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1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

2.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(3): 657-663, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: XRCC2 participates in homologous recombination and in DNA repair. XRCC2 has been reported to be a breast cancer susceptibility gene and is now included in several breast cancer susceptibility gene panels. METHODS: We sequenced XRCC2 in 617 Polish women with familial breast cancer and found a founder mutation. We then genotyped 12,617 women with breast cancer and 4599 controls for the XRCC2 founder mutation. RESULTS: We identified a recurrent truncating mutation of XRCC2 (c.96delT, p.Phe32fs) in 3 of 617 patients with familial breast cancer who were sequenced. The c.96delT mutation was then detected in 29 of 12,617 unselected breast cancer cases (0.23%) compared to 11 of 4599 cancer-free women (0.24%) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.48-1.93). The mutation frequency in 1988 women with familial breast cancer was 0.2% (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.27-2.65). Breast cancers in XRCC2 mutation carriers and non-carriers were similar with respect to age of diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Loss of the wild-type XRCC2 allele was observed only in one of the eight breast cancers from patients who carried the XRCC2 mutation. No cancer type was more common in first- or second-degree relatives of XRCC2 mutation carriers than in relatives of the non-carriers. CONCLUSION: XRCC2 c.96delT is a protein-truncating founder variant in Poland. There is no evidence that this mutation predisposes to breast cancer (and other cancers). It is premature to consider XRCC2 as a breast cancer-predisposing gene.

3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(2): 427-431, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NBN 657del5 founder mutation predisposes to breast and prostate cancer. Recently, it has been reported that the pathogenicity of this mutation with regard to prostate cancer risk is modified by a missense variant of the same gene (E185Q). METHODS: To evaluate the interaction of the 657del5 and E185Q founder alleles of NBN on breast cancer risk in Poland, 4964 women with breast cancer and 6152 controls were genotyped for these two recurrent variants of NBN (657del5 truncating variant and E185Q missense variant). RESULTS: The NBN 657del5 mutation was detected in 57 of 4964 unselected cases and in 35 of 6152 controls (OR = 2.0, p = 0.001). The E185Q GG genotype was detected in 2167 of 4964 unselected cases and in 2617 of 6152 controls (OR = 1.04, p = 0.3). In carriers of the 657del5 deletion, the elevated cancer risk was restricted to women with the GG genotype of the E185Q variant (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.9-6.6; p < 0.0001). Among women with other E185Q genotypes, the OR associated with 657del5 was 1.0 (95% CI 0.5-1.8; p = 0.9). The interaction between the two alleles was statistically significant (homogeneity p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: In Poland, the pathogenicity of the NBN 657del5 mutation is restricted to women with a homozygous GG genotype of missense variant of the same gene (E185Q). This is the first clear example whereby a moderate penetrance breast cancer gene is impacted by a genetic modifier.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 145(12): 3311-3320, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173646

RESUMO

To optimize genetic testing, it is necessary to establish the spectrum of breast cancer-predisposing mutations in particular ethnic groups. We studied 1,018 women with a strong family history for breast cancer (families with hereditary breast cancer; HBC) from genetically homogenous population of Poland, which is populated by ethnic Slavs, for mutations in 14 cancer susceptibility genes. Additionally, we compared the frequency of candidate pathogenic variants in breast cancer cases and controls. Germline mutations were detected in 512 of 1,018 probands with breast cancer (50.3%), including BRCA1/2 mutations detected in 420 families and non-BRCA mutations seen in 92 families. Thirteen BRCA1/2 founder mutations represented 84% of all BRCA1/2-positive cases. Seven founder mutations of CHEK2, PALB2, NBN and RECQL represented 73% of all non-BRCA-positive cases. Odds ratios for hereditary breast cancer were 87.6 for BRCA1, 15.4 for PALB2, 7.2 for CHEK2, 2.8 for NBN and 15.8 for RECQL. Odds ratios for XRCC2, BLM and BARD1 were below 1.3. In summary, we found that 20 founder mutations in six genes (BRCA1/2, CHEK2, PALB2, NBN and RECQL) are responsible for 82% of Polish hereditary breast cancer families. A simple test for these 20 mutations will facilitate genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in Poland. It may also facilitate genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in other Slavic populations and women of Slavic descent worldwide.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 118(2): 266-276, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.

7.
BMJ ; 360: j5757, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a genetic tool to predict age of onset of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) and to guide decisions of who to screen and at what age. DESIGN: Analysis of genotype, PCa status, and age to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with diagnosis. These polymorphisms were incorporated into a survival analysis to estimate their effects on age at diagnosis of aggressive PCa (that is, not eligible for surveillance according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines; any of Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA (prostate specific antigen) concentration ≥10 ng/L, nodal metastasis, distant metastasis). The resulting polygenic hazard score is an assessment of individual genetic risk. The final model was applied to an independent dataset containing genotype and PSA screening data. The hazard score was calculated for these men to test prediction of survival free from PCa. SETTING: Multiple institutions that were members of international PRACTICAL consortium. PARTICIPANTS: All consortium participants of European ancestry with known age, PCa status, and quality assured custom (iCOGS) array genotype data. The development dataset comprised 31 747 men; the validation dataset comprised 6411 men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prediction with hazard score of age of onset of aggressive cancer in validation set. RESULTS: In the independent validation set, the hazard score calculated from 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms was a highly significant predictor of age at diagnosis of aggressive cancer (z=11.2, P<10-16). When men in the validation set with high scores (>98th centile) were compared with those with average scores (30th-70th centile), the hazard ratio for aggressive cancer was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 3.4). Inclusion of family history in a combined model did not improve prediction of onset of aggressive PCa (P=0.59), and polygenic hazard score performance remained high when family history was accounted for. Additionally, the positive predictive value of PSA screening for aggressive PCa was increased with increasing polygenic hazard score. CONCLUSIONS: Polygenic hazard scores can be used for personalised genetic risk estimates that can predict for age at onset of aggressive PCa.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Calicreínas/análise , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(19): 5589-602, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025378

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∼38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same region.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino
10.
Lancet Oncol ; 16(6): 638-44, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25959805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in PALB2 predispose to breast cancer, but the effect on prognosis of carrying a PALB2 mutation has not been ascertained. We aimed to estimate the odds ratio for breast cancer in women with an inherited mutation in PALB2 and 10-year survival after breast cancer in patients who carry a PALB2 mutation. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2012, patients with invasive breast cancer were recruited prospectively from 18 hospitals in Poland and genotyped for two deleterious mutations in PALB2 (509_510delGA and 172_175delTTGT). A control group of 4702 women without cancer was recruited for comparison. The primary endpoint was death from any cause, as determined by medical records from the Polish Ministry of the Interior and Administration. In patients with breast cancer, 10-year survival of carriers of a PALB2 mutation was calculated and compared with that of non-carriers. FINDINGS: 17 900 women with breast cancer were invited to participate, of whom 12 529 were genotyped successfully. A PALB2 mutation was present in 116 (0·93%, 95% CI 0·76-1·09) of 12 529 patients and in ten (0·21%, 0·08-0·34) of 4702 controls (odds ratio 4·39, 95% CI 2·30-8·37; p<0·0001). 10-year survival for women with breast cancer and a PALB2 mutation was 48·0% (95% CI 36·5-63·2), compared with 74·7% (73·5-75·8) for patients with breast cancer without a mutation (adjusted hazard ratio for death 2·27, 95% CI 1·64-3·15; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Women with a PALB2 mutation face an increased risk of breast cancer and might be at a higher risk of death from breast cancer compared with non-carriers. Increased surveillance should be offered to unaffected women who carry a PALB2 mutation. FUNDING: Polish National Science Centre.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nat Genet ; 47(6): 643-6, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25915596

RESUMO

Several moderate- and high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes have been discovered, but more are likely to exist. To discover new breast cancer susceptibility genes, we used 2 populations (from Poland and Quebec, Canada) and applied whole-exome sequencing in a discovery phase (n = 195), followed by validation. We identified rare recurrent RECQL mutations in each population. In Quebec, 7 of 1,013 higher-risk breast cancer cases and 1 of 7,136 newborns carried the c.634C>T (p.Arg215*) variant (P = 0.00004). In Poland, 30 of 13,136 unselected breast cancer cases and 2 of 4,702 controls carried the c.1667_1667+3delAGTA (p.K555delinsMYKLIHYSFR) variant (P = 0.008). RECQL is implicated in resolving stalled DNA replication forks to prevent double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks. This function is related to that of other known breast cancer susceptibility genes, many of which are involved in repairing dsDNA breaks. We conclude that RECQL is a breast cancer susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , RecQ Helicases/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem
12.
Int J Cancer ; 137(3): 548-52, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25583358

