Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Mol Pharm ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742407

RESUMO

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved the quality of life in patients infected with HIV-1. However, complete viral suppression within anatomical compartments remains unattainable. This is complicated by adverse side effects and poor adherence to lifelong therapy leading to the emergence of viral drug resistance. Thus, there is an immediate need for cellular and tissue targeted long acting (LA) ART formulations. Herein, we describe two LA prodrug formulations of darunavir (DRV), a potent antiretroviral protease inhibitor. Two classes of DRV prodrugs; M1DRV and M2DRV were synthesized as lipophilic and hydrophobic prodrugs and stabilized into aqueous suspensions designated NM1DRV and NM2DRV. The prodrugs' formulations demonstrated enhanced intracellular prodrug levels with sustained drug retention and antiretroviral activities for 15 and 30 days compared to native DRV formulation in human monocyte derived macrophages. Pharmacokinetics tests of NM1DRV and NM2DRV administered to mice demonstrated sustained drug levels in blood and tissues for 30 days. These data, taken together, support the idea that LA DRV with sustained antiretroviral responses through prodrug nanoformulations is achievable.

2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6231-6247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496683

RESUMO

Purpose: A palmitoylated prodrug of emtricitabine (FTC) was synthesized to extend the drug's half-life, antiretroviral activities and biodistribution. Methods: A modified FTC prodrug (MFTC) was synthesized by palmitoyl chloride esterification. MFTC's chemical structure was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance. The created hydrophobic prodrug nanocrystals were encased into a poloxamer surfactant and the pharmacokinetics (PK), biodistribution and antiretroviral activities of the nanoformulation (NMFTC) were assessed. The conversion of MFTC to FTC triphosphates was evaluated. Results: MFTC coated with poloxamer formed stable nanocrystals (NMFTC). NMFTC demonstrated an average particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of 350 nm, 0.24 and -20 mV, respectively. Drug encapsulation efficiency was 90%. NMFTC was readily taken up by human monocyte-derived macrophages yielding readily detected intracellular FTC triphosphates and an extended PK profile. Conclusion: NMFTC shows improved antiretroviral activities over native FTC. This is coordinate with its extended apparent half-life. The work represents an incremental advance in the development of a long-acting FTC formulation.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Emtricitabina/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Animais , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Emtricitabina/sangue , Emtricitabina/síntese química , Emtricitabina/química , Humanos , Cinética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
J Control Release ; 311-312: 201-211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491432

RESUMO

Antiretroviral therapy requires lifelong daily dosing to attain viral suppression, restore immune function, and improve quality of life. As a treatment alternative, long-acting (LA) antiretrovirals can sustain therapeutic drug concentrations in blood for prolonged time periods. The success of recent clinical trials for LA parenteral cabotegravir and rilpivirine highlight the emergence of these new therapeutic options. Further optimization can improve dosing frequency, lower injection volumes, and facilitate drug-tissue distributions. To this end, we report the synthesis of a library of RPV prodrugs designed to sustain drug plasma concentrations and improved tissue biodistribution. The lead prodrug M3RPV was nanoformulated into the stable LA injectable NM3RPV. NM3RPV treatment led to RPV plasma concentrations above the protein-adjusted 90% inhibitory concentration for 25 weeks with substantial tissue depots after a single intramuscular injection in BALB/cJ mice. NM3RPV elicited 13- and 26-fold increases in the RPV apparent half-life and mean residence time compared to native drug formulation. Taken together, proof-of-concept is provided that nanoformulated RPV prodrugs can extend the apparent drug half-life and improve tissue biodistribution. These results warrant further development for human use.

4.
Biomaterials ; 222: 119441, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472458

RESUMO

While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has revolutionized treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection, regimen adherence, viral mutations, drug toxicities and access stigma and fatigue are treatment limitations. These have led to new opportunities for the development of long acting (LA) ART including implantable devices and chemical drug modifications. Herein, medicinal and formulation chemistry were used to develop LA prodrug nanoformulations of emtricitabine (FTC). A potent lipophilic FTC phosphoramidate prodrug (M2FTC) was synthesized then encapsulated into a poloxamer surfactant (NM2FTC). These modifications extended the biology, apparent drug half-life and antiretroviral activities of the formulations. NM2FTC demonstrated a >30-fold increase in macrophage and CD4+ T cell drug uptake with efficient conversion to triphosphates (FTC-TP). Intracellular FTC-TP protected macrophages against an HIV-1 challenge for 30 days. A single intramuscular injection of NM2FTC, at 45 mg/kg native drug equivalents, into Sprague Dawley rats resulted in sustained prodrug levels in blood, liver, spleen and lymph nodes and FTC-TP in lymph node and spleen cells at one month. In contrast, native FTC-TPs was present for one day. These results are an advance in the transformation of FTC into a LA agent.

5.
Biomaterials ; 223: 119476, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525692

RESUMO

A long acting (LA) hydrophobic and lipophilic lamivudine (3TC) was created as a phosphoramidate pronucleotide (designated M23TC). M23TC improved intracellular delivery of active triphosphate metabolites and enhanced antiretroviral and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles over the native drug. A single treatment of human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) with nanoformulated M23TC (NM23TC) improved drug uptake, retention, intracellular 3TC triphosphates and antiretroviral activities in MDM and CD4+ T cells. PK tests of NM23TC administered to Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated sustained prodrug and drug triphosphate levels in blood and tissues for 30 days. The development of NM23TC remains a substantive step forward in producing LA slow effective release antiretrovirals for future clinical translation.

6.
Virology ; 516: 246-257, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425767

RESUMO

Viral pathogenesis results from changes in host cells due to virus usurpation of the host cell and the innate cellular responses to thwart infection. We measured global changes in protein expression and localization in HIV-1 infected T-cells using subcellular fractionation and the Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS) proteomic platform. Eight biological replicates were performed in two independent experimental series. In silico merging of both experiments identified 287 proteins with altered expression (p < .05) between control and infected cells- 172 in the cytoplasm, 84 in the membrane, and 31 in nuclei. 170 of the proteins are components of the NIH HIV interaction database. Multiple Reaction Monitoring and traditional immunoblotting validated the altered expression of several factors during infection. Numerous factors were found to affect HIV infection in gain- and loss-of-expression infection assays, including the intermediate filament vimentin which was found to be required for efficient infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/fisiologia , Proteínas/química , Linfócitos T/química , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/virologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Proteomics ; 15(21): 3744-53, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306679

RESUMO

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a rich source of clinically relevant material that can yield important translational biomarker discovery using proteomic analysis. Protocols for analyzing FFPE tissue by LC-MS/MS exist, but standardization of procedures and critical analysis of data quality is limited. This study compared and characterized data obtained from FFPE tissue using two methods: a urea in-solution digestion method (UISD) versus a commercially available Qproteome FFPE Tissue Kit method (Qkit). Each method was performed independently three times on serial sections of homogenous FFPE tissue to minimize pre-analytical variations and analyzed with three technical replicates by LC-MS/MS. Data were evaluated for reproducibility and physiochemical distribution, which highlighted differences in the ability of each method to identify proteins of different molecular weights and isoelectric points. Each method replicate resulted in a significant number of new protein identifications, and both methods identified significantly more proteins using three technical replicates as compared to only two. UISD was cheaper, required less time, and introduced significant protein modifications as compared to the Qkit method, which provided more precise and higher protein yields. These data highlight significant variability among method replicates and type of method used, despite minimizing pre-analytical variability. Utilization of only one method or too few replicates (both method and technical) may limit the subset of proteomic information obtained.


Assuntos
Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/economia , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Formaldeído/química , Humanos , Ponto Isoelétrico , Inclusão em Parafina , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Proteômica/economia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/economia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Fixação de Tecidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA