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1.
J Orthop Res ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401391

RESUMO

Reproduction of healthy wrist biomechanics should minimize the abnormal joint forces that could potentially result in the failure of a total wrist arthroplasty (TWA). To date, the in-vivo kinematics of TWA have not been measured and it is unknown if TWA preserves the healthy wrist kinematics. Therefore, the purpose of this in-vivo study was to determine the center of rotation (COR) for a current TWA design and to compare its location to the healthy wrist. The wrist COR for 6 patients with TWA and 10 healthy subjects were calculated using biplane videoradiography as the subjects performed various range-of-motion and functional tasks that included coupled wrist motions. An open-source registration software, Autoscoper, was used for model-based tracking and kinematics analysis. It was demonstrated that the COR was located near the centers of curvatures of the carpal component for the anatomical motions of flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation. When compared to healthy wrists, the COR of TWAs was located more distal in both pure radial deviation (p < 0.0001) and pure ulnar deviation (p = 0.07), while there was no difference in its location in pure flexion or extension (p = 0.99). Across all coupled motions, the TWA's COR shifted more than two times that of the healthy wrists in the proximal-distal direction (17.1 mm vs. 7.2 mm). We postulate that the mismatch in the COR location and behavior may be associated with increased loading of the TWA components, leading to an increase in the risk of component and/or interface failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Instr Course Lect ; 69: 317-330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017735

RESUMO

Scaphoid fractures are common and notorious for their troublesome healing. The aim of this review is to reevaluate the current best evidence for the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of scaphoid fractures and nonunions. MRI and CT are used to establish a "definitive diagnosis" with comparable diagnostic accuracy although neither is 100% specific. Current classifications cannot reliably predict union or outcomes; hence, a descriptive analysis of fracture location, type, and extent of displacement remains most useful. Treatment of a nondisplaced scaphoid waist fracture remains an individualized decision based on shared decision-making. Open reduction and internal fixation may be preferred when fracture displacement exceeds 1 mm, and the fracture is irreducible by closed or percutaneous means. For unstable nonunions with carpal instability, either non-vascularized cancellous graft with stable internal fixation or corticocancellous wedge grafts will provide a high rate of union and restoration of carpal alignment. For nonunions characterized with osteonecrosis of the proximal pole, vascularized bone grafting can achieve a higher rate of union.


Assuntos
Fraturas não Consolidadas , Osso Escafoide , Traumatismos do Punho , Transplante Ósseo , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos
3.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimizing axon count is essential for successful nerve transfer surgery, and a donor-to-recipient axon count ratio greater than 0.7:1 has been associated with improved outcomes. A gracilis free functioning muscle transfer (FFMT) is an option to restore elbow flexion, but its axon count has not been evaluated. Our aim was to quantify the axon count of the nerve to the gracilis muscle. METHODS: The nerve to the gracilis was dissected in 10 fresh frozen adult cadaveric hindquarter specimens (four females and six males). The length of the nerve to the gracilis was measured and a biopsy taken. A validated histologic preparation technique was utilized, and axons were counted. The mean length and axon counts were calculated. RESULTS: The average axon count in the nerve to the gracilis was 818 (range = 684-1,000, standard deviation [SD] = 116). The average length was 98 mm (range = 81-115 mm, SD = 13 mm). CONCLUSION: Our study found the average axon count in the nerve to the gracilis was 818. Prior literature suggests axon count ratio greater than 0.7:1 is associated with better clinical outcomes. Using data from prior studies, the spinal accessory, three intercostal, and two intercostal nerves are all sufficient for the transfer to the nerve to the gracilis with donor to recipient ratios of 1.7:1, 1.3:1, and 0.9:1, respectively.

4.
J Hand Surg Am ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948705

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of exploring the axillary nerve (AN) at the 6 o'clock position (blind spot) using the deltopectoral approach, with the interval lateral to the conjoint tendon (CJT) or combined with the axillary approach. METHODS: Four ANs were dissected combining the deltopectoral approach-medial to the CJ (A), the deltopectoral approach-lateral to the CJT (B) and the axillary approach (C) in 3 sequences: A-B-C, B-A-C, and C-B-A. After the first approach was completed, the proximal and distal margins were marked. Additional exposure with the second and third approaches and the 6 o'clock position were also marked. Then, the AN was excised and the amount of exposed nerve with the 3 approaches was measured. RESULTS: The deltopectoral approach-medial to the conjoint tendon did not allow exposure of the AN at the 6 o'clock position. Six o'clock position exposure was accomplished using the lateral interval of the deltopectoral and the axillary approaches. A deltopectoral approach lateral to the CJT allowed exploration of the AN at the blind spot, but not the terminal branches. The axillary approach was able to expose the AN at the 6 o'clock position, the terminal branches, but not the nerve-muscle junction. Combining the 3 approaches exposed 81% to 94% of the total length of the AN. CONCLUSIONS: The deltopectoral approach allowed visualization of the AN at the 6 o'clock position when explored lateral to the CJT. The axillary approach allowed visualization of the terminal branches of the AN and the 6 o'clock position of the glenoid. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The deltopectoral approach lateral to the conjoint tendon allows the surgeon to assess continuity of the AN at the 6-o'clock position and to perform a neurolysis. If nerve repair, nerve grafting, or nerve transfer is attempted, a combination of the 3 approaches could be used.

5.
Muscle Nerve ; 61(3): 301-310, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773766

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study we tested the hypothesis that fascicular constrictions (FCs) of the median nerve proximal to the elbow joint characterize anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS). METHODS: Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and ultrasound (US) examinations were evaluated in 45 patients with clinically suspected AINS. All 22 patients at site 1 underwent MRN and 8 underwent US; all 23 patients at site 2 underwent US. RESULTS: Median nerve FCs were identified in all MRN cases; FCs and/or fascicular enlargements were identified in 88% of US cases. Most FCs were in the mediannerve posterior/posteromedial region and were proximal to the elbow joint line (mean distance: MRN, 5.4 cm; US, 7.5 cm), with the exception of a single FC (located 1 cm distal). No extrinsic compression of median or anterior interosseous nerves was identified in the arm or forearm. DISCUSSION: AINS is a noncompressive neuropathy characterized by median nerve FCs in the arm.

6.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 45(3): 292-298, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847681

RESUMO

Various clinical tests are used to evaluate the palmaris longus tendon, but their accuracy is unknown. We assessed the accuracy of clinical tests (Schaeffer's, Thompson's, Mishra-I, Mishra-II) against ultrasound as the reference standard. We hypothesized that Schaeffer's was most accurate and that examination can reliably assess the palmaris longus tendon's length. Ninety-six wrists were examined clinically and evaluated with ultrasound by radiologists who were blinded to examination results. We calculated diagnostic accuracy and agreement between length measurements. Sensitivity values were as follows: Schaeffer's 94%, Mishra-I 100%, Mishra-II 100%, Thompson's 72%. Specificity values were as follows: Schaeffer's 94%, Mishra-I 83%, Mishra-II 89%, Thompson's 91%. Intraclass correlation coefficient between palmaris longus tendon length measurement on examination and ultrasound was 0.54. Schaeffer's test accurately detected this tendon with >90% sensitivity and specificity, but clinical examination less reliably measured palmaris longus tendon length. Ultrasound may be a useful adjunct to assess potential graft length preoperatively. Level of evidence: I.

7.
J Hand Ther ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757689

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort pilot study. BACKGROUND: Degenerative wrist arthritis leads to pain, loss of strength, mobility, function, and impairments in psychological well-being. Accurate assessment of functional limitations that are unique to the individual is essential for successful treatment that best meets those specific needs. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To identify and determine if self-identified functional limitations improve in patients who underwent surgery for degenerative wrist arthritis. METHODS: Patients with degenerative wrist arthritis who were scheduled for surgery were prospectively recruited (n = 14, mean age + SD = 42 + 16, 10 males, 4 females) into a pilot study that measured self-identified functional limitations and outcomes. Inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of scapholunate advanced collapse, scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse, scapholunate interosseous ligament tear, or Kienböck disease. Exclusion criteria included a history of neuromuscular disease or concomitant ipsilateral musculoskeletal injury. Data were collected during two 20-minute sessions, preoperatively and one year postoperatively, utilizing the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. RESULTS: All patients reported significant decreases (P < .001) in total pain (mean change = 17.6, SD = 8.5) and total disability (mean = 17.8, SD = 9.1) on the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation from presurgery to postsurgery, with a large effect size of d > 0.8. Patients also reported significant improvements (P < .001) in mean performance (mean = 3.5, SD = 1.5) and mean satisfaction (mean = 4.0, SD = 2.1) with self-identified activities on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, with an effect size of d > 0.8. CONCLUSION: Patients with degenerative wrist arthritis reported significant postoperative improvement in both performance and satisfaction in self-identified activities. Consideration of patient-specified goals can inform both patients and clinicians during the surgical decision-making process and allow for more individualized care.

