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1.
J Chem Phys ; 157(16): 164305, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319419

RESUMO

We have observed details of the internal motion and dissociation channels in photoexcited carbon disulfide (CS2) using time-resolved x-ray scattering (TRXS). Photoexcitation of gas-phase CS2 with a 200 nm laser pulse launches oscillatory bending and stretching motion, leading to dissociation of atomic sulfur in under a picosecond. During the first 300 fs following excitation, we observe significant changes in the vibrational frequency as well as some dissociation of the C-S bond, leading to atomic sulfur in the both 1D and 3P states. Beyond 1400 fs, the dissociation is consistent with primarily 3P atomic sulfur dissociation. This channel-resolved measurement of the dissociation time is based on our analysis of the time-windowed dissociation radial velocity distribution, which is measured using the temporal Fourier transform of the TRXS data aided by a Hough transform that extracts the slopes of linear features in an image. The relative strength of the two dissociation channels reflects both their branching ratio and differences in the spread of their dissociation times. Measuring the time-resolved dissociation radial velocity distribution aids the resolution of discrepancies between models for dissociation proposed by prior photoelectron spectroscopy work.

2.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 29(Pt 4): 957-968, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787561

RESUMO

The newly constructed time-resolved atomic, molecular and optical science instrument (TMO) is configured to take full advantage of both linear accelerators at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, the copper accelerator operating at a repetition rate of 120 Hz providing high per-pulse energy as well as the superconducting accelerator operating at a repetition rate of about 1 MHz providing high average intensity. Both accelerators power a soft X-ray free-electron laser with the new variable-gap undulator section. With this flexible light source, TMO supports many experimental techniques not previously available at LCLS and will have two X-ray beam focus spots in line. Thereby, TMO supports atomic, molecular and optical, strong-field and nonlinear science and will also host a designated new dynamic reaction microscope with a sub-micrometer X-ray focus spot. The flexible instrument design is optimized for studying ultrafast electronic and molecular phenomena and can take full advantage of the sub-femtosecond soft X-ray pulse generation program.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(25): 15416-15427, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707953

RESUMO

The structural dynamics of photoexcited gas-phase carbon disulfide (CS2) molecules are investigated using ultrafast electron diffraction. The dynamics were triggered by excitation of the optically bright 1B2(1Σu+) state by an ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulse centred at 200 nm. In accordance with previous studies, rapid vibrational motion facilitates a combination of internal conversion and intersystem crossing to lower-lying electronic states. Photodissociation via these electronic manifolds results in the production of CS fragments in the electronic ground state and dissociated singlet and triplet sulphur atoms. The structural dynamics are extracted from the experiment using a trajectory-fitting filtering approach, revealing the main characteristics of the singlet and triplet dissociation pathways. Finally, the effect of the time-resolution on the experimental signal is considered and an outlook to future experiments provided.

4.
Science ; 375(6578): 285-290, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990213

RESUMO

In quantum systems, coherent superpositions of electronic states evolve on ultrafast time scales (few femtoseconds to attoseconds; 1 attosecond = 0.001 femtoseconds = 10-18 seconds), leading to a time-dependent charge density. Here we performed time-resolved measurements using attosecond soft x-ray pulses produced by a free-electron laser, to track the evolution of a coherent core-hole excitation in nitric oxide. Using an additional circularly polarized infrared laser pulse, we created a clock to time-resolve the electron dynamics and demonstrated control of the coherent electron motion by tuning the photon energy of the x-ray pulse. Core-excited states offer a fundamental test bed for studying coherent electron dynamics in highly excited and strongly correlated matter.

5.
Annu Rev Phys Chem ; 73: 21-42, 2022 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724395

RESUMO

Photoexcited molecules convert light into chemical and mechanical energy through changes in electronic and nuclear structure that take place on femtosecond timescales. Gas phase ultrafast electron diffraction (GUED) is an ideal tool to probe the nuclear geometry evolution of the molecules and complements spectroscopic methods that are mostly sensitive to the electronic state. GUED is a weak and passive probing tool that does not alter the molecular properties during the probing process and is sensitive to the spatial distribution of charge in the molecule, including both electrons and nuclei. Improvements in temporal resolution have enabled GUED to capture coherent nuclear motions in molecules in the excited and ground electronic states with femtosecond and subangstrom resolution. Here we present the basic theory of GUED and explain what information is encoded in the diffraction signal, review how GUED has been used to observe coherent structural dynamics in recent experiments, and discuss the advantages and limitations of the method.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Gases
6.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770877

RESUMO

In this paper, we report X-ray absorption and core-level electron spectra of the nucleobase derivative 2-thiouracil at the sulfur L1- and L2,3-edges. We used soft X-rays from the free-electron laser FLASH2 for the excitation of isolated molecules and dispersed the outgoing electrons with a magnetic bottle spectrometer. We identified photoelectrons from the 2p core orbital, accompanied by an electron correlation satellite, as well as resonant and non-resonant Coster-Kronig and Auger-Meitner emission at the L1- and L2,3-edges, respectively. We used the electron yield to construct X-ray absorption spectra at the two edges. The experimental data obtained are put in the context of the literature currently available on sulfur core-level and 2-thiouracil spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Lasers , Enxofre/química , Tiouracila/química , Elétrons , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica
7.
Nature ; 596(7873): 531-535, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433948

RESUMO

Water is one of the most important, yet least understood, liquids in nature. Many anomalous properties of liquid water originate from its well-connected hydrogen bond network1, including unusually efficient vibrational energy redistribution and relaxation2. An accurate description of the ultrafast vibrational motion of water molecules is essential for understanding the nature of hydrogen bonds and many solution-phase chemical reactions. Most existing knowledge of vibrational relaxation in water is built upon ultrafast spectroscopy experiments2-7. However, these experiments cannot directly resolve the motion of the atomic positions and require difficult translation of spectral dynamics into hydrogen bond dynamics. Here, we measure the ultrafast structural response to the excitation of the OH stretching vibration in liquid water with femtosecond temporal and atomic spatial resolution using liquid ultrafast electron scattering. We observed a transient hydrogen bond contraction of roughly 0.04 Å on a timescale of 80 femtoseconds, followed by a thermalization on a timescale of approximately 1 picosecond. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the need to treat the distribution of the shared proton in the hydrogen bond quantum mechanically to capture the structural dynamics on femtosecond timescales. Our experiment and simulations unveil the intermolecular character of the water vibration preceding the relaxation of the OH stretch.

8.
Faraday Discuss ; 228(0): 555-570, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566045

RESUMO

We present the first investigation of excited state dynamics by resonant Auger-Meitner spectroscopy (also known as resonant Auger spectroscopy) using the nucleobase thymine as an example. Thymine is photoexcited in the UV and probed with X-ray photon energies at and below the oxygen K-edge. After initial photoexcitation to a ππ* excited state, thymine is known to undergo internal conversion to an nπ* excited state with a strong resonance at the oxygen K-edge, red-shifted from the ground state π* resonances of thymine (see our previous study Wolf, et al., Nat. Commun., 2017, 8, 29). We resolve and compare the Auger-Meitner electron spectra associated both with the excited state and ground state resonances, and distinguish participator and spectator decay contributions. Furthermore, we observe simultaneously with the decay of the nπ* state signatures the appearance of additional resonant Auger-Meitner contributions at photon energies between the nπ* state and the ground state resonances. We assign these contributions to population transfer from the nπ* state to a ππ* triplet state via intersystem crossing on the picosecond timescale based on simulations of the X-ray absorption spectra in the vibrationally hot triplet state. Moreover, we identify signatures from the initially excited ππ* singlet state which we have not observed in our previous study.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 505, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436816

RESUMO

Molecules can sequentially absorb multiple photons when irradiated by an intense X-ray pulse from a free-electron laser. If the time delay between two photoabsorption events can be determined, this enables pump-probe experiments with a single X-ray pulse, where the absorption of the first photon induces electronic and nuclear dynamics that are probed by the absorption of the second photon. Here we show a realization of such a single-pulse X-ray pump-probe scheme on N[Formula: see text] molecules, using the X-ray induced dissociation process as an internal clock that is read out via coincident detection of photoelectrons and fragment ions. By coincidence analysis of the kinetic energies of the ionic fragments and photoelectrons, the transition from a bound molecular dication to two isolated atomic ions is observed through the energy shift of the inner-shell electrons. Via ab-initio simulations, we are able to map characteristic features in the kinetic energy release and photoelectron spectrum to specific delay times between photoabsorptions. In contrast to previous studies where nuclear motions were typically revealed by measuring ion kinetics, our work shows that inner-shell photoelectron energies can also be sensitive probes of nuclear dynamics, which adds one more dimension to the study of light-matter interactions with X-ray pulses.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(2): 1308-1316, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367391

