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1.
Elife ; 82019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268418

RESUMO

We perform a comprehensive integrative analysis of multiple structural MR-based brain features and find for the first-time strong evidence relating inter-individual brain structural variations to a wide range of demographic and behavioral variates across a large cohort of young healthy human volunteers. Our analyses reveal that a robust 'positive-negative' spectrum of behavioral and demographic variates, recently associated to covariation in brain function, can already be identified using only structural features, highlighting the importance of careful integration of structural features in any analysis of inter-individual differences in functional connectivity and downstream associations with behavioral/demographic variates.

2.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 104: 240-254, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330196

RESUMO

Pattern classification and stratification approaches have increasingly been used in research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) over the last ten years with the goal of translation towards clinical applicability. Here, we present an extensive scoping literature review on those two approaches. We screened a total of 635 studies, of which 57 pattern classification and 19 stratification studies were included. We observed large variance across pattern classification studies in terms of predictive performance from about 60% to 98% accuracy, which is among other factors likely linked to sampling bias, different validation procedures across studies, the heterogeneity of ASD and differences in data quality. Stratification studies were less prevalent with only two studies reporting replications and just a few showing external validation. While some identified strata based on cognition and intelligence reappear across studies, biology as a stratification marker is clearly underexplored. In summary, mapping biological differences at the level of the individual with ASD is a major challenge for the field now. Conceptualizing those mappings and individual trajectories that lead to the diagnosis of ASD, will become a major challenge in the near future.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201374

RESUMO

Normative models are a class of emerging statistical techniques useful for understanding the heterogeneous biology underlying psychiatric disorders at the level of the individual participant. Analogous to normative growth charts used in paediatric medicine for plotting child development in terms of height or weight as a function of age, normative models chart variation in clinical cohorts in terms of mappings between quantitative biological measures and clinically relevant variables. An emerging body of literature has demonstrated that such techniques are excellent tools for parsing the heterogeneity in clinical cohorts by providing statistical inferences at the level of the individual participant with respect to the normative range. Here, we provide a unifying review of the theory and application of normative modelling for understanding the biological and clinical heterogeneity underlying mental disorders. We first provide a statistically grounded yet non-technical overview of the conceptual underpinnings of normative modelling and propose a conceptual framework to link the many different methodological approaches that have been proposed for this purpose. We survey the literature employing these techniques, focusing principally on applications of normative modelling to quantitative neuroimaging-based biomarkers in psychiatry and, finally, we provide methodological considerations and recommendations to guide future applications of these techniques. We show that normative modelling provides a means by which the importance of modelling individual differences can be brought from theory to concrete data analysis procedures for understanding heterogeneous mental disorders and ultimately a promising route towards precision medicine in psychiatry.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243327

RESUMO

A correction to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

5.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(7): 531-542, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies show structural alterations of various brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although nonreplications are frequent. The authors sought to identify cortical characteristics related to ADHD using large-scale studies. METHODS: Cortical thickness and surface area (based on the Desikan-Killiany atlas) were compared between case subjects with ADHD (N=2,246) and control subjects (N=1,934) for children, adolescents, and adults separately in ENIGMA-ADHD, a consortium of 36 centers. To assess familial effects on cortical measures, case subjects, unaffected siblings, and control subjects in the NeuroIMAGE study (N=506) were compared. Associations of the attention scale from the Child Behavior Checklist with cortical measures were determined in a pediatric population sample (Generation-R, N=2,707). RESULTS: In the ENIGMA-ADHD sample, lower surface area values were found in children with ADHD, mainly in frontal, cingulate, and temporal regions; the largest significant effect was for total surface area (Cohen's d=-0.21). Fusiform gyrus and temporal pole cortical thickness was also lower in children with ADHD. Neither surface area nor thickness differences were found in the adolescent or adult groups. Familial effects were seen for surface area in several regions. In an overlapping set of regions, surface area, but not thickness, was associated with attention problems in the Generation-R sample. CONCLUSIONS: Subtle differences in cortical surface area are widespread in children but not adolescents and adults with ADHD, confirming involvement of the frontal cortex and highlighting regions deserving further attention. Notably, the alterations behave like endophenotypes in families and are linked to ADHD symptoms in the population, extending evidence that ADHD behaves as a continuous trait in the population. Future longitudinal studies should clarify individual lifespan trajectories that lead to nonsignificant findings in adolescent and adult groups despite the presence of an ADHD diagnosis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neuroanatomical basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has remained elusive, mostly owing to high biological and clinical heterogeneity among diagnosed individuals. Despite considerable effort toward understanding ASD using neuroimaging biomarkers, heterogeneity remains a barrier, partly because studies mostly employ case-control approaches, which assume that the clinical group is homogeneous. METHODS: Here, we used an innovative normative modeling approach to parse biological heterogeneity in ASD. We aimed to dissect the neuroanatomy of ASD by mapping the deviations from a typical pattern of neuroanatomical development at the level of the individual and to show the necessity to look beyond the case-control paradigm to understand the neurobiology of ASD. We first estimated a vertexwise normative model of cortical thickness development using Gaussian process regression, then mapped the deviation of each participant from the typical pattern. For this, we employed a heterogeneous cross-sectional sample of 206 typically developing individuals (127 males) and 321 individuals with ASD (232 males) (6-31 years of age). RESULTS: We found few case-control differences, but the ASD cohort showed highly individualized patterns of deviations in cortical thickness that were widespread across the brain. These deviations correlated with severity of repetitive behaviors and social communicative symptoms, although only repetitive behaviors survived corrections for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Our results 1) reinforce the notion that individuals with ASD show distinct, highly individualized trajectories of brain development and 2) show that by focusing on common effects (i.e., the "average ASD participant"), the case-control approach disguises considerable interindividual variation crucial for precision medicine.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present paper presents a fundamentally novel approach to model individual differences of persons with the same biologically heterogeneous mental disorder. Unlike prevalent case-control analyses, that assume a clear distinction between patient and control groups and thereby introducing the concept of an 'average patient', we describe each patient's biology individually, gaining insights into the different facets that characterize persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Using a normative modeling approach, we mapped inter-individual differences in reference to normative structural brain changes across the lifespan to examine the degree to which case-control analyses disguise differences between individuals. RESULTS: At the level of the individual, deviations from the normative model were frequent in persistent ADHD. However, the overlap of more than 2% between participants with ADHD was only observed in few brain loci. On average, participants with ADHD showed significantly reduced gray matter in the cerebellum and hippocampus compared to healthy individuals. While the case-control differences were in line with the literature on ADHD, individuals with ADHD only marginally reflected these group differences. CONCLUSIONS: Case-control comparisons, disguise inter-individual differences in brain biology in individuals with persistent ADHD. The present results show that the 'average ADHD patient' has limited informative value, providing the first evidence for the necessity to explore different biological facets of ADHD at the level of the individual and practical means to achieve this end.

8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 12, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664633

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by numerous subtle changes in brain structure and function. Machine learning allows exploring the utility of combining structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures for diagnostic application, but this approach has been hampered by sample size limitations and lack of differential diagnostic data. Here, we performed a multi-site machine learning analysis to explore brain structural patterns of T1 MRI data in 2668 individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, and healthy controls. We found reproducible changes of structural parameters in schizophrenia that yielded a classification accuracy of up to 76% and provided discrimination from ADHD, through it lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. The observed changes largely indexed distributed grey matter alterations that could be represented through a combination of several global brain-structural parameters. This multi-site machine learning study identified a brain-structural signature that could reproducibly differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls, but lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. While this currently limits the clinical utility of the identified signature, the present study highlights that the underlying alterations index substantial global grey matter changes in psychotic disorders, reflecting the biological similarity of these conditions, and provide a roadmap for future exploration of brain structural alterations in psychiatric patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
9.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(11): 1146-1155, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304337

RESUMO

Importance: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe and complex brain disorders characterized by substantial clinical and biological heterogeneity. However, case-control studies often ignore such heterogeneity through their focus on the average patient, which may be the core reason for a lack of robust biomarkers indicative of an individual's treatment response and outcome. Objectives: To investigate the degree to which case-control analyses disguise interindividual differences in brain structure among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and to map the brain alterations linked to these disorders at the level of individual patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used cross-sectional, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data from participants recruited for the Thematically Organized Psychosis study from October 27, 2004, to October 17, 2012. Data were reanalyzed in 2017 and 2018. Patients were recruited from inpatient and outpatient clinics in the Oslo area of Norway, and healthy individuals from the same catchment area were drawn from the national population registry. Main Outcomes and Measures: Interindividual differences in brain structure among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Voxel-based morphometry maps were computed, which were used for normative modeling to map the range of interindividual differences in brain structure. Results: This study included 218 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (mean [SD] age, 30 [9.3] years; 126 [57.8%] male), of whom 163 had schizophrenia (mean [SD] age, 31 [8.7] years; 105 [64.4%] male) and 190 had bipolar disorder (mean [SD] age, 34 [11.3] years; 79 [41.6%] male), and 256 healthy individuals (mean [SD] age, 34 [9.5] years; 140 [54.7%] male). At the level of the individual, deviations from the normative model were frequent in both disorders but highly heterogeneous. Overlap of more than 2% among patients was observed in only a few loci, primarily in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar regions. The proportion of alterations was associated with diagnosis and cognitive and clinical characteristics within clinical groups. Patients with schizophrenia, on average, had significantly reduced gray matter in frontal regions, cerebellum, and temporal cortex. In patients with bipolar disorder, mean deviations were primarily present in cerebellar regions. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that group-level differences disguised biological heterogeneity and interindividual differences among patients with the same diagnosis. This finding suggests that the idea of the average patient is a noninformative construct in psychiatry that falls apart when mapping abnormalities at the level of the individual patient. This study presents a workable route toward precision medicine in psychiatry.

10.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 42(6): 386-394, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is biologically heterogeneous, with different biological predispositions - mediated through developmental processes - converging upon a common clinical phenotype. Brain imaging studies have variably shown altered brain structure, activity and connectivity in children and adults with ADHD. Recent methodological developments allow for the integration of information across imaging modalities, potentially yielding a more coherent view regarding the biology underlying the disorder. METHODS: We analyzed a sample of adults with persistent ADHD and healthy controls using an advanced multimodal linked independent component analysis approach. Diffusion and structural MRI data were fused to form imaging markers reflecting independent components that explain variation across modalities. We included these markers as predictors into logistic regression models on adult ADHD and put those into context with predictions of estimated intelligence, age and sex. RESULTS: We included 87 adults with ADHD and 93 controls in our analysis. Participants' courses associated with all imaging markers explained 27.86% of the variance in adult ADHD. No single imaging modality dominated this result. Instead, it was explained by aggregation of relatively small effects across several modalities and markers. One of the top markers for adult ADHD was multimodal and linked to morphological and microstructural effects within anterior temporal brain regions; another was linked to cortical thickness. Several markers were also influenced by estimated intelligence, age and/or sex. LIMITATIONS: Although complex analytical approaches, such as the one applied here, provide insight into otherwise hidden mechanisms, they also increase the complexity of interpretations. CONCLUSION: No dominant imaging modality or marker characterizes structural brain phenotypes in adults with ADHD, but we can refine our characterization of the disorder by the integration of small effects across modalities.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Inteligência , Modelos Logísticos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Tamanho do Órgão , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 4(4): 310-319, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28219628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional mega-analysis, we used the data from the international ENIGMA Working Group collaboration, which in the present analysis was frozen at Feb 8, 2015. Individual sites analysed structural T1-weighted MRI brain scans with harmonised protocols of individuals with ADHD compared with those who do not have this diagnosis. Our primary outcome was to assess case-control differences in subcortical structures and intracranial volume through pooling of all individual data from all cohorts in this collaboration. For this analysis, p values were significant at the false discovery rate corrected threshold of p=0·0156. FINDINGS: Our sample comprised 1713 participants with ADHD and 1529 controls from 23 sites with a median age of 14 years (range 4-63 years). The volumes of the accumbens (Cohen's d=-0·15), amygdala (d=-0·19), caudate (d=-0·11), hippocampus (d=-0·11), putamen (d=-0·14), and intracranial volume (d=-0·10) were smaller in individuals with ADHD compared with controls in the mega-analysis. There was no difference in volume size in the pallidum (p=0·95) and thalamus (p=0·39) between people with ADHD and controls. Exploratory lifespan modelling suggested a delay of maturation and a delay of degeneration, as effect sizes were highest in most subgroups of children (<15 years) versus adults (>21 years): in the accumbens (Cohen's d=-0·19 vs -0·10), amygdala (d=-0·18 vs -0·14), caudate (d=-0·13 vs -0·07), hippocampus (d=-0·12 vs -0·06), putamen (d=-0·18 vs -0·08), and intracranial volume (d=-0·14 vs 0·01). There was no difference between children and adults for the pallidum (p=0·79) or thalamus (p=0·89). Case-control differences in adults were non-significant (all p>0·03). Psychostimulant medication use (all p>0·15) or symptom scores (all p>0·02) did not influence results, nor did the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders (all p>0·5). INTERPRETATION: With the largest dataset to date, we add new knowledge about bilateral amygdala, accumbens, and hippocampus reductions in ADHD. We extend the brain maturation delay theory for ADHD to include subcortical structures and refute medication effects on brain volume suggested by earlier meta-analyses. Lifespan analyses suggest that, in the absence of well powered longitudinal studies, the ENIGMA cross-sectional sample across six decades of ages provides a means to generate hypotheses about lifespan trajectories in brain phenotypes. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.

12.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 80: 115-155, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28159610

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and often persistent neurodevelopmental disorder. Beyond gene-finding, neurobiological parameters, such as brain structure, connectivity, and function, have been used to link genetic variation to ADHD symptomatology. We performed a systematic review of brain imaging genetics studies involving 62 ADHD candidate genes in childhood and adult ADHD cohorts. Fifty-one eligible research articles described studies of 13 ADHD candidate genes. Almost exclusively, single genetic variants were studied, mostly focussing on dopamine-related genes. While promising results have been reported, imaging genetics studies are thus far hampered by methodological differences in study design and analysis methodology, as well as limited sample sizes. Beyond reviewing imaging genetics studies, we also discuss the need for complementary approaches at multiple levels of biological complexity and emphasize the importance of combining and integrating findings across levels for a better understanding of biological pathways from gene to disease. These may include multi-modal imaging genetics studies, bioinformatic analyses, and functional analyses of cell and animal models.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Vias Neurais/patologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27642641

RESUMO

Heterogeneity is a key feature of all psychiatric disorders that manifests on many levels, including symptoms, disease course, and biological underpinnings. These form a substantial barrier to understanding disease mechanisms and developing effective, personalized treatments. In response, many studies have aimed to stratify psychiatric disorders, aiming to find more consistent subgroups on the basis of many types of data. Such approaches have received renewed interest after recent research initiatives, such as the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria and the European Roadmap for Mental Health Research, both of which emphasize finding stratifications that are based on biological systems and that cut across current classifications. We first introduce the basic concepts for stratifying psychiatric disorders and then provide a methodologically oriented and critical review of the existing literature. This shows that the predominant clustering approach that aims to subdivide clinical populations into more coherent subgroups has made a useful contribution but is heavily dependent on the type of data used; it has produced many different ways to subgroup the disorders we review, but for most disorders it has not converged on a consistent set of subgroups. We highlight problems with current approaches that are not widely recognized and discuss the importance of validation to ensure that the derived subgroups index clinically relevant variation. Finally, we review emerging techniques-such as those that estimate normative models for mappings between biology and behavior-that provide new ways to parse the heterogeneity underlying psychiatric disorders and evaluate all methods to meeting the objectives of such as the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria and Roadmap for Mental Health Research.

14.
Neuroimage Clin ; 12: 227-33, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27489770

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and heritable psychiatric disorders. While previous studies have focussed on mapping focal or connectivity differences at the group level, the present study employed pattern recognition to quantify group separation between unaffected siblings, participants with ADHD, and healthy controls on the basis of spatially distributed brain activations. This was achieved using an fMRI-adapted version of the Stop-Signal Task in a sample of 103 unaffected siblings, 184 participants with ADHD, and 128 healthy controls. We used activation maps derived from three task regressors as features in our analyses employing a Gaussian process classifier. We showed that unaffected siblings could be distinguished from participants with ADHD (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.65, p = 0.002, 95% Modified Wald CI: 0.59-0.71 AUC) and healthy controls (AUC = 0.59, p = 0.030, 95% Modified Wald CI: 0.52-0.66 AUC), although the latter did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Further, participants with ADHD could be distinguished from healthy controls (AUC = 0.64, p = 0.001, 95% Modified Wald CI: 0.58-0.70 AUC). Altogether the present results characterise a pattern of frontolateral, superior temporal and inferior parietal expansion that is associated with risk for ADHD. Unaffected siblings show differences primarily in frontolateral regions. This provides evidence for a neural profile shared between participants with ADHD and their healthy siblings.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Irmãos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição (Psicologia) , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 57: 328-49, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26254595

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders are increasingly being recognised as having a biological basis, but their diagnosis is made exclusively behaviourally. A promising approach for 'biomarker' discovery has been based on pattern recognition methods applied to neuroimaging data, which could yield clinical utility in future. In this review we survey the literature on pattern recognition for making diagnostic predictions in psychiatric disorders, and evaluate progress made in translating such findings towards clinical application. We evaluate studies on many criteria, including data modalities used, the types of features extracted and algorithm applied. We identify problems common to many studies, such as a relatively small sample size and a primary focus on estimating generalisability within a single study. Furthermore, we highlight challenges that are not widely acknowledged in the field including the importance of accommodating disease prevalence, the necessity of more extensive validation using large carefully acquired samples, the need for methodological innovations to improve accuracy and to discriminate between multiple disorders simultaneously. Finally, we identify specific clinical contexts in which pattern recognition can add value in the short to medium term.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Neuroimagem/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Humanos
16.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 40(5): 344-51, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26079698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Response time variability (RTV) is consistently increased in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A right-hemispheric frontoparietal attention network model has been implicated in these patients. The 3 main connecting fibre tracts in this network, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the cingulum bundle (CB), show microstructural abnormalities in patients with ADHD. We hypothesized that the microstructural integrity of the 3 white matter tracts of this network are associated with ADHD and RTV. METHODS: We examined RTV in adults with ADHD by modelling the reaction time distribution as an exponentially modified Gaussian (ex-Gaussian) function with the parameters µ, σ and τ, the latter of which has been attributed to lapses of attention. We assessed adults with ADHD and healthy controls using a sustained attention task. Diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) values were determined to quantify bilateral microstructural integrity of the tracts of interest. RESULTS: We included 100 adults with ADHD and 96 controls in our study. Increased τ was associated with ADHD diagnosis and was linked to symptoms of inattention. An inverse correlation of τ with mean FA was seen in the right SLF of patients with ADHD, but no direct association between the mean FA of the 6 regions of interest with ADHD could be observed. LIMITATIONS: Regions of interest were defined a priori based on the attentional network model for ADHD and thus we might have missed effects in other networks. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that reduced microstructural integrity of the right SLF is associated with elevated τ in patients with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Atenção , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Reação , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Anisotropia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Fibras Nervosas , Testes Neuropsicológicos
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