8.
J Orthop Res ; 37(12): 2661-2670, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378991

RESUMO

The wrist can be considered a 2 degrees-of-freedom joint with all movements reflecting the combination of flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation. Wrist motions are accomplished by the kinematic reduction of the 42 degrees-of-freedom of the individual carpal bones. While previous studies have demonstrated the minimal motion of the scaphoid and lunate as the wrist moves along the dart-thrower's path or small relative motion between hamate-capitate-trapezoid, an understanding of the kinematics of the complete carpus across all wrist motions remains lacking. To address this, we assembled an open-source database of in vivo carpal motions and developed mathematical models of the carpal kinematics as a function of wrist motion. Quadratic surfaces were trained for each of the 42-carpal bone degrees-of-freedom and the goodness of fits were evaluated. Using the models, paths of wrist motion that generated minimal carpal rotations or translations were determined. Model predictions were best for flexion-extension, radial-ulnar deviation, and volar-dorsal translations for all carpal bones with R 2 > 0.8, while the estimates were least effective for supination-pronation with R 2 < 0.6. The wrist path of motion's analysis indicated that the distal row of carpal bones moves rigidly together (<3° motion), along the anatomical axis of wrist motion, while the bones in the proximal row undergo minimal motion when the wrist moves in a path oblique to the main axes. The open-source dataset along with its graphical user interface and mathematical models should facilitate clinical visualization and enable new studies of carpal kinematics and function. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 37:2661-2670, 2019.


Assuntos
Ossos do Carpo/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ossos do Carpo/anatomia & histologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Movimento (Física)
9.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(15): 1388-1396, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated injuries of the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) are insufficient to produce dorsal intercalated segment instability. There is no consensus about which additional ligamentous stabilizers are critical determinants of dorsal intercalated segment instability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the long radiolunate (LRL), scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT), and dorsal intercarpal (DIC) ligaments in preventing dorsal intercalated segment instability. METHODS: Thirty fresh-frozen forearms were randomized to 5 ligament section sequences to study the SLIL, LRL, STT, and DIC ligaments. The DIC-lunate insertion (DIC) and scaphoid insertion (DIC) were studied separately; the DIC insertions on the trapezium and triquetrum were left intact. Loaded posteroanterior and lateral fluoroscopic images were obtained at baseline and repeated after each ligament was sectioned. After each sequence, the wrists were loaded cyclically (71 N). The radiolunate angle was measured with load. Dorsal intercalated segment instability was defined as an increase of >15° in the radiolunate angle compared with baseline. RESULTS: Division of the SLIL did not increase the radiolunate angle. Section of the SLIL+LRL or SLIL+DIC significantly increased the radiolunate angle but did not produce dorsal intercalated segment instability. Section of the SLIL+STT or SLIL+DIC+DIC produced dorsal intercalated segment instability. CONCLUSIONS: In order to produce dorsal intercalated segment instability, complete scapholunate injuries require the disruption of at least 1 critical ligament stabilizer of the scaphoid or lunate (the STT or DIC+DIC). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: When treating SLIL tears with dorsal intercalated segment instability, techniques to evaluate the volar and dorsal critical stabilizers of the proximal carpal row should be considered.


Assuntos
Ossos do Carpo/anatomia & histologia , Articulações do Carpo/cirurgia , Fixadores Internos , Instabilidade Articular/prevenção & controle , Ligamentos Articulares/lesões , Ligamentos Articulares/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Dissecação , Humanos , Osso Semilunar/anatomia & histologia , Osso Semilunar/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Osso Escafoide/anatomia & histologia , Osso Escafoide/cirurgia , Articulação do Punho/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hand Clin ; 35(3): 323-344, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178090

RESUMO

Many hand surgeons argue that vascularized bone grafting is indicated in proximal pole avascular necrosis, prior failed surgery, or long-standing scaphoid nonunion. However, the available evidence does not support improved treatment outcomes for vascularized bone grafting rather than traditional nonvascularized techniques. This article addresses the available evidence and examines the role of vascularized bone grafting in scaphoid nonunion treatment. It also identifies important factors that influence healing, clarifies the decision-making algorithm, and proposes areas for further research.


Assuntos
Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Osso Escafoide/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas não Consolidadas/cirurgia , Humanos , Osso Escafoide/lesões
11.
J Wrist Surg ; 8(3): 186-191, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192038

RESUMO

Background Dorsal translation of the proximal scaphoid pole onto the rim of the distal radius is a late finding associated with chronic scapholunate instability. Dorsal scaphoid translation (DST) has been identified by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with scapholunate dissociation (SLD). Purpose The authors proposed to determine whether DST can be reliably detected on radiographs using two different measurement techniques. Patients and Methods Lateral radiographs of 20 patients with operatively confirmed SLD were compared with 20 uninjured patients in blinded assessment. DST was assessed using the concentric circle and dorsal tangential line methods. Reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC) values. Results Using both techniques, the scaphoid demonstrated increased dorsal translation in patients with SLD. Inter-rater reliabilities for the concentric circles and dorsal tangential line method on radiographs had ICCs > 0.80. Similarly, intra-rater reliabilities had ICCs > 0.90. Conclusions Both the concentric circles and dorsal tangential line techniques had excellent reliabilities, but the dorsal tangential line method is clinically more practical. Type of Study/Level of Evidence This is a Level III, diagnostic study.

12.
J Biomech ; 92: 120-125, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174845

RESUMO

Accurately assessing the dynamic kinematics of the skeletal wrist could advance our understanding of the normal and pathological wrist. Biplane videoradiography (BVR) has allowed investigators to study dynamic activities in the knee, hip, and shoulder joint; however, currently, BVR has not been utilized for the wrist joint because of the challenges associated with imaging multiple overlapping bones. Therefore, our aim was to develop a BVR procedure and to quantify its accuracy for evaluation of wrist kinematics. BVR was performed on six cadaveric forearms for one neutral static and six dynamic tasks, including flexion-extension, radial-ulnar deviation, circumduction, pronation, supination, and hammering. Optical motion capture (OMC) served as the gold standard for assessing accuracy. We propose a feedforward tracking methodology, which uses a combined model of metacarpals (second and third) for initialization of the third metacarpal (MC3). BVR-calculated kinematic parameters were found to be consistent with the OMC-calculated parameters, and the BVR/OMC agreement had submillimeter and sub-degree biases in tracking individual bones as well as the overall joint's rotation and translation. All dynamic tasks (except pronation task) showed a limit of agreement within 1.5° for overall rotation, and within 1.3 mm for overall translations. Pronation task had a 2.1° and 1.4 mm limit of agreement for rotation and translation measurement. The poorest precision was achieved in calculating the pronation-supination angle, and radial-ulnar and volar-dorsal translational components, although they were sub-degree and submillimeter. The methodology described herein may assist those interested in examining the complexities of skeletal wrist function during dynamic tasks.

13.
Muscle Nerve ; 59(6): 707-711, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847944

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brachial plexus trauma related to gunshot (GS) injury requires early examination and characterization to ensure appropriate treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be contraindicated when there are metal fragments in a patient's body. Ultrasound (US) may present an alternative to imaging GS-related brachial plexus injury. METHODS: Three patients with GS-related brachial plexus injury who underwent US imaging evaluation at our institution were identified. A retrospective review of the patients' medical records was performed. RESULTS: US characterization of nerve abnormalities after GS injury to the brachial plexus was in agreement with electrodiagnostic and intraoperative findings. DISCUSSION: Information from the US reports was useful in preparation for brachial plexus reconstruction surgery. As such, US has unique utility when MRI cannot be performed. US imaging can provide useful characterization of the brachial plexus after GS injury when performed by an experienced operator. Muscle Nerve 59:707-711, 2019.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Plexo Braquial/lesões , Plexo Braquial/fisiopatologia , Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Neurite do Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurite do Plexo Braquial/etiologia , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/etiologia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroma/etiologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/complicações , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/complicações , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Biomech Eng ; 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729978

RESUMO

Total Wrist Arthroplasty (TWA) for improving the functionality of severe wrist joint pathology has not had the same success, in parameters such as motion restoration and implant survival, as hip, knee, and shoulder arthroplasty. These other arthroplasties have been studied extensively, including the use of biplane videoradiography (BVR) that has allowed investigators to study the in-vivo motion of the total joint replacement during dynamic activities. The wrist has not been a previous focus, and utilization of BVR for wrist arthroplasty presents unique challenges due to the design characteristics of TWAs. Accordingly, the aims of this study were 1) to develop a methodology for generating TWA component models for use in BVR, and 2) to evaluate the accuracy of model-image registration in a single cadaveric model. A model of the carpal component was constructed from a CT scan, and a model of the radial component was generated from a surface scanner. BVR was acquired for three anatomical tasks from a cadaver specimen. Optical motion capture was used as the gold standard. BVR's bias in flexion/extension, radial/ulnar deviation, and pronosupination was less than 0.3°, 0.5°, and 0.6°. Translation bias was less than 0.2 mm with a standard deviation of less than 0.4 mm. This BVR technique achieved a kinematic accuracy comparable to previous studies on other total joint replacements. BVR's application to the study of TWA function in patients could advance the understanding of TWA and thus the implant's success.

