Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 56
Filtrar
1.
Child Dev ; 92(4): 1476-1493, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432998

RESUMO

In a sample of 559 children (ages 9-18), researchers investigated whether: (a) fear of abandonment mediated the association between postdivorce interparental conflict (IPC) and mental health problems, and (b) parent-child relationship quality moderated the association between IPC and fear of abandonment. Mediation analyses indicated that pretest IPC predicted fear of abandonment 3 months later, which then predicted child- and teacher-reported mental health problems 10 months later. The hypothesized protective effect of a high-quality parent-child relationship was not observed. IPC predicted fear of abandonment for all children, except for those with low- and moderate-quality father-child relationships, for whom IPC was not significantly related to fear of abandonment. Findings highlight the need to optimize child coping programs and improve parenting-after-divorce programs to reduce IPC.


Assuntos
Conflito Familiar , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Medo , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Relações Pais-Filho
2.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(1): 201-215, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308168

RESUMO

This 15-year longitudinal follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of a parenting-focused preventive intervention for divorced families examined cascade models of program effects on offsprings' competence. It was hypothesized that intervention-induced improvements in parenting would lead to better academic, work, peer, and romantic competence in emerging adulthood through effects on behavior problems and competencies during adolescence. Families (N = 240) participated in the 11-session program or literature control condition when children were ages 9-12. Data were drawn from assessments at pretest, posttest, and follow-ups at 3 and 6 months and 6 and 15 years. Results showed that initial intervention effects of parenting on externalizing problems in adolescence cascaded to work outcomes in adulthood. Parenting effects also directly impacted work success. For work outcomes and peer competence, intervention effects were moderated by initial risk level; the program had greater effects on youths with higher risk at program entry. In addition, intervention effects on parenting led to fewer externalizing problems that in turn cascaded to better academic outcomes, which showed continuity into emerging adulthood. Results highlight the potential for intervention effects of the New Beginnings Program to cascade over time to affect adult competence in multiple domains, particularly for high-risk youths.


Assuntos
Divórcio , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos
3.
Prev Sci ; 21(8): 1017-1027, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720190

RESUMO

The Family Bereavement Program (FBP) is a family-based intervention for parentally bereaved children and surviving caregivers. Results are reported of a randomized controlled trial, examining intervention effects on emotional reactivity and regulation of young adults who participated in the program 15 years earlier. Participants (N = 152) completed four emotion challenge tasks: reactivity to negative images, detached reappraisal while viewing negative images, positive reappraisal while viewing negative images, and reengagement with positive images. Outcomes included cardiac interbeat interval (IBI), pre-ejection period (PEP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as well as self-reported emotional experience and regulation effectiveness. Direct intervention effects and effects mediated through improved parenting were estimated. Several significant effects were observed in primary analyses; however, none remained significant after correction for familywise Type I error. Parenting mediated FBP effects on IBI during negative reactivity (b = 15.04), and on RSA during positive reengagement (b = 0.35); the latter effect was accounted for by changes in breathing. Intervention condition was a direct predictor of self-reported detached reappraisal effectiveness (b = 1.00). Intervention and gender interacted in predicting self-reported negative emotion during the negative reactivity (b = 1.04) and positive reappraisal tasks (b = 1.31) such that intervention-condition men reported more negative emotions during those tasks. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the limited power of the corrected statistical tests, they suggest long-term effects of family intervention following the death of a parent on offspring's emotional reactivity and regulation ability that should be pursued further in future research.


Assuntos
Luto , Emoções , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Pais , Gravidez , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória , Adulto Jovem
4.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(5): 1695-1713, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535609

RESUMO

Exposure to high levels of postdivorce interparental conflict is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and there is strong evidence of a subpopulation of families for which conflict persists for many years after divorce. However, existing studies have not elucidated differential trajectories of conflict within families over time, nor have they assessed the risk posed by conflict trajectories for development of psychopathology or evaluated potential protective effects of children's coping to mitigate such risk. We used growth mixture modeling to identify longitudinal trajectories of child-reported conflict over a period of six to eight years following divorce in a sample of 240 children. We related the trajectories to children's mental health problems, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors and assessed how children's coping prospectively predicted psychopathology in the different conflict trajectories. We identified three distinct trajectories of conflict; youth in two high-conflict trajectories showed deleterious effects on measures of psychopathology at baseline and the six-year follow-up. We found both main effects of coping and coping by conflict trajectory interaction effects in predicting problem outcomes at the six-year follow-up. The study supports the notion that improving youth's general capacity to cope adaptively is a potentially modifiable protective factor for all children facing parental divorce and that children in families with high levels of postdivorce conflict are a particularly appropriate group to target for coping-focused preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Divórcio/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(6): 690-703, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318261

