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1.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 145-151, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) remains a major oncological challenge with limited therapeutic options. HSV1716 is a replication restricted oncolytic herpes simplex virus with anti-tumor effects in multiple cell lines including MPM. Intrapleural treatment appeals because MPM is typically multifocal but confined to the pleura, and distant metastases are uncommon. We assessed the safety and possible efficacy of intrapleural HSV1716 for inoperable MPM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with MPM received 1 × 107iu HSV1716 injected via an indwelling intrapleural catheter (IPC) on one, two or four occasions a week apart. The primary endpoint was the safety and tolerability of HSV1716. Secondary endpoints were assessment of HSV1716 replication, detection of immune response and evaluation of tumor response. RESULTS: Of thirteen patients enrolled, five had received previous pemetrexed-cisplatin chemotherapy, and eight were chemotherapy naïve. Three patients were enrolled to receive one dose, three patients to two doses and seven patients to four doses. The treatment was well-tolerated with few virus-related adverse events and no dose limiting toxicities. Twelve patients were evaluable for response, as one patient withdrew early after a catheter fracture. There was evidence of viral replication/persistence in pleural fluid in seven of the twelve patients. Induction of Th1 cytokine responses to HSV1716 treatment occurred in eight patients and four patients developed novel anti-tumor IgG. No objective responses were observed but disease stabilization was reported in 50 % of patients at 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural HSV1716 was well-tolerated and demonstrated an anti-tumor immune response in MPM patients. These results provide a rationale for further studies with this agent in MPM and in combination with other therapies.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(18): 4748-4755, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669375

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ganetespib, a highly potent, small-molecule Heatshock protein 90 inhibitor, has potential efficacy in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) via activity on critical survival pathways and known synergies with antifolates and platinum chemotherapy. We conducted a dose-escalation study to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of ganetespib in patients with chemotherapy-naïve MPM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MESO-02 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01590160) was a nonrandomized, multicenter, phase Ib trial of 3-weekly ganetespib (100 mg/m2, 150 mg/m2, 200 mg/m2; days 1 and 15) with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2; day 1) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2; day 1) or carboplatin (area under concentration-time curve 5; day 1) in patients with MPM. Dose escalation was performed using the 3 + 3 design (cisplatin) and accelerated titration design (carboplatin). Secondary endpoints included best response, progression-free survival (PFS), and pharmacogenomic analyses. RESULTS: Of 27 patients enrolled (cisplatin, n = 16; carboplatin, n = 11), 3 experienced dose-limiting toxicities: grade 3 nausea (cisplatin, n = 1; carboplatin, n = 1) and grade 2 infusion-related reaction (carboplatin, n = 1). Ganetespib's MTD was 200 mg/m2. Partial response was observed in 14 of 27 patients (52%; 61% in 23 response-evaluable patients) and 13 of 21 (62%) with epithelioid histology. At the MTD, 10 of 18 patients (56%) had partial response, 15 of 18 (83%) had disease control, and median PFS was 6.3 months (95% CI, 5.0-10.0). One responder exhibited disease control beyond 50 months. Global loss of heterozygosity was associated with shorter time to progression (HR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02-1.24; P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Ganetespib can be combined safely with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy to treat patients with MPM. This class of agent should be investigated in larger randomized studies.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1423-1429, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of cancer driver genes (CDG) are also cancer predisposition genes. However, the associations between genetic variants in lung CDGs and the susceptibility to lung cancer have rarely been investigated. METHODS: We selected expression-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eSNP) and nonsynonymous variants of lung CDGs, and tested their associations with lung cancer risk in two large-scale genome-wide association studies (20,871 cases and 15,971 controls of European descent). Conditional and joint association analysis was performed to identify independent risk variants. The associations of independent risk variants with somatic alterations in lung CDGs or recurrently altered pathways were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. RESULTS: We identified seven independent SNPs in five lung CDGs that were consistently associated with lung cancer risk in discovery (P < 0.001) and validation (P < 0.05) stages. Among these loci, rs78062588 in TPM3 (1q21.3) was a new lung cancer susceptibility locus (OR = 0.86, P = 1.65 × 10-6). Subgroup analysis by histologic types further identified nine lung CDGs. Analysis of somatic alterations found that in lung adenocarcinomas, rs78062588[C] allele (TPM3 in 1q21.3) was associated with elevated somatic copy number of TPM3 (OR = 1.16, P = 0.02). In lung adenocarcinomas, rs1611182 (HLA-A in 6p22.1) was associated with truncation mutations of the transcriptional misregulation in cancer pathway (OR = 0.66, P = 1.76 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants can regulate functions of lung CDGs and influence lung cancer susceptibility. IMPACT: Our findings might help unravel biological mechanisms underlying lung cancer susceptibility.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 120: 86-96, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499384