15.
J Hand Surg Am ; 44(6): 473-479, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether the location of distal radius osteotomy/shortening relative to the radial insertion of the distal interosseous membrane (DIOM) is correlated with distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. We hypothesized that distal radius osteotomy and shortening proximal to the DIOM insertion would result in increased DRUJ instability because of induced laxity in the DIOM. METHODS: Osteotomies of the distal radius were performed proximal and distal to the DIOM insertion in 14 fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens. Using a volar plate, 5 conditions were tested: anatomical radius alignment; 2- and 4-mm shortening at the proximal osteotomy site; and 2- and 4-mm shortening at the distal osteotomy site. Basilar ulnar styloid osteotomy was performed to simulate triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) detachment-specimens were tested with the ulnar styloid detached and the ulnar styloid fixed (to restore normal anatomy). The DRUJ stability was quantified using dorsal-volar displacement of the radius in response to 20 N of force using a force-displacement probe in neutral, pronation, and supination. Posttesting specimen dissections assessed DIOM and distal oblique bundle (DOB) anatomy. The DRUJ stability in each experimental condition was compared with a multifactor repeated measures analysis of variance with the specimen treated as the repeated factor. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in dorsal-volar translation of the radius (ie, DRUJ stability) between radial osteotomy/shortening proximal and distal to the DIOM insertion, regardless of forearm rotational position or magnitude of shortening. Five (36%) of the 14 specimens had a DOB present. There was a significant increase in DRUJ instability in the setting of TFCC detachment (via basilar ulnar styloid osteotomy). CONCLUSIONS: No difference in DRUJ stability was observed between distal radius osteotomy/shortening proximal and distal to the DIOM radial insertion, regardless of forearm rotation, magnitude of shortening, and/or TFCC detachment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Distal radius osteotomy and shortening did not affect DRUJ stability regardless of location relative to the DIOM insertion.

16.
J Hand Surg Am ; 44(8): 700.e1-700.e9, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502013

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury using a novel polyglycolic acid (PGA) conduit, which contains collagen fibers within the tube, as compared with both a hollow collagen conduit and nerve autograft. We hypothesize that a conduit with a scaffold will provide improved nerve regeneration over hollow conduits and demonstrate no significant differences when compared with autograft. METHODS: A total of 72 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 experimental groups, in which a unilateral 10-mm sciatic defect was repaired using either nerve autograft, a hollow collagen conduit, or a PGA collagen-filled conduit. Outcomes were measured at 12 and 16 weeks after surgery, and included bilateral tibialis anterior muscle weight, voltage and force maximal contractility, assessment of ankle contracture, and nerve histology. RESULTS: In all groups, outcomes improved between 12 and 16 weeks. On average, the autograft group outperformed both conduit groups, and the hollow conduit demonstrated improved outcomes when compared with the PGA collagen-filled conduit. Differences in contractile force, however, were significant only at 12 weeks (autograft > hollow collagen conduit > PGA collagen-filled conduit). At 16 weeks, contractile force demonstrated no significant difference but corroborated the same absolute results (autograft > hollow collagen conduit > PGA collagen-filled conduit). CONCLUSIONS: Nerve repair using autograft provided superior motor nerve recovery over the 2 conduits for a 10-mm nerve gap in a murine acute transection injury model. The hollow collagen conduit demonstrated superior results when compared with the PGA collagen-filled conduit. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of a hollow collagen conduit provides superior motor nerve recovery as compared with a PGA collagen-filled conduit.

17.
Muscle Nerve ; 59(2): 247-249, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgical arthroscopic decompression or ultrasound-guided aspiration of a paralabral cyst would result in suprascapular nerve recovery from axonal regeneration based on electrodiagnostic testing. METHODS: Nine patients with preoperative electromyography (EMG) evidence of suprascapular neuropathy due to paralabral cysts at the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch were prospectively studied. Eight patients underwent arthroscopic surgical decompression, and 1 patient underwent ultrasound-guided aspiration. Postoperative EMG was performed in all patients to evaluate nerve regeneration. RESULTS: Three (33%) patients had cysts at the suprascapular notch, whereas 6 (67%) patients had cysts at the spinoglenoid notch. All patients showed complete electrophysiological recovery after decompression. DISCUSSION: Decompression of paralabral cysts at the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch resulted in postoperative EMG evidence of nerve recovery. Long-term studies with a greater number of patients are required to elucidate time to recovery. Muscle Nerve 59:247-249, 2019.


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Eletromiografia , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/cirurgia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Cistos/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ombro/inervação , Articulação do Ombro , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
18.
J Wrist Surg ; 7(5): 358-365, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349747

RESUMO

Purpose CAGE-DR implant is a novel Food and Drug Administration approved intramedullary fracture fixation device used for distal radius fractures. We examine a series of 22 patients and report the outcomes with this device. Materials and Methods A total of 24 patients with distal radius fractures (8 articular AO type C1/C2; 16 extra-articular AO type A2/A3) underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using CAGE-DR implant by a single surgeon. Data including fracture type, angle of displacement, radiographic consolidation, grip strength, wrist range of motion (ROM), patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were recorded at time of surgery and at standard follow-up. Results All 24 patients underwent uneventful ORIF. At first follow-up visit (9 days), all patients had full digital ROM (measured as 0 cm tip-to-palm distance). Two patients were lost to follow-up. Eighteen of the remaining 22 patients had sufficient radiographic follow-up and all 18 demonstrated healing. At latest follow-up (mean 9.7 months, range, 3-20), VAS pain scores averaged 0.6 (range, 0-8) and PRWE averaged 12.1 (range, 0-53.5). Grip strength of the operated hand averaged 58 lbs (range, 20-130). ROM included: wrist flexion 73° (50-95), wrist extension 78° (60-110), pronation 77° (60-90), supination 79° (60-90), ulnar deviation 31° (5-45), and radial deviation 17° (10-30). Three patients underwent screw removal to prevent tendon irritation. One patient underwent hardware removal due to prominence on imaging but was asymptomatic. There were otherwise no major complications, including complex regional pain syndrome, in the series to date. Conclusion The CAGE-DR fracture fixation system is a promising alternative to established methods of distal radius internal fixation. This series has a low reported pain score starting immediately postoperatively and a low complication rate. This novel device is a promising option for internal fixation of displaced distal radius fractures with a low complication profile. Level of Evidence This is a level IV, therapeutic study.

19.
J Wrist Surg ; 7(5): 419-423, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349757

RESUMO

Background Isolated capitate nonunion is rare. No consensus on the appropriate treatment for this condition exists. Case Description We reported two cases of capitate fracture nonunion presenting several months after untreated high-impact wrist trauma. Treatment was delayed as both patients' nonunions were missed on conventional radiographs. Both were ultimately diagnosed with advanced imaging and successfully treated with internal fixation and autogenous bone grafting. The relevant literature pertaining to capitate nonunion was reviewed. Literature Review Immobilization and internal fixation with bone grafting for capitate nonunion have been described in the literature. Loss of vascular supply and progression to avascular necrosis is a concern after capitate nonunion. Clinical Relevance We present two cases and review the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of this rare injury to guide management. Internal fixation with autogenous bone grafting could play a role in management for this rare condition.

20.
Pediatr Neurol ; 88: 25-30, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid myelitis is associated with enterovirus D68 -induced inflammation and destruction of cervical anterior horn cells. To date, no medical intervention has altered the disease course. METHODS: We report two pediatric patients who were treated with nerve transfer in three limbs with sustained upper extremity neuropathy. Postoperative outcomes included muscle strength, graded on the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) scale, range of motion, and electromyography. RESULTS: Two years postoperatively, Patient 1 had improved elbow flexion to BMRC grade 4+, 125° of flexion, and discrete to decreased motor unit recruitment in targeted muscles. Twenty-one months postoperatively, Patient 2 demonstrated right brachialis flexion to BMRC grade 4+/5 and deltoid firing with simultaneous pectoralis major recruitment, and limited but active flexor digitorum profundus flexion. CONCLUSIONS: Both patients continue to demonstrate functional recovery two years postoperatively. These outcomes suggest a promising reconstructive technique for this emerging and devastating viral endemic.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano D/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterovirus/complicações , Mielite/etiologia , Mielite/cirurgia , Mielite/virologia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Paraplegia/etiologia , Paraplegia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem
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