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Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5150, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051452


It is often assumed that incongruence between individuals' values and those of their country is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Across 29 countries, the present research investigated whether well-being is higher if people's values match with those of people living in the same country or region. Using representative samples, we find that person-country and person-region value congruence predict six well-being measures (e.g., emotional well-being, relationship support; N = 54,673). Crucially, however, value type moderates whether person-country fit is positively or negatively associated with well-being. People who value self-direction, stimulation, and hedonism more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values report lower well-being. In contrast, people who value achievement, power, and security more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values, report higher well-being. Additionally, we find that people who moderately value stimulation report the highest well-being.

Cultura , Valor da Vida , Emoções , Humanos , Percepção , Filosofia , Previdência Social
Psychopathology ; 51(4): 252-261, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945133


BACKGROUND: Based on the assumptions that depersonalization symptoms are relevant for test anxiety maintenance, we examined their frequency, psychological predictors, association with anxiety symptoms, and association with test performance. SAMPLING AND METHODS: In Study 1, 203 students rated their test anxiety severity and depersonalization in their last oral examination. In Study 2, we assessed test anxiety 1 week before an oral examination, depersonalization, safety behaviors, self-focused attention, and negative appraisals of depersonalization directly after the examination, and post-event processing 1 week later among 67 students. RESULTS: In Study 1, 47.3% reported at least one moderate depersonalization symptom. In Study 2, test anxiety and negative appraisals of depersonalization significantly predicted depersonalization. Depersonalization was linked to a higher intensity of safety behaviors and post-event processing but not to self-focused attention. It was not related to performance. CONCLUSION: Results are limited by the non-random sampling and the small sample size of Study 2. However, by showing that depersonalization contributes to the processes the maintenance of test anxiety, the findings confirm that depersonalization - normally understood as an adaptive mechanism to cope with stressful events - can become maladaptive.

Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Despersonalização/psicologia , Atenção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
BMC Psychiatry ; 17(1): 264, 2017 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724369


BACKGROUND: Acculturation is a long-term, multi-dimensional process occurring when subjects of different cultures stay in continuous contact. Previous studies have suggested that elevated rates of depression among different migrant groups might be due to patterns of acculturation and migration related risk factors. This paper focused on prevalence rates of depressive disorders and related risk factors among individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds. METHODS: A population-based sample of 662 individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds were interviewed by bilingual interviewers using a standardised diagnostic interview for DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 diagnoses (CIDI DIA-X Version 2.8). Associations between 12-month prevalence rates of depressive disorders with potential risk factors were assessed, including gender, age, socioeconomic status, acculturation status and migration status. RESULTS: 12-month prevalence rates of any depressive disorder were 29.0%, 14.4% of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 14.7% of dysthymia. Older age and low socioeconomic status were most consistently related to higher risks of depressive disorders. Acculturation status showed associations with subtypes of depressive disorder. Associations differed between men and women. Symptom severity of MDD was linked to gender, with females being more affected by severe symptoms. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive disorders is high in individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds, which can be partly explained by older age, low socioeconomic status and acculturation pressures. Only a limited number of risk factors were assessed. Acculturation in particular is a complex process which might not be sufficiently represented by the applied measures. Further risk factors have to be identified in representative samples of this migrant group.

Aculturação , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Turquia/etnologia
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 109(8): 560-9, 2015.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26704817


INTRODUCTION: Mental disorders are common in family practice, but their meaning for variables of consultation is rarely considered. Thus, we examined the influence of mental disorders on patients' expectations regarding time, openness and seriousness as well as ratings of satisfaction with the consultation. METHODS: Prior to consultation for 219 patients a screening for anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9) and hypochondriasis (WI-7) was performed. Before and after the consultation patient expectations and ratings were recorded. Subgroup analysis was based on Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Almost half of the sample were screen-positive. Prior the consultation, screen positive patients had higher ratings for expectations compared with screen negative patients, but did not differ in their experiences after the consultation. There was no association between consultation length and ratings for satisfaction. DISCUSSION: Patients screened positive for mental disorders do not necessarily require longer consultation length, if their expectations regarding openness and seriousness are met. This is underlines the importance of communication skills in undergraduate medical education and specialist training for future GPs.

Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Agendamento de Consultas , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Hipocondríase/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Hipocondríase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem