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1.
Biomed Opt Express ; 12(10): 6629-6650, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745761

RESUMO

We present and validate a multi-wavelength time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) system that avoids switching wavelengths and instead exploits the full capability of a supercontinuum light source by emitting and acquiring signals for the whole chosen range of wavelengths. The system was designed for muscle and brain oxygenation monitoring in a clinical environment. A pulsed supercontinuum laser emits broadband light and each of two detection modules acquires the distributions of times of flight of photons (DTOFs) for 16 spectral channels (used width 12.5 nm / channel), providing a total of 32 DTOFs at up to 3 Hz. Two emitting fibers and two detection fiber bundles allow simultaneous measurements at two positions on the tissue or at two source-detector separations. Three established protocols (BIP, MEDPHOT, and nEUROPt) were used to quantitatively assess the system's performance, including linearity, coupling, accuracy, and depth sensitivity. Measurements were performed on 32 homogeneous phantoms and two inhomogeneous phantoms (solid and liquid). Furthermore, measurements on two blood-lipid phantoms with a varied amount of blood and Intralipid provide the strongest validation for accurate tissue oximetry. The retrieved hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation match well with the reference values that were obtained using a commercially available NIRS system (OxiplexTS) and a blood gas analyzer (ABL90 FLEX), except a discrepancy occurs for the lowest amount of Intralipid. In-vivo measurements on the forearm of three healthy volunteers during arterial (250 mmHg) and venous (60 mmHg) cuff occlusions provide an example of tissue monitoring during the expected hemodynamic changes that follow previously well-described physiologies. All results, including quantitative parameters, can be compared to other systems that report similar tests. Overall, the presented TD-NIRS system has an exemplary performance evaluated with state-of-the-art performance assessment methods.

2.
Neurophotonics ; 8(4): 045001, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703847

RESUMO

Significance: Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (t-NIRS) is a new technology; at the moment, data on its precision in preterm infants are rare. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the precision of t-NIRS-based measurements of the cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants. Approach: In 70 neonates [age: 4.7 ± 2.0 days, sex (f/m): 33/37], cerebral oxygenation ( t - rSO 2 ) was measured with an optode placed over the left frontotemporal lobe on the head, measurement duration was 1 min, and a reapplication was done for four further times (five applications). Results: Overall mean for t - rSO 2 values was 62.2 % ± 4.1 % . We found a within-patient variation for t - rSO 2 of 2.6%. Furthermore, 95% of all observed values were within a range of ± 5 % from the mean when looking on several reapplications and ± 2 % when looking within one application. Most of the variation in t - rSO 2 (60.4%) contributed to differences between patients. The remaining 39.6% of the variation was due to measurement errors and real changes of the measured signal within the neonates. Conclusions: Since within-patient variation of t - rSO 2 measures were below a clinical meaningful threshold of 5%, the measurement can be denoted as precise.

3.
Blood ; 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657154

RESUMO

The cellular mechanisms required to ensure homeostasis of the hematopoietic niche and the ability of this niche to support hematopoiesis upon stress remain elusive. We here identify Wnt5a in Osterix+ mesenchymal progenitor and stem cells (MSPCs) as a critical factor for niche-dependent hematopoiesis. Mice lacking Wnt5a in MSPCs suffer from stress-related bone marrow failure and increased mortality. Niche cells devoid of Wnt5a show defective actin stress fiber orientation due to an elevated activity of the small Rho GTPase CDC42. This results in incorrect positioning of autophagosomes and lysosomes, thus reducing autophagy and increasing oxidative stress. In MSPCs from patients from bone marrow (BM) failure states which share features of peripheral cytopenia and hypocellular BM, we find similar defects in actin stress fiber orientation, reduced and incorrect colocalization of autophagosomes and lysosomes, and CDC42 activation. Strikingly, a short pharmacological intervention to attenuate elevated CDC42 activation in vivo in mice prevents defective actin- anchored autophagy in MSPCs, salvages hematopoiesis and protects against lethal cytopenia upon stress. In summary, our study identifies Wnt5a as a restriction factor for niche homeostasis by affecting CDC42-regulated actin stress-fiber orientation and autophagy upon stress. Our data further imply a critical role for autophagy in MSPCs for adequate support of hematopoiesis by the niche upon stress and in human diseases characterized by peripheral cytopenias and hypocellular BM.