RESUMO

Mutations in the cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) tumor suppressor gene are associated with multi-organ cancer susceptibility including cancers of the breast and prostate. A genetic association between thyroid and breast cancer has been suggested, however little is known about the determinants of this association. To characterize the association of CHEK2 mutations with thyroid cancer, we genotyped 468 unselected patients with papillary thyroid cancer and 468 (matched) cancer-free controls for four founder mutations of CHEK2 (1100delC, IVS2 + 1G>A, del5395 and I157T). We compared the family histories reported by patients with a CHEK2 mutation to those of non-carriers. A CHEK2 mutation was seen in 73 of 468 (15.6%) unselected patients with papillary thyroid cancer, compared to 28 of 460 (6.0%) age- and sex-matched controls (OR 3.3; p < 0.0001). A truncating mutation (IVS2 + 1G>A, 1100delC or del5395) was associated with a higher risk of thyroid cancer (OR = 5.7; p = 0.006), than was the missense mutation I157T (OR = 2.8; p = 0.0001). CHEK2 mutation carriers reported a family history of breast cancer 2.2 times more commonly than non-carriers (16.4% vs.8.1%; p = 0.05). A CHEK2 mutation was found in seven of 11 women (63%) with multiple primary cancers of the breast and thyroid (OR = 10; p = 0.0004). These results suggest that CHEK2 mutations predispose to thyroid cancer, familial aggregations of breast and thyroid cancer and to double primary cancers of the breast and thyroid.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Papilar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Razão de Chances , Risco , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 24(2): 122-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25187206

RESUMO

A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Recently, a single SNP in the region of chromosome 8q24 (rs188140481) has been associated with a three-fold increased risk of prostate cancer in Europe and North America. To establish whether rs188140481 is associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Poland, we genotyped 3467 men with prostate cancer and 1958 controls. The A allele of rs188140481 was detected in 44 of 3467 (1.3%) men with prostate cancer and in seven of 1958 (0.4%) controls (odds ratio=3.6; 95% confidence interval 1.6-7.9; P=0.0006). The allele was present in eight of 390 (2.1%) men with familial prostate cancer (odds ratio=5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-16.2; P=0.001). A positive family history of cancers at sites other than the prostate was observed in 27% of men who carried the rs188140481 risk allele and in 44% of noncarriers (P=0.04). No cancer at a site other than the prostate was more common in first-degree or second-degree relatives of carriers of the rs188140481 risk allele than relatives of noncarriers. The rs188140481 polymorphism in the 8q24 region confers a moderate increase in the risk of prostate cancer in Polish men. The SNP does not appear to be associated with susceptibility to cancers of other types.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polônia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Fam Cancer ; 14(1): 145-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25182961

RESUMO

A nonsense mutation, p.Q548X, in the BLM gene has recently been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. In the present work, we investigated the prevalence of this Slavic founder mutation in 2,561 ovarian cancer cases from Russia, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania or Germany and compared its frequency with 6,205 ethnically matched healthy female controls. The p.Q548X allele was present in nine ovarian cancer patients of Slavic ancestry (0.5 %; including one case with concurrent BRCA1 mutation). The mutation was not significantly more frequent in cases than in controls (Mantel-Haenszel OR 1.14, 95 % CI 0.49; 2.67). Ovarian tumours in p.Q548X carriers were mainly of the serous subtype, and there was little evidence for an early age at diagnosis or pronounced family history of cancer. These findings indicate that the BLM p.Q548X mutation is not a strong risk factor for ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , RecQ Helicases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
15.
Gene ; 546(2): 156-61, 2014 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24933002

RESUMO

The genetic basis of prostate cancer (PC) is complex and appears to involve multiple susceptibility genes. A number of studies have evaluated a possible correlation between several NER gene polymorphisms and PC risk, but most of them evaluated only single SNPs among XP genes and the results remain inconsistent. Out of 94 SNPs located in seven XP genes (XPA-XPG) a total of 15 SNPs were assayed in 720 unselected patients with PC and compared to 1121 healthy adults. An increased risk of disease was associated with the XPD SNP, rs1799793 (Asp312Asn) AG genotype (OR=2.60; p<0.001) and with the AA genotype (OR=531; p<0.0001) compared to the control population. Haplotype analysis of XPD revealed one protective haplotype and four associated with an increased disease risk, which showed that the A allele (XPD rs1799793) appeared to drive the main effect on promoting prostate cancer risk. Polymorphism in XPD gene appears to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Alelos , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Proteína de Xeroderma Pigmentoso Grupo A/genética
16.
Eur Urol ; 66(3): 489-99, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24484606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrollment in the study. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We recruited men aged 40-69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrollment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%-double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The IMPACT screening network will be useful for targeted PCa screening studies in men with germline genetic risk variants as they are discovered. These preliminary results support the use of targeted PSA screening based on BRCA genotype and show that this screening yields a high proportion of aggressive disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we demonstrate that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Targeting screening at these men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue
17.
Int J Cancer ; 134(5): 1139-46, 2014 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24037955

