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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5150, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051452

RESUMO

It is often assumed that incongruence between individuals' values and those of their country is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Across 29 countries, the present research investigated whether well-being is higher if people's values match with those of people living in the same country or region. Using representative samples, we find that person-country and person-region value congruence predict six well-being measures (e.g., emotional well-being, relationship support; N = 54,673). Crucially, however, value type moderates whether person-country fit is positively or negatively associated with well-being. People who value self-direction, stimulation, and hedonism more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values report lower well-being. In contrast, people who value achievement, power, and security more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values, report higher well-being. Additionally, we find that people who moderately value stimulation report the highest well-being.


Assuntos
Cultura , Valor da Vida , Emoções , Humanos , Percepção , Filosofia , Previdência Social
2.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 618-627, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572981

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses an exceptional challenge for humanity. Because public behaviour is key to curbing the pandemic at an early stage, it is important for social psychological researchers to use their knowledge to promote behaviours that help manage the crisis. Here, we identify human values as particularly important in driving both behavioural compliance to government guidelines and promoting prosocial behaviours to alleviate the strains arising from a prolonged pandemic. Existing evidence demonstrates the importance of human values, and the extent to which they are shared by fellow citizens, for tackling the COVID-19 crisis. Individuals who attach higher importance to self-transcendence (e.g., responsibility) and conservation (e.g., security) values are likely to be more compliant with COVID-19 behavioural guidelines and to help others who are struggling with the crisis. Further, believing that fellow citizens share one's values has been found to elicit a sense of connectedness that may be crucial in promoting collective efforts to contain the pandemic. The abstract nature of values, and cross-cultural agreement on their importance, suggests that they are ideally suited to developing and tailoring effective, global interventions to combat this pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Valores Sociais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Motivação , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
3.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(2): 470-493, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863498

RESUMO

Since the British 'Brexit referendum' in 2016, tensions between 'leave' and 'remain' voters have been growing. Using a novel analytical approach based on the full distribution of responses rather than their arithmetic means, Study 1 (N = 1,506) showed on average 90% of overlap among Leavers and Remainers across a range of important variables. Even on the variables that are commonly used to illustrate how Leavers and Remainers differ (e.g., prejudice against immigrants), the amount of overlap was larger than 50%. In Study 2 (N = 206), we demonstrate the importance of focusing on similarities between groups: Presenting the full distribution of responses from Leavers and Remainers rather than their mean differences caused more accurate perceptions of the actual differences and similarities between both groups and higher perceived intergroup harmony. We conclude that similarities between Leavers and Remainers are substantial and that our proposed approach may help to de-escalate tensions between these and other groups.

4.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(5): 925-953, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667255

RESUMO

Although human values and value dissimilarity play pivotal roles in the prejudice literature, there remain important gaps in our understanding. To address these gaps, we recruited three British samples (N = 350) and presented Muslim immigrants, refugees, and economic migrants as target groups. Using polynomial regression analyses, we simultaneously tested effects of individuals' own values, their perceptions of immigrant values, and self-immigrant value dissimilarities on prejudice. Results indicated that favorability toward immigrants is higher when individuals hold higher self-transcendence values (e.g., equality) and lower self-enhancement values (e.g., power), and when they perceive immigrants to hold higher self-transcendence values and lower self-enhancement values. In addition, prejudice toward immigrants is higher when individuals who hold higher conservation values (e.g., security) perceive immigrants to value openness (e.g., freedom) more, suggesting a value dissimilarity effect. No value dissimilarity effects emerged when immigrants were perceived to be higher in conservation, self-transcendence, or self-enhancement values. Overall, these results showed that effects of values and value dissimilarity differ depending on which value dimension is considered. Additionally, the results revealed support for a novel mechanism with the motivation to be nonprejudiced underpinning the links between individuals' values and prejudice. Our discussion highlights the multifaceted manner in which values are linked to prejudice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Preconceito , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Islamismo , Motivação
5.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 43(6): 828-844, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903673

RESUMO

Three studies examined the role of need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC) in intergroup perception. We hypothesized that NFA predicts a preference for stereotypically warm groups over stereotypically cold groups, whereas NFC predicts a preference for stereotypically competent groups over stereotypically incompetent groups. Study 1 supported these hypotheses for attitudes toward stereotypically ambivalent groups, which are stereotyped as high on one of the trait dimensions (e.g., high warmth) and low on the other (e.g., low competence), but not for stereotypically univalent groups, which are seen as high or low on both dimensions. Studies 2 and 3 replicated this pattern for stereotypically ambivalent groups, and yielded provocative evidence regarding several putative mechanisms underlying these associations. Together, these findings help integrate and extend past evidence on attitude-relevant individual differences with research on intergroup perception.


Assuntos
Afeto , Atitude , Orientação , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0170225, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107417

RESUMO

Losses in biodiversity and trends toward urbanisation have reduced people's contact with biodiverse nature, yet the consequences for mental well-being are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that greater plant and animal species richness in isolation causes an improvement in mental well-being. To do so, the present research experimentally manipulated species richness and assessed widely-used indicators of mental well-being. Participants viewed short videos of either high or low tree (Study 1) or bird (Study 2) species richness and reported on positive (i.e., vitality, positive affect) and negative (i.e., anxiety) indicators of mental well-being. Building on Study 1, Study 2 included an urban environment as a reference treatment and explored the role of giving participants information on the presented environment. We find that, in line with expectations, watching videos containing greater species richness consistently leads to higher mental well-being. We discuss findings in light of the importance of connecting people to biodiverse environments.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 42(6): 798-810, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460272

RESUMO

Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed.


Assuntos
Afeto , Atitude , Cognição , Individualidade , Personalidade , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Adulto Jovem
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