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously demonstrated that the median survival of patients with poor prognosis non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) considered unfit for first-line platinum chemotherapy was <4 months. We evaluated whether VeriStrat could be used as a prognostic or predictive biomarker in this population. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a randomised double-blind trial among patients with untreated advanced NSCLC considered unfit for platinum chemotherapy because of poor performance status (PS) or multiple comorbidities. All patients received active supportive care (ASC) and were treated with either oral erlotinib or placebo daily. Five hundred twenty-seven patients had plasma samples for VeriStrat classification: good (VeriStrat Good [VSG]) or poor (VeriStrat Poor [VSP]). Main end-point was overall survival. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent patients had VSG, and 83% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 2-3 at baseline. VeriStrat was strongly associated with survival. Among patients managed with ASC only, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.54 (p < 0.001) for VSG versus VSP. The association was consistent across patient factors: HR = 0.25 (p = 0.004) and HR = 0.56 (p < 0.001) for ECOG 0-1 and 2-3, respectively, HR = 0.49 (0070 < 0.001) for age≥75 years and HR = 0.59 (p = 0.007) for stage IV. Several ECOG 2-3 patients had long survival: 2-year survival was 8% for VSG patients who had ASC, compared with 0% for VSP. VeriStrat status did not predict benefit from erlotinib treatment because the HRs for erlotinib versus placebo were similar between VSG and VSP patients. CONCLUSIONS: VeriStrat was not a predictive marker for survival when considering first-line erlotinib for patients with NSCLC who had poor PS and were not recommended for platinum doublet therapies. However, VeriStrat was an independent prognostic marker of survival. It represents an objective measurement that could be considered alongside other patient factors to provide a more refined assessment of prognosis for this particular patient group. VSG patients could be selected for treatment trials because of better survival, while VSP patients can continue to be treated conservatively or offered trials of less toxic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION ISRCTN NUMBER: ISRCTN02370070.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Platina/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteômica , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Eur J Cancer ; 109: 51-60, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at determining whether patients with high-risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS), as identified using the nomogram Sarculator, benefitted from adjuvant chemotherapy in the EORTC-STBSG 62931 randomised controlled trial (RCT), which failed to detect an impact for adjuvant doxorubicin plus ifosfamide (Adj) over observation (Obs). METHODS: Patients with extremity and trunk wall STS in the EORTC-STBSG 62931 RCT were analysed (N = 290/351). Ten-year predicted probability of overall survival (pr-OS) was calculated using the prognostic nomogram Sarculator. Patients were grouped into three categories of predicted pr-OS: high (pr-OS>66%), intermediate (51

Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Extremidades/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Tronco/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
6.
Memo ; 10(4): 190-193, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250195

RESUMO

Angiosarcomas are rare aggressive endothelial tumours, and are associated with a poor prognosis. Due to their vascular nature, there is great interest in their response to anti-angiogenic agents. A number of small prospective studies have reported angiosarcoma response to vascular-targeted agents, including agents that target vascular endothelial growth factor. To date, the response to these agents has been disappointing, and similar to the response observed in other soft tissue sarcoma subtypes. This short review will summarise the recent data in this field.

7.
Lancet Oncol ; 18(10): 1397-1410, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28882536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For many years, first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma has been doxorubicin. This study compared gemcitabine and docetaxel versus doxorubicin as first-line treatment for advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma. METHODS: The GeDDiS trial was a randomised controlled phase 3 trial done in 24 UK hospitals and one Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) hospital. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma of Trojani grade 2 or 3, disease progression before enrolment, and no previous chemotherapy for sarcoma or previous doxorubicin for any cancer. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive six cycles of intravenous doxorubicin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks, or intravenous gemcitabine 675 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 and intravenous docetaxel 75 mg/m2 on day 8 every 3 weeks. Treatment was assigned using a minimisation algorithm incorporating a random element. Randomisation was stratified by age (≤18 years vs >18 years) and histological subtype. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients alive and progression free at 24 weeks in the intention-to-treat population. Adherence to treatment and toxicity were analysed in the safety population, consisting of all patients who received at least one dose of their randomised treatment. The trial was registered with the European Clinical Trials (EudraCT) database (no 2009-014907-29) and with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial registry (ISRCTN07742377), and is now closed to patient entry. FINDINGS: Between Dec 3, 2010, and Jan 20, 2014, 257 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the two treatment groups (129 to doxorubicin and 128 to gemcitabine and docetaxel). Median follow-up was 22 months (IQR 15·7-29·3). The proportion of patients alive and progression free at 24 weeks did not differ between those who received doxorubicin versus those who received gemcitabine and docetaxel (46·3% [95% CI 37·5-54·6] vs 46·4% [37·5-54·8]); median progression-free survival (23·3 weeks [95% CI 19·6-30·4] vs 23·7 weeks [18·1-20·0]; hazard ratio [HR] for progression-free survival 1·28, 95% CI 0·99-1·65, p=0·06). The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were neutropenia (32 [25%] of 128 patients who received doxorubicin and 25 [20%] of 126 patients who received gemcitabine and docetaxel), febrile neutropenia (26 [20%] and 15 [12%]), fatigue (eight [6%] and 17 [14%]), oral mucositis (18 [14%] and two [2%]), and pain (ten [8%] and 13 [10%]). The three most common serious adverse events, representing 111 (39%) of all 285 serious adverse events recorded, were febrile neutropenia (27 [17%] of 155 serious adverse events in patients who received doxorubicin and 15 [12%] of 130 serious adverse events in patients who received gemcitabine and docetaxel, fever (18 [12%] and 19 [15%]), and neutropenia (22 [14%] and ten [8%]). 154 (60%) of 257 patients died in the intention-to-treat population: 74 (57%) of 129 patients in the doxorubicin group and 80 (63%) of 128 in the gemcitabine and docetaxel group. No deaths were related to the treatment, but two deaths were due to a combination of disease progression and treatment. INTERPRETATION: Doxorubicin should remain the standard first-line treatment for most patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma. These results provide evidence for clinicians to consider with their patients when selecting first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, Sarcoma UK, and Clinical Trial Unit Kantonsspital St Gallen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Intervalos de Confiança , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
8.
Eur J Cancer ; 83: 302-312, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is standard treatment for the majority of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The trial investigates the importance of the choice of platinum agent and dose of cisplatin in relation to patient outcomes. METHODS: The three-arm randomised phase III trial assigned patients with chemo-naïve stage IIIB/IV NSCLC in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of a 3-week cycle with cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (GC80) or cisplatin 50 mg/m2 (GC50) or carboplatin AUC6 (GCb6) for a maximum of four cycles. Primary outcome measure was survival time, aiming to test for a difference between treatment arms and also assess non-inferiority with pre-defined margin selected as hazard ratio (HR) of 1.2. Secondary outcome measures included response rate, adverse events and quality of life (QoL). FINDINGS: The trial recruited 1363 patients. Survival time differed significantly across the three treatment arms (p = 0.046) with GC50 worst with median 8.2 months compared to 9.5 for GC80 and 10.0 for GCb6. HRs (adjusted) for GC50 compared to GC80 was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-1.29) and for GC50 compared to GCb6 was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08-1.41). GCb6 was significantly non-inferior to GC80 (HR = 0.93, upper limit of one-sided 95% CI 1.04). Adjusting for QoL did not change the findings. Best objective response rates were 29% (GC80), 20% (GC50) and 27% (GCb6), p < 0.007. There were more dose reductions and treatment delays in the GCb6 arm and more adverse events (60% with at least one grade 3-4 compared to 43% GC80 and 30% GC50). INTERPRETATION: In combination with gemcitabine, carboplatin at AUC6 is not inferior to cisplatin at 80 mg/m2 in terms of survival. Carboplatin was associated with more adverse events and not with better quality of life. Cisplatin at the lower dose of 50 mg/m2 has worse survival which is not compensated by better quality of life. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00112710. EUDRACT NUMBER: 2004-003868-30. CANCER RESEARCH UK TRIAL IDENTIFIER: CRUK/04/009.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 18(8): 1116-1125, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer, but the optimal radiotherapy schedule and dose remains controversial. The aim of this study was to establish a standard chemoradiotherapy treatment regimen in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: The CONVERT trial was an open-label, phase 3, randomised superiority trial. We enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who had cytologically or histologically confirmed limited-stage small-cell lung cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and adequate pulmonary function. Patients were recruited from 73 centres in eight countries. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 45 Gy radiotherapy in 30 twice-daily fractions of 1·5 Gy over 19 days, or 66 Gy in 33 once-daily fractions of 2 Gy over 45 days, starting on day 22 after commencing cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy (given as four to six cycles every 3 weeks in both groups). The allocation method used was minimisation with a random element, stratified by institution, planned number of chemotherapy cycles, and performance status. Treatment group assignments were not masked. The primary endpoint was overall survival, defined as time from randomisation until death from any cause, analysed by modified intention-to-treat. A 12% higher overall survival at 2 years in the once-daily group versus the twice-daily group was considered to be clinically significant to show superiority of the once-daily regimen. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00433563) and is currently in follow-up. FINDINGS: Between April 7, 2008, and Nov 29, 2013, 547 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive twice-daily concurrent chemoradiotherapy (274 patients) or once-daily concurrent chemoradiotherapy (273 patients). Four patients (one in the twice-daily group and three in the once-daily group) did not return their case report forms and were lost to follow-up; these patients were not included in our analyses. At a median follow-up of 45 months (IQR 35-58), median overall survival was 30 months (95% CI 24-34) in the twice-daily group versus 25 months (21-31) in the once-daily group (hazard ratio for death in the once daily group 1·18 [95% CI 0·95-1·45]; p=0·14). 2-year overall survival was 56% (95% CI 50-62) in the twice-daily group and 51% (45-57) in the once-daily group (absolute difference between the treatment groups 5·3% [95% CI -3·2% to 13·7%]). The most common grade 3-4 adverse event in patients evaluated for chemotherapy toxicity was neutropenia (197 [74%] of 266 patients in the twice-daily group vs 170 [65%] of 263 in the once-daily group). Most toxicities were similar between the groups, except there was significantly more grade 4 neutropenia with twice-daily radiotherapy (129 [49%] vs 101 [38%]; p=0·05). In patients assessed for radiotherapy toxicity, was no difference in grade 3-4 oesophagitis between the groups (47 [19%] of 254 patients in the twice-daily group vs 47 [19%] of 246 in the once-daily group; p=0·85) and grade 3-4 radiation pneumonitis (4 [3%] of 254 vs 4 [2%] of 246; p=0·70). 11 patients died from treatment-related causes (three in the twice-daily group and eight in the once-daily group). INTERPRETATION: Survival outcomes did not differ between twice-daily and once-daily concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer, and toxicity was similar and lower than expected with both regimens. Since the trial was designed to show superiority of once-daily radiotherapy and was not powered to show equivalence, the implication is that twice-daily radiotherapy should continue to be considered the standard of care in this setting. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK (Clinical Trials Awards and Advisory Committee), French Ministry of Health, Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (Cancer Research Fund, Lung Cancer, and Radiation Oncology Groups).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Esofagite/etiologia , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neutropenia/etiologia , Pneumonite por Radiação/etiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 924: 29-32, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27753014