RESUMO

Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with an elevated risk of prostate cancer risk. It is not established if they are useful in predicting the presence of prostate cancer at biopsy or if they can be used to define a low-risk group of men. In this study, 4,548 men underwent a prostate biopsy because of an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA; ≥4 ng/mL) or an abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE). All men were genotyped for 11 selected SNPs. The effect of each SNP, alone and in combination, on prostate cancer prevalence was studied. Of 4,548 men: 1,834 (40.3%) were found to have cancer. A positive association with prostate cancer was seen for 5 of 11 SNPs studied (rs1800629, rs1859962, rs1447295, rs4430796, rs11228565). The cancer detection rate rose with the number of SNP risk alleles from 29% for men with no variant to 63% for men who carried seven or more risk alleles (OR = 4.2; p = 0.002). The SNP data did not improve the predictive power of clinical factors (age, PSA and DRE) for detecting prostate cancer (AUC: 0.726 vs. 0.735; p = 0.4). We were unable to define a group of men with a sufficiently low prevalence of prostate cancer that a biopsy might have been avoided. In conclusion, our data do not support the routine use of SNP polymorphisms as an adjunct test to be used on the context of prostate biopsy for Polish men with an abnormal screening test.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Área Sob a Curva , Biópsia , Exame Retal Digital , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
18.
Gene ; 532(2): 173-6, 2013 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24096176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations of BRCA2 and NBS1 genes cause inherited recessive chromosomal instability syndromes and predispose to prostate cancer of poor prognosis. Mutations of the BLM gene cause another chromosomal instability clinical syndrome, called Bloom syndrome. Recently, a recurrent truncating mutation of BLM (Q548X) has been associated with a 6-fold increased risk of breast cancer in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, but its role in prostate cancer etiology and survival has not been investigated yet. METHODS: To establish whether the Q548X allele of the BLM gene is present in Poland, and whether this allele predisposes to poor prognosis prostate cancer, we genotyped 3337 men with prostate cancer and 2604 controls. RESULTS: Q548X was detected in 13 of 3337 (0.4%) men with prostate cancer compared to 15 of 2604 (0.6%) controls (OR=0.7; 95% CI 0.3-1.4). A positive family history of any cancer in a first- or second-degree relative was seen only in 4 of the 13 (30%) mutation positive families, compared to 49% (1485/3001) of the non-carrier families (p=0.3). The mean follow-up was 49months. Survival was similar among carriers of Q548X and non-carriers (HR=1.1; p=0.9). The 5-year survival for men with a BLM mutation was 83%, compared to 72% for mutation-negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: BLM Q548X is a common founder mutation in Poland. We found no evidence that this mutation predisposes one to prostate cancer or affect prostate cancer survival. However, based on the observed 0.6% population frequency of the Q548X allele, we estimate that one in 100,000 children should be affected by Bloom syndrome in Poland.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RecQ Helicases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
Fam Cancer ; 12(3): 473-8, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23296741

RESUMO

CHEK2 is a tumor suppressor gene whose functions are central to the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis following DNA damage. Mutations in CHEK2 have been associated with cancers at many sites, including breast and prostate cancers, but the relationship between CHEK2 and gastric cancer has not been extensively studied. In Poland, there are four known founder alleles of CHEK2; three alleles are protein truncating (1100delC, IVS2G>A, del5395) and the other is a missense variant (I157T). We examined the frequencies of four Polish founder mutations in the CHEK2 gene in 658 unselected gastric cancer patients, in 154 familial gastric cancer patients and in 8,302 controls. A CHEK2 mutation was seen in 57 of 658 (8.7 %) unselected patients with gastric cancer compared to 480 of 8,302 (5.8 %) controls (OR 1.6, p = 0.004). A CHEK2 mutation was present in 19 of 154 (12.3 %) familial cases (OR = 2.3, p = 0.001). The odds ratio for early onset (<50 years) gastric cancer was higher (2.1, p = 0.01), than for cases diagnosed at age of 50 or above (OR 1.4, p = 0.05). Truncating mutations of CHEK2 were associated with higher risk (OR = 2.1, p = 0.02) than the missense mutation I157T (OR = 1.4, p = 0.04). CHEK2 mutations predispose to gastric cancer, in particular to young-onset cases.


Assuntos
Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Prostate ; 73(5): 542-8, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23334858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The G84E mutation in the HOXB13 gene has been associated with a high lifetime risk of prostate cancer in North America (about 20-fold). The geographical and ethnic extent of this recurrent allele has not yet been determined. METHODS: We assayed for the presence of the G84E mutation in 3,515 prostate cancer patients and 2,604 controls from Poland and estimated the odds ratio for prostate cancer associated with the allele. RESULTS: The G84E mutation was detected in 3 of 2,604 (0.1%) individuals from the general population in Poland and in 20 of 3,515 (0.6%) men with prostate cancer (Odds ratio [OR] = 5.0; 95% CI: 1.5-16.7; P = 0.008). The allele was present in 4 of 416 (1.0%) men with familial prostate cancer (OR = 8.4, 95% CI: 1.9-37.7; P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The G84E mutation predisposes to prostate cancer in Poland, but accounts for only a small proportion of cases. We expect that the G84E founder mutation might be present in other Slavic populations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Linhagem , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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