4.
Nano Lett ; 21(19): 8160-8165, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543039

RESUMO

Airborne particular matter (PM) pollution is an increasing global issue and alternative sources of filter fibers are now an area of significant focus. Compared with relatively mature hazardous gas treatments, state of the art high-efficiency PM filters still lack thermal decomposition ability for organic PM pollutants, such as soot from coal-fired power plants and waste-combustion incinerators, resulting in frequent replacement, high cost, and second-hand pollution. In this manuscript, we propose a bottom-up synthesis method to make the first all-thermal-catalyst air filter (ATCAF). Self-assembled from ∼50 nm diameter TiO2 fibers, ATCAF could not only capture the combustion-generated PM pollutants with >99.999% efficiency but also catalyze the complete decomposition of the as-captured hydrocarbon pollutants at high temperature. It has the potential of in situ eliminating the PM pollutants from burning of hydrocarbon materials leveraging the burning heat.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Catálise , Temperatura Alta , Centrais Elétricas
5.
Theranostics ; 11(17): 8430-8447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373751

RESUMO

Self-assembly of solid organs from single cells would greatly expand applicability of regenerative medicine. Stem/progenitor cells can self-organize into micro-sized organ units, termed organoids, partially modelling tissue function and regeneration. Here we demonstrated 3D self-assembly of adult and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts, keratinocytes and endothelial progenitors into both, planar human skin in vivo and a novel type of spheroid-shaped skin organoids in vitro, under the aegis of human platelet lysate. Methods: Primary endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), skin fibroblasts (FBs) and keratinocytes (KCs) were isolated from human tissues and polyclonally propagated under 2D xeno-free conditions. Human tissue-derived iPSCs were differentiated into endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs), fibroblasts (hiPSC-FBs) and keratinocytes (hiPSC-KCs) according to efficiency-optimized protocols. Cell identity and purity were confirmed by flow cytometry and clonogenicity indicated their stem/progenitor potential. Triple cell type floating spheroids formation was promoted by human platelet-derived growth factors containing culture conditions, using nanoparticle cell labelling for monitoring the organization process. Planar human skin regeneration was assessed in full-thickness wounds of immune-deficient mice upon transplantation of hiPSC-derived single cell suspensions. Results: Organoids displayed a distinct architecture with surface-anchored keratinocytes surrounding a stromal core, and specific signaling patterns in response to inflammatory stimuli. FGF-7 mRNA transfection was required to accelerate keratinocyte long-term fitness. Stratified human skin also self-assembled within two weeks after either adult- or iPSC-derived skin cell-suspension liquid-transplantation, healing deep wounds of mice. Transplant vascularization significantly accelerated in the presence of co-transplanted endothelial progenitors. Mechanistically, extracellular vesicles mediated the multifactorial platelet-derived trophic effects. No tumorigenesis occurred upon xenografting. Conclusion: This illustrates the superordinate progenitor self-organization principle and permits novel rapid 3D skin-related pharmaceutical high-content testing opportunities with floating spheroid skin organoids. Multi-cell transplant self-organization facilitates development of iPSC-based organ regeneration strategies using cell suspension transplantation supported by human platelet factors.

6.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 176: 113872, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284058

RESUMO

Rigorous measures are required to cope with the advance of extracellular vesicle (EV) research, from 183 studies published in 2012 to 2,309 studies published in 2020. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (MISEV) guidelines in 2014, updated in 2018, for assuring and improving EV research quality. We performed a systematic review using a text mining approach to assess adherence to MISEV criteria. A keyword search was conducted in 5,093 accessible publications over the period 2012-2020 and analyzed the methodology used for EV isolation and characterization. We found a significant improvement over the years particularly regarding EV characterization where recent papers used a higher number of methods and EV markers to check for quantity and purity. Interestingly, we also found that EV papers using more methods and EV markers were cited more frequently. Papers citing MISEV criteria were more prone to use a higher number of characterization methods. We therefore established a concise checklist summarizing MISEV criteria to support EV researchers towards reaching the highest standards in the field.