RESUMO

Molecular profiling using low coverage whole genome sequencing of cell free DNA (cfDNA) represents a non-targeted approach to identify multiple somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) across different lung cancer subtypes. We aim to establish that SCNA can be detected in cfDNA of lung cancer cases.Standard protocols were followed to process matched cfDNA, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumour and lymphocyte DNA. Copy number profiles for cfDNA or FFPE DNA were normalised to profiles from matched lymphocyte DNA with the software CNAnorm. Technical sensitivity was determined by spiking different proportions of FFPE tumour DNA into cfDNA from controls.The median genome coverage was 0.26X (range 0.05X-0.97X). For two advanced stage cases there was a positive correlation between copy number ratio profiles of matched cfDNA and FFPE DNA (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). There was no correlation for four advanced and two early stage cases. There were low magnitude copy number aberrations detected in high-risk controls (N = 5). We detected spiked FFPE DNA derived SCNAs with a tumour fraction as low as 10 % of cfDNA.Our preliminary results demonstrate non-invasive detection of tumour-derived copy number alterations in advanced lung cancer cases with low coverage whole genome sequencing. Clinical characteristics and treatment may influence whether SCNA are detected in cfDNA.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Formaldeído , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Inclusão em Parafina , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fixação de Tecidos
11.
Invest New Drugs ; 34(3): 290-9, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26961907