RESUMO

Despite widespread acknowledgment that "frequent, continuing, and meaningful" (Pruett & DiFonzo, 2014) time with both parents is beneficial for children from divorced or separated families, and that interparental conflict (IPC) is associated with increased child mental health problems, the joint effects of parenting time (PT), parenting quality (PQ), and IPC on children's mental health problems are less clear. The current study integrates two theoretical models in multiple mediator analyses to test indirect effects of mothers' and fathers' PQ and IPC to explain the association between PT and children's mental health problems within the same model. Participants were children aged 9-18 years (N = 141) who had one or both parents participate in a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a court-based prevention program for high-conflict divorcing or separating families. Data were collected at pretest and 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed an indirect effect in which fathers' PQ mediated the association between PT and child internalizing problems both concurrently and 9 months later. There were no significant indirect effects involving IPC. Analyses indicated a significant quadratic relation between PT and fathers' PQ, suggesting that although more PT is associated with better father-child relationships, there is a point beyond which more time is not related to a better relationship. We discuss the study findings, research limitations, and implications for public policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo
7.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(5): 499-510, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730180

RESUMO

Parenting time, interparental conflict, and the quality of parenting a child experiences in the postdivorce family environment have complex relations with child adjustment outcomes. Using person-centered latent profile analyses, the present study examined (a) separate profiles of mothers' (N = 472) and fathers' (N = 353) parenting time, interparental conflict, and quality of parenting following divorce; and (b) associations of mother and father profiles with concurrent child outcomes (48% female, 3- to 18-years-old) as well as child outcomes 3 and 10 months later. Mother and father profiles were primarily differentiated by levels of parenting time and quality of parenting, respectively. Mother and father profiles defined by greater parenting time and lower quality parenting were associated with the poorest child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Divórcio/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Arizona , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Eval Health Prof ; 41(2): 290-320, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635949

RESUMO

We used a multigroup propensity score approach to evaluate a randomized effectiveness trial of the New Beginnings Program (NBP), an intervention targeting divorced or separated families. Two features of effectiveness trials, high nonattendance rates and inclusion of an active control, make program effects harder to detect. To estimate program effects based on actual intervention participation, we created a synthetic inactive control comprised of nonattenders and assessed the impact of attending the NBP or active control relative to no intervention (inactive control). We estimated propensity scores using generalized boosted models and applied inverse probability of treatment weighting for the comparisons. Relative to the inactive control, NBP strengthened parenting quality as well as reduced child exposure to interparental conflict, parent psychological distress, and child internalizing problems. Some effects were moderated by parent gender, parent ethnicity, or child age. On the other hand, the effects of active versus inactive control were minimal for parenting and in the unexpected direction for child internalizing problems. Findings from the propensity score approach complement and enhance the interpretation of findings from the intention-to-treat approach.


Assuntos
Divórcio , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
9.
Prev Sci ; 19(5): 663-673, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27933424

RESUMO

An examination of the content and processes of evidence-based programs is critical for empirically evaluating theories about how programs work, the "action theory" of the program (West et al. in American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 571-605, 1993). The New Beginnings Program (NBP; Wolchik et al., 2007), a parenting-after-divorce preventive intervention, theorizes that program-induced improvements in parenting across three domains: positive relationship quality, effective discipline, and protecting children from interparental conflict, will reduce the negative outcomes that are common among children from divorced families. The process theory is that home practice of program skills related to these parenting domains is the primary mechanism leading to positive change in parenting. This theory was tested using multi-rater data from 477 parents in the intervention condition of an effectiveness trial of the NBP (Sandler et al. 2016a, 2016b). Four research questions were addressed: Does home practice of skills predict change in the associated parenting outcomes targeted by the program? Is the effect above and beyond the influence of attendance at program sessions? What indicators of home practice (i.e., attempts, fidelity, efficacy, and competence) are most predictive of improvements in parenting? Do these indicators predict parenting improvements in underserved subpopulations (i.e., fathers and Latinos)? Structural Equation Modeling analyses indicated that parent-reported efficacy and provider-rated parent competence of home practice predicted improvements in the targeted parenting domains according to both parent and child reports. Moreover, indicators of home practice predicted improvements in parenting for fathers and Latinos, although patterns of effects varied by parenting outcome.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Divórcio , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Desenvolvimento de Programas
10.
Prev Sci ; 19(5): 620-629, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28357550

RESUMO

We examined attendance trajectories among mothers and fathers in the effectiveness trial of the New Beginnings Program, a parenting-focused prevention program for divorced and separated parents. We also investigated attendance trajectory class differences on two sets of pretest covariates: one set previously linked to participation in programs not specifically targeting divorced parents (i.e., sociodemographics, perceived parenting skills, child problem behaviors, parent psychological distress) and another that might be particularly salient to participation in the context of divorce (i.e., interparental conflict, level of parent-child contact, previous marital status to the ex-spouse). For mothers and fathers, results supported four attendance trajectory classes: (1) non-attenders (NA), (2) early dropouts (ED), (3) declining attenders (DA), and (4) sustained attenders (SA). In the final model testing multiple covariates simultaneously, mothers who were EDs and DAs were more likely to be Latina than SAs, and EDs reported more interparental conflict than SAs. Mother trajectory groups did not differ on parenting skills, child problem behavior, or mother-child contact in the final or preliminary models. In the final model for fathers, EDs rated their children higher on externalizing than DAs, had less contact with their children than DAs and NAs, and reported less distress than SAs. Father trajectory groups did not differ on fathers' age, ethnicity, income, perceived parenting skills, or interparental conflict in the final or preliminary models. Results highlight qualitatively distinct latent classes of mothers and fathers who disengage from a parenting intervention at various points. We discuss implications for intervention engagement strategies and translational science.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Divórcio , Poder Familiar , Pais , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Medicina Preventiva
11.
Prev Sci ; 19(6): 782-794, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243200

RESUMO

This study tests a theoretical cascade model in which multiple dimensions of facilitator delivery predict indicators of participant responsiveness, which in turn lead to improvements in targeted program outcomes. An effectiveness trial of the 10-session New Beginnings Program for divorcing families was implemented in partnership with four county-level family courts. This study included 366 families assigned to the intervention condition who attended at least one session. Independent observers provided ratings of program delivery (i.e., fidelity to the curriculum and process quality). Facilitators reported on parent attendance and parents' competence in home practice of program skills. At pretest and posttest, children reported on parenting and parents reported child mental health. We hypothesized effects of quality on attendance, fidelity and attendance on home practice, and home practice on improvements in parenting and child mental health. Structural Equation Modeling with mediation and moderation analyses were used to test these associations. Results indicated quality was significantly associated with attendance, and attendance moderated the effect of fidelity on home practice. Home practice was a significant mediator of the links between fidelity and improvements in parent-child relationship quality and child externalizing and internalizing problems. Findings provide support for fidelity to the curriculum, process quality, attendance, and home practice as valid predictors of program outcomes for mothers and fathers. Future directions for assessing implementation in community settings are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Modelos Teóricos , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Observação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
J Divorce Remarriage ; 59(4): 324-347, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762801

RESUMO

Despite a recent shift in the allocation of parenting time arrangements following divorce, there is no clear consensus regarding the effects of shared parenting on children's adjustment in high conflict families. We propose key questions and methodological options to increase the ability of results from well-designed empirical studies to inform practice and policy. We review eleven studies of the relations between parenting time and quality of parenting with children's adjustment in high conflict divorced families. Despite heterogeneity of the methods used across the studies some tentative conclusions can be made based on findings across multiple studies. Higher levels of shared parenting were related to poorer child adjustment in samples with high conflict many years following the divorce, but typically not in samples that assessed conflict during the divorcing process or in the two or three years following the divorce. There is also evidence that the effects of shared parenting on child adjustment in the presence of high conflict differs by gender, and that high quality of parenting by at least one parent is associated with better child adjustment in high conflict divorces. Implications for policy and practice are discussed as well as directions for research to strengthen the knowledge base to inform policy.

13.
Dev Psychopathol ; 28(3): 869-88, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27427811

RESUMO

A developmental cascade model from functioning in adolescence to emerging adulthood was tested using data from a 15-year longitudinal follow-up of 240 emerging adults whose families participated in a randomized, experimental trial of a preventive program for divorced families. Families participated in the program or literature control condition when the offspring were ages 9-12. Short-term follow-ups were conducted 3 months and 6 months following completion of the program when the offspring were in late childhood/early adolescence. Long-term follow-ups were conducted 6 years and 15 years after program completion when the offspring were in middle to late adolescence and emerging adulthood, respectively. It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on mental health and substance use outcomes in emerging adulthood would be explained by developmental cascade effects of program effects in adolescence. The results provided support for a cascade effects model. Specifically, academic competence in adolescence had cross-domain effects on internalizing problems and externalizing problems in emerging adulthood. In addition, adaptive coping in adolescence was significantly, negatively related to binge drinking. It was unexpected that internalizing symptoms in adolescence were significantly negatively related to marijuana use and alcohol use. Gender differences occurred in the links between mental health problems and substance use in adolescence and mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Divórcio/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Saúde Mental , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/prevenção & controle , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Emotion ; 16(6): 877-85, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27100364