7.
Nano Lett ; 21(9): 4057-4061, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934600

RESUMO

Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has recently demonstrated the exceptional sensitivity to observe vibrational structures on the atomic scale. However, it strongly relies on electromagnetic enhancement in plasmonic nanogaps. Here, we demonstrate that atomic point contact (APC) formation between a plasmonic tip and the surface of a bulk Si sample can lead to a dramatic enhancement of Raman scattering and consequently the phonons of the reconstructed Si(111)-7 × 7 surface can be detected. Furthermore, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity of APC-TERS by probing local vibrations resulting from Si-O bonds on the partially oxidized Si(111)-7 × 7 surface. This approach will expand the applicability of ultrasensitive TERS, exceeding the previous measurement strategies that exploit intense gap-mode plasmons, typically requiring a plasmonic substrate.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(19): 191601, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047574

RESUMO

We show that the double copy of gauge theory amplitudes to N=0 supergravity amplitudes extends from tree level to loop level. We first explain that color-kinematics duality is a condition for the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator and the action of a field theory with cubic interaction terms to double copy to a consistent gauge theory. We then apply this argument to Yang-Mills theory, where color-kinematics duality is known to be satisfied on shell at the tree level. Finally, we show that the latter restriction can only lead to terms that can be absorbed in a sequence of field redefinitions, rendering the double copied action equivalent to N=0 supergravity.

9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1269: 353-357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966242

RESUMO

The randomized clinical trial, SafeBoosC III, evaluates the effect of treatment guided by cerebral tissue oximetry monitoring in extremely preterm infants. Treatment should be considered, when cerebral oxygen saturation (StO2) drops below a predefined hypoxic threshold. This threshold value differs between different brands of instruments. To achieve high external validity, in this pragmatic trial all commercially available cerebral tissue oximeters have been accepted, provided their specific hypoxic threshold value has been determined in phantom studies. Since most companies produce sensors with an adhesive surface on the patient-contacting side, in the phantom studies these sensors were applied according to the specifications, i.e., the glossy cover was removed from the sensor. However, since the skin of preterm infants is particularly fragile, some neonatologists keep this cover on the adhesive sensors, to avoid the risk of skin injury when removing the sensor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether keeping this cover on leads to different StO2 values. To evaluate the effect of the cover, we performed multiple deoxygenations in a blood-lipid phantom and compared an INVOS neonatal sensor (Medtronic), with and without the cover, to a reference oximeter (OxiplexTS, ISS). As expected, the relationship of the StO2 between the INVOS neonatal sensor and OxiplexTS was linear (r2 = 0.999) with and without cover, but the cover influenced the linear equation: StO2_INVOS_cover = 1.133*StO2_ISS + 7.1 as opposed to StO2_INVOS_nocover = 1.103*StO2_ISS + 12.0. Furthermore, the hypoxic SafeBoosC III threshold differed as well: 60.3% with cover and 63.8% without cover. In conclusion, keeping the adhesive cover on an INVOS neonatal sensor results in lower measured values. At the hypoxic threshold, this is more than 3% (from 60.3% to 63.8%), and therefore, if clinicians keep the cover on the sensor, they need to be aware of this difference.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Encéfalo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Oximetria , Oxigênio
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1269: 131-136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Preterm infants have a high incidence of brain lesions that may lead to long-term disabilities. Early diagnosis of cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage may enable protection of the brain by prevention or neuroprotective treatment. Our recently developed time-domain near-infrared optical tomography (TD NIROT) system provides images to diagnose neonatal brain injury. Our aim is to study the image quality achievable from the TD NIROT signals perturbed by noise for two common cases: ischemia and hemorrhage. METHODS: We implemented simulations on a spherical model of diameter 60 mm representing a typical neonatal head where the absorption µa = 0.08 cm-1 and the reduced scattering µ's = 4.1 cm-1. Injury-mimicking spherical inclusions of various diameters (1 ~ 10 mm) were placed at depths of 10 ~ 20 mm in the ischemia case (2.5 × µa) and 14 ~ 30 mm for the hemorrhage case (50 × µa). TD data were generated from a large number of source-detector pairs, i.e., 208 detectors placed within a circle of diameter 40 mm on the surface surrounded by 18 sources. Up to 5% Gaussian noise was added in the simulations. 3D images were reconstructed with the modified Tikhonov minimization with the initial guess of a homogeneous phantom, and the images were evaluated by positional error and Dice similarity. RESULTS: The inclusions were localized correctly with low positional errors (<1 mm), and the segmented images share a high Dice similarity with the ground truth for both the ischemia and the hemorrhage case, even for tiny inclusions of 1 mm in deep tissue. The hemorrhage case with a high contrast tolerates a substantial level of noise even though the performance drops with higher noise as expected. CONCLUSIONS: The large amount of data provided by our novel TD NIROT system provides rich enough information for correctly locating hemorrhage and ischemia in the neonatal brain.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Tomografia Óptica , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Isquemia , Imagens de Fantasmas
11.
Sci Adv ; 7(17)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883128