RESUMO

Electron scattering on liquid samples has been enabled recently by the development of ultrathin liquid sheet technologies. The data treatment of liquid-phase electron scattering has been mostly reliant on methodologies developed for gas electron diffraction, in which theoretical inputs and empirical fittings are often needed to account for the atomic form factor and remove the inelastic scattering background. In this work, we present an alternative data treatment method that is able to retrieve the radial distribution of all the charged particle pairs without the need of either theoretical inputs or empirical fittings. The merits of this new method are illustrated through the retrieval of real-space molecular structure from experimental electron scattering patterns of liquid water, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane.

11.
Commun Chem ; 4(1): 119, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697819

RESUMO

Short-wavelength free-electron lasers with their ultrashort pulses at high intensities have originated new approaches for tracking molecular dynamics from the vista of specific sites. X-ray pump X-ray probe schemes even allow to address individual atomic constituents with a 'trigger'-event that preludes the subsequent molecular dynamics while being able to selectively probe the evolving structure with a time-delayed second X-ray pulse. Here, we use a linearly polarized X-ray photon to trigger the photolysis of a prototypical chiral molecule, namely trifluoromethyloxirane (C3H3F3O), at the fluorine K-edge at around 700 eV. The created fluorine-containing fragments are then probed by a second, circularly polarized X-ray pulse of higher photon energy in order to investigate the chemically shifted inner-shell electrons of the ionic mother-fragment for their stereochemical sensitivity. We experimentally demonstrate and theoretically support how two-color X-ray pump X-ray probe experiments with polarization control enable XFELs as tools for chiral recognition.

12.
Science ; 368(6493): 885-889, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439793

RESUMO

Simultaneous observation of nuclear and electronic motion is crucial for a complete understanding of molecular dynamics in excited electronic states. It is challenging for a single experiment to independently follow both electronic and nuclear dynamics at the same time. Here we show that ultrafast electron diffraction can be used to simultaneously record both electronic and nuclear dynamics in isolated pyridine molecules, naturally disentangling the two components. Electronic state changes (S1→S0 internal conversion) were reflected by a strong transient signal in small-angle inelastic scattering, and nuclear structural changes (ring puckering) were monitored by large-angle elastic diffraction. Supported by ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics and diffraction simulations, our experiment provides a clear view of the interplay between electronic and nuclear dynamics of the photoexcited pyridine molecule.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(11): 113002, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242685

RESUMO

Intermolecular processes offer unique decay mechanisms for complex systems to internally relax. Here, we report the observation of an intermolecular Coulombic decay channel in an endohedral fullerene, a holmium nitride complex (Ho_{3}N) embedded within a C_{80} fullerene, between neighboring holmium ions, and between the holmium complex and the carbon cage. By measuring the ions and the electrons in coincidence after XUV photoabsorption, we can isolate the different decay channels, which are found to be more prevalent relative to intra-atomic Auger decay.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(5): 2704-2712, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793561

RESUMO

The recent demonstration of isolated attosecond pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) opens the possibility for probing ultrafast electron dynamics at X-ray wavelengths. An established experimental method for probing ultrafast dynamics is X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy, where the X-ray absorption spectrum is measured by scanning the central photon energy and recording the resultant photoproducts. The spectral bandwidth inherent to attosecond pulses is wide compared to the resonant features typically probed, which generally precludes the application of this technique in the attosecond regime. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a new technique to conduct transient absorption spectroscopy with broad bandwidth attosecond pulses with the aid of ghost imaging, recovering sub-bandwidth resolution in photoproduct-based absorption measurements.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(21): 6536-6544, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589459

RESUMO

The advent of ultrashort soft X-ray pulse sources permits the use of established gas-phase spectroscopy methods to investigate ultrafast photochemistry in isolated molecules with element and site specificity. In the present study, we simulate excited-state wavepacket dynamics of a prototypical process, the ultrafast photodissociation of methyl iodide. Using the simulation, we calculate time-dependent excited-state carbon edge photoelectron and Auger electron spectra. We observe distinct signatures in both types of spectra and show their direct connection to C-I bond dissociation and charge rearrangement processes in the molecule. We demonstrate at the CH3I molecule that the observed signatures allow us to map the time-dependent dynamics of ultrafast photoinduced bond breaking with unprecedented detail.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 151(10): 104308, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521092

