMI in the context of low-fat, high-fat and total dairy intake in cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Data from nine discovery studies (up to 25 513 European descent individuals) were meta-analyzed. Twenty-six genetic variants reached the selected significance threshold (p-interaction <10-7) , and six independent variants (LINC01512-rs7751666, PALM2/AKAP2-rs914359, ACTA2-rs1388, PPP1R12A-rs7961195, LINC00333-rs9635058, AC098847.1-rs1791355) were evaluated meta-analytically for replication of interaction in up to 17 675 individuals. Variant rs9635058 (128 kb 3' of LINC00333) was replicated (p-interaction = 0.004). In the discovery cohorts, rs9635058 interacted with dairy (p-interaction = 7.36 × 10-8) such that each serving of low-fat dairy was associated with 0.225 kg m-2 lower BMI per each additional copy of the effect allele (A). A second genetic variant (ACTA2-rs1388) approached interaction replication significance for low-fat dairy exposure. CONCLUSION: Body weight responses to dairy intake may be modified by genotype, in that greater dairy intake may protect a genetic subgroup from higher body weight.

12.
J Hypertens ; 36(1): 43-53, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension tends to run in families and has both genetic and environmental determinants. We assessed the hypothesis that a novel healthy blood pressure (BP) phenotype is also familial and sought to identify its associated factors. METHODS: We developed a healthy BP phenotype in the Long Life Family Study, a cohort of two-generation families selected for longevity. Participants from the offspring generation (n = 2211, ages 32-88) were classified as having healthy BP if their age-adjusted and sex-adjusted SBP z-score was between -1.5 and -0.5. Offspring on antihypertensive medications were classified as not having healthy BP. Families with at least two offspring (n = 419 families) were defined as meeting the healthy BP phenotype if at least two and at least 50% of their offspring had healthy BP. RESULTS: Among 2211 offspring, 476 (21.5%) met the healthy BP phenotype. When examining the 419 families, only 44 (10.5%) families met the criteria for the healthy BP phenotype. Both offspring and probands from families with healthy BP performed better on neuropsychological tests that place demands on complex attention and executive function when compared with offspring and probands from remaining families. Among families with the healthy BP phenotype compared with families without, a higher proportion of offspring met the American Heart Association definition of ideal cardiovascular health (10.8 versus 3.8%, respectively; driven by BP, smoking status, and BMI components). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of familial longevity, few families had a novel healthy BP phenotype in multiple members. Families with this healthy BP phenotype may represent a specific pathway to familial longevity.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0186456, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular fish and omega-3 consumption may have several health benefits and are recommended by major dietary guidelines. Yet, their intakes remain remarkably variable both within and across populations, which could partly owe to genetic influences. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants that influence fish and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) consumption. DESIGN: We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of fish (n = 86,467) and EPA+DHA (n = 62,265) consumption in 17 cohorts of European descent from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium Nutrition Working Group. Results from cohort-specific GWA analyses (additive model) for fish and EPA+DHA consumption were adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, and population stratification, and meta-analyzed separately using fixed-effect meta-analysis with inverse variance weights (METAL software). Additionally, heritability was estimated in 2 cohorts. RESULTS: Heritability estimates for fish and EPA+DHA consumption ranged from 0.13-0.24 and 0.12-0.22, respectively. A significant GWA for fish intake was observed for rs9502823 on chromosome 6: each copy of the minor allele (FreqA = 0.015) was associated with 0.029 servings/day (~1 serving/month) lower fish consumption (P = 1.96x10-8). No significant association was observed for EPA+DHA, although rs7206790 in the obesity-associated FTO gene was among top hits (P = 8.18x10-7). Post-hoc calculations demonstrated 95% statistical power to detect a genetic variant associated with effect size of 0.05% for fish and 0.08% for EPA+DHA. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings suggest that non-genetic personal and environmental factors are principal determinants of the remarkable variation in fish consumption, representing modifiable targets for increasing intakes among all individuals. Genes underlying the signal at rs72838923 and mechanisms for the association warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
14.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 744, 2017 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963451

RESUMO

There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations at 1q21.1, 3q29, 7q11.23, 11p14.2, and 18q21.32 and confirms two known loci at 16p11.2 and 22q11.21, implicating at least one anthropometric trait. The discovered CNVs are recurrent and rare (0.01-0.2%), with large effects on height (>2.4 cm), weight (>5 kg), and body mass index (BMI) (>3.5 kg/m2). Burden analysis shows a 0.41 cm decrease in height, a 0.003 increase in waist-to-hip ratio and increase in BMI by 0.14 kg/m2 for each Mb of total deletion burden (P = 2.5 × 10-10, 6.0 × 10-5, and 2.9 × 10-3). Our study provides evidence that the same genes (e.g., MC4R, FIBIN, and FMO5) harbor both common and rare variants affecting body size and that anthropometric traits share genetic loci with developmental and psychiatric disorders.Individual SNPs have small effects on anthropometric traits, yet the impact of CNVs has remained largely unknown. Here, Kutalik and co-workers perform a large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of structural variation and find rare CNVs associated with height, weight and BMI with large effect sizes.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Relação Cintura-Quadril
16.
PLoS Genet ; 13(4): e1006719, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430825

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >300 loci associated with measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), but few have been identified through screening of the African ancestry genomes. We performed large scale meta-analyses and replications in up to 52,895 individuals for BMI and up to 23,095 individuals for WHRadjBMI from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC) using 1000 Genomes phase 1 imputed GWAS to improve coverage of both common and low frequency variants in the low linkage disequilibrium African ancestry genomes. In the sex-combined analyses, we identified one novel locus (TCF7L2/HABP2) for WHRadjBMI and eight previously established loci at P < 5×10-8: seven for BMI, and one for WHRadjBMI in African ancestry individuals. An additional novel locus (SPRYD7/DLEU2) was identified for WHRadjBMI when combined with European GWAS. In the sex-stratified analyses, we identified three novel loci for BMI (INTS10/LPL and MLC1 in men, IRX4/IRX2 in women) and four for WHRadjBMI (SSX2IP, CASC8, PDE3B and ZDHHC1/HSD11B2 in women) in individuals of African ancestry or both African and European ancestry. For four of the novel variants, the minor allele frequency was low (<5%). In the trans-ethnic fine mapping of 47 BMI loci and 27 WHRadjBMI loci that were locus-wide significant (P < 0.05 adjusted for effective number of variants per locus) from the African ancestry sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses, 26 BMI loci and 17 WHRadjBMI loci contained ≤ 20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% posterior probability of driving the associations. The lead variants in 13 of these loci had a high probability of being causal. As compared to our previous HapMap imputed GWAS for BMI and WHRadjBMI including up to 71,412 and 27,350 African ancestry individuals, respectively, our results suggest that 1000 Genomes imputation showed modest improvement in identifying GWAS loci including low frequency variants. Trans-ethnic meta-analyses further improved fine mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between the African and European ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Obesidade/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Obesidade/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Relação Cintura-Quadril
17.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 72(12): 1683-1688, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28329324

RESUMO

Background: We previously demonstrated familial aggregation of memory performance within the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), suggesting that exceptional cognition (EC) may contribute to their exceptional longevity. Here, we investigated whether LLFS families with EC may also exhibit more favorable profiles of other age-related biomarkers. Methods: Nondemented offspring of the LLFS probands scoring 1.5 SD above the mean in a cognitive phenotype were classified as participants with EC. Families were categorized into EC (n = 28) and non-EC families (n = 433) based on having at least two EC offspring. Adjusted general estimating equations were used to investigate whether EC families had a better longevity and age-related biomarker profiles than non-EC families. Results: EC families exhibited higher scores on familial longevity than non-EC families (average Family Longevity Selection Score of 12 ± 7 vs 9 ± 8, p = 2.5 × 10-14). EC families showed a better a metabolic profile (ß = -0.63, SE = 0.23, p = .006) than non-EC families. The healthier metabolic profile is related to obesity in an age-dependent fashion. The prevalence of obesity in EC families is significantly lower compared with non-EC families (38% vs 51%, p = .015) among family members less than 80 years of age; however, among EC family members 80 years of age and older, the prevalence of obesity is higher (40% vs 38%, p = .011). EC families also showed better physical/pulmonary function than non-EC families (ß = 0.51, SE = 0.25, p = .042). Conclusions: Long-live families with EC are characterized by a healthier metabolic profile which is related to the prevalence of obesity in the older family members. Our results suggest that familial exceptional longevity may be achieved through heterogeneous yet correlated pathways.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Nat Genet ; 49(1): 125-130, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918534

RESUMO

Variation in body fat distribution contributes to the metabolic sequelae of obesity. The genetic determinants of body fat distribution are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to gain new insights into the underlying genetics of body fat distribution by conducting sample-size-weighted fixed-effects genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 9,594 women and 8,738 men of European, African, Hispanic and Chinese ancestry, with and without sex stratification, for six traits associated with ectopic fat (hereinafter referred to as ectopic-fat traits). In total, we identified seven new loci associated with ectopic-fat traits (ATXN1, UBE2E2, EBF1, RREB1, GSDMB, GRAMD3 and ENSA; P < 5 × 10-8; false discovery rate < 1%). Functional analysis of these genes showed that loss of function of either Atxn1 or Ube2e2 in primary mouse adipose progenitor cells impaired adipocyte differentiation, suggesting physiological roles for ATXN1 and UBE2E2 in adipogenesis. Future studies are necessary to further explore the mechanisms by which these genes affect adipocyte biology and how their perturbations contribute to systemic metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Diferenciação Celular , Loci Gênicos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo
19.
J Lipid Res ; 57(12): 2200-2207, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777315

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the increased plasma TG concentration after consuming a high-fat meal, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Individual responses to a meal high in fat vary greatly, depending on genetic and lifestyle factors. However, only a few loci have been associated with TG-PPL response. Heritable epigenomic changes may be significant contributors to the unexplained inter-individual PPL variability. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on 979 subjects with DNA methylation measured from CD4+ T cells, who were challenged with a high-fat meal as a part of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study. Eight methylation sites encompassing five genes, LPP, CPT1A, APOA5, SREBF1, and ABCG1, were significantly associated with PPL response at an epigenome-wide level (P < 1.1 × 10-7), but no methylation site reached epigenome-wide significance after adjusting for baseline TG levels. Higher methylation at LPP, APOA5, SREBF1, and ABCG1, and lower methylation at CPT1A methylation were correlated with an increased TG-PPL response. These PPL-associated methylation sites, also correlated with fasting TG, account for a substantially greater amount of phenotypic variance (14.9%) in PPL and fasting TG (16.3%) when compared with the genetic contribution of loci identified by our previous genome-wide association study (4.5%). In summary, the epigenome is a large contributor to the variation in PPL, and this has the potential to be used to modulate PPL and reduce CVD.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Período Pós-Prandial
20.
J Lipid Res ; 57(3): 433-42, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26711138

RESUMO

Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) converts free fatty acids into acyl-CoAs. Mouse studies have revealed that ACSL1 channels acyl-CoAs to ß-oxidation, thereby reducing glucose utilization, and is required for diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. The role of ACSL1 in humans is unknown. We therefore examined common variants in the human ACSL1 locus by genetic association studies for fasting glucose, diabetes status, and preclinical atherosclerosis by using the MAGIC and DIAGRAM consortia; followed by analyses in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, the Penn-T2D consortium, and a meta-analysis of subclinical atherosclerosis in African Americans; and finally, expression quantitative trait locus analysis and identification of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS). The results show that three SNPs in ACSL1 (rs7681334, rs735949, and rs4862423) are associated with fasting glucose or diabetes status in these large (>200,000 subjects) data sets. Furthermore, rs4862423 is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and coincides with a DHS highly accessible in human heart. SNP rs735949 is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs745805, significantly associated with ACSL1 levels in skin, suggesting tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms. This study provides evidence in humans of ACSL1 SNPs associated with fasting glucose, diabetes, and subclinical atherosclerosis and suggests links among these traits and acyl-CoA synthesis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Afro-Americanos/genética , Calcinose/genética , Cromatina/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
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