RESUMO

Fermi surface is at the heart of our understanding of metals and strongly correlated many-body systems. An abrupt change in the Fermi surface topology, also called Lifshitz transition, can lead to the emergence of fascinating phenomena like colossal magnetoresistance and superconductivity. While Lifshitz transitions have been demonstrated for a broad range of materials by equilibrium tuning of macroscopic parameters such as strain, doping, pressure, and temperature, a nonequilibrium dynamical route toward ultrafast modification of the Fermi surface topology has not been experimentally demonstrated. Combining time-resolved multidimensional photoemission spectroscopy with state-of-the-art TDDFT+U simulations, we introduce a scheme for driving an ultrafast Lifshitz transition in the correlated type-II Weyl semimetal T d-MoTe2 We demonstrate that this nonequilibrium topological electronic transition finds its microscopic origin in the dynamical modification of the effective electronic correlations. These results shed light on a previously unexplored ultrafast scheme for controlling the Fermi surface topology in correlated quantum materials.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918735

RESUMO

Stem cells secrete paracrine factors including extracellular vesicles (EVs) which can mediate cellular communication and support the regeneration of injured tissues. Reduced oxygen (hypoxia) as a key regulator in development and regeneration may influence cellular communication via EVs. We asked whether hypoxic conditioning during human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) culture effects their EV quantity, quality or EV-based angiogenic potential. We produced iPSC-EVs from large-scale culture-conditioned media at 1%, 5% and 18% air oxygen using tangential flow filtration (TFF), with or without subsequent concentration by ultracentrifugation (TUCF). EVs were quantified by tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), characterized according to MISEV2018 guidelines, and analyzed for angiogenic potential. We observed superior EV recovery by TFF compared to TUCF. We confirmed hypoxia efficacy by HIF-1α stabilization and pimonidazole hypoxyprobe. EV quantity did not differ significantly at different oxygen conditions. Significantly elevated angiogenic potential was observed for iPSC-EVs derived from 1% oxygen culture by TFF or TUCF as compared to EVs obtained at higher oxygen or the corresponding EV-depleted soluble factor fractions. Data thus demonstrate that cell-culture oxygen conditions and mode of EV preparation affect iPSC-EV function. We conclude that selecting appropriate protocols will further improve production of particularly potent iPSC-EV-based therapeutics.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores , Hipóxia Celular , Autorrenovação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos
13.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(9): 1570-1581, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823285