RESUMO

We have investigated the ionization and fragmentation of a metallo-endohedral fullerene, Sc3N@C80, using ultrashort (10 fs) x-ray pulses. Following selective ionization of a Sc (1s) electron (hν = 4.55 keV), an Auger cascade leads predominantly to either a vibrationally cold multiply charged parent molecule or multifragmentation of the carbon cage following a phase transition. In contrast to previous studies, no intermediate regime of C2 evaporation from the carbon cage is observed. A time-delayed, hard x-ray pulse (hν = 5.0 keV) was used to attempt to probe the electron transfer dynamics between the encapsulated Sc species and the carbon cage. A small but significant change in the intensity of Sc-containing fragment ions and coincidence counts for a delay of 100 fs compared to 0 fs, as well as an increase in the yield of small carbon fragment ions, may be indicative of incomplete charge transfer from the carbon cage on the sub-100 fs time scale.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(32): 6897-6903, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319031

RESUMO

We studied the photoinduced ultrafast relaxation dynamics of the nucleobase thymine using gas-phase time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. By employing extreme ultraviolet pulses from high harmonic generation for photoionization, we substantially extend our spectral observation window with respect to previous studies. This enables us to follow relaxation of the excited state population all the way to low-lying electronic states including the ground state. In thymine, we observe relaxation from the optically bright 1ππ* state of thymine to a dark 1nπ* state within 80 ± 30 fs. The 1nπ* state relaxes further within 3.5 ± 0.3 ps to a low-lying electronic state. By comparison with quantum chemical simulations, we can unambiguously assign its spectroscopic signature to the 3ππ* state. Hence, our study draws a comprehensive picture of the relaxation mechanism of thymine including ultrafast intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold.

18.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 377(2145): 20170473, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929626

RESUMO

The conversion of light energy into other molecular energetic degrees of freedom is often dominated by ultrafast, non-adiabatic processes. Femtosecond spectroscopy with optical pulses has helped in shaping our understanding of crucial processes in molecular energy-conversion. The advent of new, ultrashort and bright X-ray free electron laser sources opens the possibility to use X-ray-typical element and site sensitivity for ultrafast molecular research. We present two types of spectroscopy, ultrafast Auger and ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and discuss their sensitivity to molecular processes. While Auger spectroscopy is able to monitor bond distance changes in the vicinity of an X-ray created core hole, near-edge absorption spectroscopy can deliver high-fidelity information on non-adiabatic transitions involving lone-pair orbitals. We demonstrate these features on the example of the UV-excited nucleobase thymine, investigated at the oxygen K-edge. We find a C-O bond elongation in the Auger data in addition to ππ*/ nπ* non-adiabatic transition in X-ray near-edge absorption. We compare the results from both methods and draw a conclusive scenario of non-adiabatic molecular relaxation after UV excitation. This article is part of the theme issue 'Measurement of ultrafast electronic and structural dynamics with X-rays'.

19.
Science ; 361(6397): 64-67, 2018 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976821

RESUMO

Conical intersections play a critical role in excited-state dynamics of polyatomic molecules because they govern the reaction pathways of many nonadiabatic processes. However, ultrafast probes have lacked sufficient spatial resolution to image wave-packet trajectories through these intersections directly. Here, we present the simultaneous experimental characterization of one-photon and two-photon excitation channels in isolated CF3I molecules using ultrafast gas-phase electron diffraction. In the two-photon channel, we have mapped out the real-space trajectories of a coherent nuclear wave packet, which bifurcates onto two potential energy surfaces when passing through a conical intersection. In the one-photon channel, we have resolved excitation of both the umbrella and the breathing vibrational modes in the CF3 fragment in multiple nuclear dimensions. These findings benchmark and validate ab initio nonadiabatic dynamics calculations.

20.
J Chem Phys ; 148(6): 064106, 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29448773

RESUMO

The high resolution near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum of nitrogen displays the vibrational structure of the core-excited states. This makes nitrogen well suited for assessing the accuracy of different electronic structure methods for core excitations. We report high resolution experimental measurements performed at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. These are compared with theoretical spectra calculated using coupled cluster theory and algebraic diagrammatic construction theory. The coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples model known as CC3 is shown to accurately reproduce the experimental excitation energies as well as the spacing of the vibrational transitions. The computational results are also shown to be systematically improved within the coupled cluster hierarchy, with the coupled cluster singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples method faithfully reproducing the experimental vibrational structure.

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