RESUMO

The temperamental trait of negative emotionality (NE) plays an important role in maladaptation among adults experiencing significant life stress. However, the prospective relation between childhood NE and subsequent interrelated behavioral, emotional, and biological dysregulation in later life has not yet been established among children who experience early adversity. Using a longitudinal sample of youth who experienced parental divorce during childhood (N = 160; 53% male; 83% White), we tested the hypothesis that childhood NE would predict physiological, emotional, and behavioral dysregulation 15 years later. NE was assessed by maternal report when youth were between 9 and 12 years old. Fifteen years later, young adults (mean age = 25.55 years) participated in a psychosocial stress task to assess cortisol reactivity and reported on internalizing symptoms and problematic alcohol use. Structural equation modeling revealed that higher childhood NE predicted significantly greater alcohol use, internalizing symptoms, and total cortisol output during a stress task 15 years later. Importantly, these findings held after adjusting for childhood internalizing symptoms. In addition, problematic alcohol use was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and internalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that childhood NE is a critical risk marker for interrelated forms of dysregulation in young adulthood among at-risk youth. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Psychosom Med ; 78(2): 163-70, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26465217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The experience of parental divorce during childhood is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults' cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. METHODS: Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. RESULTS: Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (standardized regression = 0.45, standard error = 0.065, p < .01), which predicted lower cortisol response to a challenging interpersonal task in young adulthood (standardized regression = -0.20, standard error = 0.094, p = .031). Neither mother-reported warmth in early adolescence nor late adolescence was significantly related to offspring cortisol response in young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that for children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship after divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01407120.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 44(1): 123-36, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24484456

RESUMO

This study examined profiles of nonresidential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) 6 to 8 years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, 9 years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of nonresidential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed 9 years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes 9 years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother's remarriage, mother's income, and gender, age, and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems 9 years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Relações Pai-Filho , Pai/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Mães/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Apoio Social , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Prev Sci ; 16(4): 586-96, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25382415

RESUMO

This cost-benefit analysis compared the costs of implementing the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a preventive intervention for divorced families to monetary benefits saved in mental healthcare service use and criminal justice system costs. NBP was delivered when the offspring were 9-12 years old. Benefits were assessed 15 years later when the offspring were young adults (ages 24-27). This study estimated the costs of delivering two versions of NBP, a single-component parenting-after-divorce program (Mother Program, MP) and a two-component parenting-after-divorce and child-coping program (Mother-Plus-Child Program, MPCP), to costs of a literature control (LC). Long-term monetary benefits were determined from actual expenditures from past-year mental healthcare service use for mothers and their young adult (YA) offspring and criminal justice system involvement for YAs. Data were gathered from 202 YAs and 194 mothers (75.4 % of families randomly assigned to condition). The benefits, as assessed in the 15th year after program completion, were $1630/family (discounted benefits $1077/family). These 1-year benefits, based on conservative assumptions, more than paid for the cost of MP and covered the majority of the cost of MPCP. Because the effects of MP versus MPCP on mental health and substance use problems have not been significantly different at short-term or long-term follow-up assessments, program managers would likely choose the lower-cost option. Given that this evaluation only calculated economic benefit at year 15 and not the previous 14 (nor future years), these findings suggest that, from a societal perspective, NBP more than pays for itself in future benefits.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Crime/economia , Divórcio/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Psychol Health ; 30(7): 751-69, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25367835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether an empirically based, randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. DESIGN: Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program, a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n = 161) was measured before and after a social stress task. RESULTS: Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saliva/química
19.
Child Dev ; 85(5): 2091-105, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24916511

RESUMO

This study evaluates whether the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parenting intervention for divorced mothers, led to positive parenting attitudes in young adult offspring. Data were collected from 240 mothers (G1) and offspring (G2) at ages 9-12 and again in adolescence and young adulthood. Alternative theoretical models were tested to examine mediators of NBP effects on G2 parenting attitudes. Significant interactions between condition and baseline G1 parenting indicated that NBP improved G2's parenting attitudes for those exposed to poorer G1 parenting at program entry. Effects on G2 warm attitudes were partially mediated through program effects on G1 warm parenting. The implications of improving parenting attitudes in offspring who experience parental divorce on well-being in the next generation are discussed.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 10: 243-73, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24471372

RESUMO

This review presents findings from an overview of meta-analyses of the effects of prevention and promotion programs to prevent mental health, substance use, and conduct problems. The review of 48 meta-analyses found small but significant changes that reduce depression, anxiety, antisocial behavior, and substance use. Furthermore, the results were sustained over time. Meta-analyses often found that the effects were heterogeneous. A conceptual model is proposed to guide the study of moderators of program effects in future meta-analyses, and methodological issues in synthesizing findings across preventive interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Transtorno da Conduta/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Metanálise como Assunto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...