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) is an antibody-drug conjugate targeting DLL3, an atypical Notch ligand expressed in SCLC tumors. We evaluated the efficacy of Rova-T versus placebo as maintenance therapy in patients with extensive-stage-SCLC after platinum-based chemotherapy. METHODS: MERU was a phase 3 randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Patients without disease progression after four cycles of platinum-based, front-line chemotherapy were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive 0.3 mg/kg Rova-T or placebo (every 6 wk, omitted every third cycle). Primary efficacy end points were progression-free survival (PFS) evaluated by the Central Radiographic Assessment Committee and overall survival (OS) in patients with DLL3-high tumors. RESULTS: Median age of all randomized patients (N = 748) was 64 years; 78% had TNM stage IV disease. At futility analysis of the subset with DLL3-high tumors, the hazard ratio for OS was 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.36) favoring the placebo arm, with median OS of 8.5 and 9.8 months in the Rova-T and placebo arms, respectively; futility criteria were met. Rova-T significantly improved PFS versus placebo by investigator assessment (4.0 versus 1.4 mo, hazard ratio = 0.48, p < 0.001). Any-grade adverse events (≥20%) in the Rova-T arm were pleural effusion (27%), decreased appetite (27%), peripheral edema (26%), photosensitivity reaction (25%), fatigue (25%), nausea (22%), and dyspnea (21%). CONCLUSIONS: Because of the lack of survival benefit in the Rova-T arm, the study did not meet its primary end point and was terminated early. As a result, the Central Radiographic Assessment Committee evaluation of PFS was not performed. The frequency of grade greater than or equal to 3 and drug-related toxicities were higher with Rova-T versus placebo. Rova-T was associated with unique toxicities, such as pleural and pericardial effusions, photosensitivity reaction, and peripheral edema, which should be carefully considered in the population with extensive-stage-SCLC.


Assuntos
Imunoconjugados , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinonas/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Platina/uso terapêutico
14.
Adv Mater ; 33(14): e2007398, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656190

RESUMO

The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a fundamental spintronic charge-to-charge-current conversion phenomenon and closely related to spin-to-charge-current conversion by the spin Hall effect. Future high-speed spintronic devices will crucially rely on such conversion phenomena at terahertz (THz) frequencies. Here, it is revealed that the AHE remains operative from DC up to 40 THz with a flat frequency response in thin films of three technologically relevant magnetic materials: DyCo5 , Co32 Fe68 , and Gd27 Fe73 . The frequency-dependent conductivity-tensor elements σxx and σyx  are measured, and good agreement with DC measurements is found. The experimental findings are fully consistent with ab initio calculations of σyx for CoFe and highlight the role of the large Drude scattering rate (≈100 THz) of metal thin films, which smears out any sharp spectral features of the THz AHE. Finally, it is found that the intrinsic contribution to the THz AHE dominates over the extrinsic mechanisms for the Co32 Fe68 sample. The results imply that the AHE and related effects such as the spin Hall effect are highly promising ingredients of future THz spintronic devices reliably operating from DC to 40 THz and beyond.

15.
Haematologica ; 106(4): 1086-1096, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538149

RESUMO

Pathogen reduction (PR) technologies for blood components have been established to reduce the residual risk of known and emerging infectious agents. THERAFLEX UVPlatelets, a novel UVC light-based PR technology for platelet concentrates, works without photoactive substances. This randomized, controlled, double-blind, multicenter, noninferiority trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of UVC-treated platelets to that of untreated platelets in thrombocytopenic patients with hematologic-oncologic diseases. Primary objective was to determine non-inferiority of UVC-treated platelets, assessed by the 1-hour corrected count increment (CCI) in up to eight per-protocol platelet transfusion episodes. Analysis of the 171 eligible patients showed that the defined non-inferiority margin of 30% of UVC-treated platelets was narrowly missed as the mean differences in 1-hour CCI between standard platelets versus UVC-treated platelets for intention-to-treat and perprotocol analyses were 18.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4%; 30.1) and 18.7% (95% CI: 6.3%; 31.1%), respectively. In comparison to the control, the UVC group had a 19.2% lower mean 24-hour CCI and was treated with an about 25% higher number of platelet units, but the average number of days to next platelet transfusion did not differ significantly between both treatment groups. The frequency of low-grade adverse events was slightly higher in the UVC group and the frequencies of refractoriness to platelet transfusion, platelet alloimmunization, severe bleeding events, and red blood cell transfusions were comparable between groups. Our study suggests that transfusion of pathogen-reduced platelets produced with the UVC technology is safe but non-inferiority was not demonstrated. (The German Clinical Trials Register number: DRKS00011156).


Assuntos
Doenças Hematológicas , Trombocitopenia , Plaquetas , Hemorragia , Humanos , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/terapia
17.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602057

RESUMO

Integrating animals into therapy is applied increasingly in patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS). This pilot study investigates the effect of animal presence on frontal brain activity in MCS patients compared to healthy subjects. O2HB, HHb and tHb of two MCS patients and two healthy adults was measured in frontal cortex using functional near-infrared spectroscopy during three sessions with a live animal and three sessions with a mechanical toy animal present. Each session had five phases: (1) baseline, (2) watching animal, (3) passive contact, (4) active contact, (5) neutral. Data were descriptively analysed. All participants showed the largest hemodynamic response during direct contact with the live or toy animal compared to "baseline" and "watching." During active contact, three of the four participants showed a stronger response when stroking the live compared to the toy animal. All participants showed an inverted signal with higher HHb than O2Hb concentrations while stroking the live or toy animal. Animal contact leads to a neurovascular reaction in both MCS patients and healthy subjects, indicating elevated neural activity in the frontal cortex. We conclude that while a toy animal can elicit attention processes, active contact to a living animal is combined with emotional processes.

18.
Eur J Neurosci ; 53(8): 2612-2628, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448503

RESUMO

The visual evoked potential (VEP) has been shown to reflect the size of the neural population activated by a processing mechanism selective to the temporal - and spatial luminance contrast property of a stimulus. We set out to better understand how the factors determining the neural response associated with these mechanisms. To do so we recorded the VEP from 14 healthy volunteers viewing two series of pattern reversing stimuli with identical temporal-and spatial luminance contrast properties. In one series the size of the elements increased towards the edge of the image, in the other it decreased. In the former element size was congruent with receptive field size across eccentricity, in the later it was incongruent. P100 amplitude to the incongruent series exceeded that obtained to the congruent series. Using electric dipoles due the excitatory neural response we accounted for this using dipole cancellation of electric dipoles of opposite polarity originating in supra- and infragranular layers of V1. The phasic neural response in granular lamina of V1 exhibited magnocellular characteristics, the neural response outside of the granular lamina exhibited parvocellular characteristics and was modulated by re-entrant projections. Using electric current density, we identified areas of the dorsal followed by areas of the ventral stream as the source of the re-entrant signal modulating infragranular activity. Our work demonstrates that the VEP does not signal reflect the overall level of a neural response but is the result of an interaction between electric dipoles originating from neural responses in different lamina of V1.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Córtex Visual , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Retina , Vias Visuais
19.
Adv Mater ; 33(9): e2006281, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506577

RESUMO

The efficient conversion of spin to charge transport and vice versa is of major relevance for the detection and generation of spin currents in spin-based electronics. Interfaces of heterostructures are known to have a marked impact on this process. Here, terahertz (THz) emission spectroscopy is used to study ultrafast spin-to-charge-current conversion (S2C) in about 50 prototypical F|N bilayers consisting of a ferromagnetic layer F (e.g., Ni81 Fe19 , Co, or Fe) and a nonmagnetic layer N with strong (Pt) or weak (Cu and Al) spin-orbit coupling. Varying the structure of the F/N interface leads to a drastic change in the amplitude and even inversion of the polarity of the THz charge current. Remarkably, when N is a material with small spin Hall angle, a dominant interface contribution to the ultrafast charge current is found. Its magnitude amounts to as much as about 20% of that found in the F|Pt reference sample. Symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations strongly suggest that the interfacial S2C arises from skew scattering of spin-polarized electrons at interface imperfections. The results highlight the potential of skew scattering for interfacial S2C and propose a promising route to enhanced S2C by tailored interfaces at all frequencies from DC to terahertz.

20.
Neurophotonics ; 8(1): 012101, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442557

RESUMO

The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the neurosciences has been expanding over the last 40 years. Today, it is addressing a wide range of applications within different populations and utilizes a great variety of experimental paradigms. With the rapid growth and the diversification of research methods, some inconsistencies are appearing in the way in which methods are presented, which can make the interpretation and replication of studies unnecessarily challenging. The Society for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy has thus been motivated to organize a representative (but not exhaustive) group of leaders in the field to build a consensus on the best practices for describing the methods utilized in fNIRS studies. Our paper has been designed to provide guidelines to help enhance the reliability, repeatability, and traceability of reported fNIRS studies and encourage best practices throughout the community. A checklist is provided to guide authors in the preparation of their manuscripts and to assist reviewers when evaluating fNIRS papers.

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