RESUMO

Background IMGN901 is a CD56-targeting antibody-drug conjugate designed for tumor-selective delivery of the cytotoxic maytansinoid DM1. This phase 1 study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of IMGN901 in patients with CD56-expressing solid tumors. Methods Patients were enrolled in cohorts of escalating IMGN901 doses, administered intravenously, on 3 consecutive days every 21 days. A dose-expansion phase accrued patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), or ovarian cancer. Results Fifty-two patients were treated at doses escalating from 4 to 94 mg/m(2)/day. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be 75 mg/m(2). Dose-limiting toxicities included fatigue, neuropathy, headache or meningitis-like symptoms, chest pain, dyspnea, and myalgias. In the dose-expansion phase (n = 45), seven patients received 75 mg/m(2) and 38 received 60 mg/m(2) for up to 21 cycles. The recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) was established at 60 mg/m(2) during dose expansion. Overall, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were experienced by 96.9 % of all patients, the majority of which were Grade 1 or 2. The most commonly reported Grade 3 or 4 TEAEs were hyponatremia and dyspnea (each 8.2 %). Responses included 1 complete response (CR), 1 clinical CR, and 1 unconfirmed partial response (PR) in MCC; and 1 unconfirmed PR in SCLC. Stable disease was seen for 25 % of all evaluable patients who received doses ≥60 mg/m(2). Conclusions The RP2D for IMGN901 of 60 mg/m(2) administered for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks was associated with an acceptable tolerability profile. Objective responses were observed in patients with advanced CD56+ cancers.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno CD56/imunologia , Maitansina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Maitansina/administração & dosagem , Maitansina/efeitos adversos , Maitansina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Support Care Cancer ; 24(4): 1507-16, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26364190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer, and continued smoking may compromise treatment efficacy and quality of life (health-related quality of life (HRQoL)) in patients with advanced lung cancer. Our aims were to determine (i) preference for treatments which promote quality over length of life depending on smoking status, (ii) the relationship between HRQoL and smoking status at diagnosis (T1), after controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and (iii) changes in HRQoL 6 months after diagnosis (T2) depending on smoking status. METHODS: Two hundred ninety-six patients with advanced lung cancer were given questionnaires to assess HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30), time-trade-off for life quality versus quantity (QQQ) and smoking history (current, former or never smoker) at diagnosis (T1) and 6 months later (T2). Medical data were extracted from case records. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 202 (68.2 %) patients at T1 and 114 (53.3 %) at T2. Patients favoured treatments that would enhance quality of life over increased longevity. Those who continued smoking after diagnosis reported worse HRQoL than former smokers or those who never smoked. Smoking status was a significant independent predictor of coughing in T1 (worse in smokers) and cognitive functioning in T2 (better in never smokers). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking by patients with advanced lung cancer is associated with worse symptoms on diagnosis and poorer HRQoL for those who continue smoking. The results have implications to help staff explain the consequences of smoking to patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(5): 488-94, 2016 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26700124

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients. Evidence has suggested that low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) might improve survival in patients with cancer by preventing both VTE and the progression of metastases. No trial in a single cancer type has been powered to demonstrate a clinically significant survival difference. The aim of this trial was to investigate this question in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial to evaluate the addition of a primary prophylactic dose of LMWH for 24 weeks to standard treatment in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer of any stage and histology. The primary outcome was 1-year survival. Secondary outcomes included metastasis-free survival, VTE-free survival, toxicity, and quality of life. RESULTS: For this trial, 2,202 patients were randomly assigned to the two treatment arms over 4 years. The trial did not reach its intended number of events for the primary analysis (2,047 deaths), and data were analyzed after 2,013 deaths after discussion with the independent data monitoring committee. There was no evidence of a difference in overall or metastasis-free survival between the two arms (hazard ratio [HR], 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10; P = .814; and HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.08; P = .864, respectively). There was a reduction in the risk of VTE from 9.7% to 5.5% (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.79; P = .001) in the LMWH arm and no difference in major bleeding events but evidence of an increase in the composite of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in the LMWH arm. CONCLUSION: LMWH did not improve overall survival in the patients with lung cancer in this trial. A significant reduction in VTE is associated with an increase in clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Strategies to target those at greatest risk of VTE are warranted.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Padrão de Cuidado , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
15.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 7(4): 219-28, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26136853

RESUMO

Over a third of patients with lung cancer will develop bone metastases during the course of their disease, resulting in symptoms of pain and immobility, and skeletal-related events (SREs) such as fracture, hypercalcaemia, surgery or radiotherapy to bones, and malignant spinal cord compression. These reduce quality of life and increase mortality. Preclinical research has identified the interactions between tumour cells and bone that are key to tumour cell survival and associated osteolysis. These data have led to the development of drugs to prevent osteoclast-mediated bone breakdown, such as zoledronic acid and denosumab, which are now licensed for use in patients with bone metastases from solid tumours. Both zoledronic acid and denosumab reduce the risk of SREs and increase time to first SRE, with minimal side effects. In addition, denosumab improved survival in patients with lung cancer compared with zoledronic acid. Ongoing trials are testing whether these drugs can prevent the development of bone metastases from lung cancer. New bone-targeted agents showing promise in breast and prostate cancer include radium-223, cabozantinib and Src inhibitors. These agents require further evaluation in patients with lung cancer.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 51(12): 1511-28, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26074395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Switch maintenance is an effective strategy in the treatment of advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Pazopanib is an oral, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). EORTC 08092 evaluated pazopanib given as maintenance treatment following standard first line platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. METHODS: Patients with non-progressive disease after 4-6 cycles of chemotherapy were randomised to receive either pazopanib 800mg/day or matched placebo until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end-point was overall survival and secondary end-points were progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. RESULTS: A total of 600 patients were planned to be randomised. The trial was prematurely stopped following an early interim analysis, after 102 patients were randomised to pazopanib (n=50) or placebo (n=52). Median age was 64years in both arms. Median overall survival was 17.4 months for pazopanib and 12.3 months for placebo (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-1.28]; p=0.257). Median PFS was 4.3 months versus 3.2 months (HR 0.67, [95% CI 0.43-1.03], p=0.068). PFS rates at 4 months were 56% and 45% respectively. The majority of treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were grade 1-2. Grade 3-4 AEs (pazopanib versus placebo) were hypertension (38% versus 8%), neutropenia (8% versus 0%), and elevated SGPT (6% versus 0%). Of the patients randomised to pazopanib, 22% withdrew due to a treatment-related AE. CONCLUSIONS: Switch maintenance with pazopanib following platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients had limited side-effects. This study was stopped due to lack of efficacy by stringent criteria for PFS at a futility interim analysis.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos
17.
Int J Cancer ; 136(4): 894-903, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24947688

RESUMO

To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled using random effects models. Subgroup analyses were done for sex, histology and tobacco smoking status. The shapes of dose-response associations were examined using restricted cubic spline regression. The overall pooled OR for habitual versus nonhabitual or never users was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.66-1.38). Compared to nonhabitual or never users, the summary OR was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.63-1.24) for individuals who smoked 1 or more joint-equivalents of cannabis per day and 0.94 (95%CI: 0.67-1.32) for those consumed at least 10 joint-years. For adenocarcinoma cases the ORs were 1.73 (95%CI: 0.75-4.00) and 1.74 (95%CI: 0.85-3.55), respectively. However, no association was found for the squamous cell carcinoma based on small numbers. Weak associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were observed in never tobacco smokers. Spline modeling indicated a weak positive monotonic association between cumulative cannabis use and lung cancer, but precision was low at high exposure levels. Results from our pooled analyses provide little evidence for an increased risk of lung cancer among habitual or long-term cannabis smokers, although the possibility of potential adverse effect for heavy consumption cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Risco
18.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 97(1): 148-53, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24984271

RESUMO

Angiosarcomas are rare malignant vascular tumours. Angiosarcoma expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has previously been reported, but angiosarcoma expression of other angiogenic growth factors has not been systematically studied. Non-VEGF angiogenic growth factors are a potential mechanism of resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy, but they also represent potential therapeutic targets. Immunohistochemistry analysis evaluated the expression of 13 angiogenic growth factors and receptors in 27 separate benign and malignant archived human vascular tumour samples. The expression of 55 angiogenesis-related proteins was subsequently profiled in five fresh human angiosarcoma tumour samples using antibody arrays. Angiosarcomas expressed a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Significantly higher levels of Notch1 were detected compared with benign haemangiomas (p=0.033), but lower levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) compared to benign haemangiomas (p=0.07) and inflammatory vascular lesions (p=0.009). Vascular tumour expression of FGF receptor (FGFR)-1 correlated with angiopoietin (Ang)-2, Tie2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Notch1 expression (p=0.001, p=0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). Notch1 also correlated with Tie2 expression (p=0.004). In conclusion, angiosarcomas express multiple angiogenic growth factors. Treatments could be targeted at individual angiogenic growth factors. However, our findings provide a rationale for combination therapy, or for treatments that target common downstream signalling intermediaries, such as Akt, mTOR or ERK.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/metabolismo , Hemangioma/metabolismo , Hemangiossarcoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Granuloma Piogênico/metabolismo , Granuloma Piogênico/patologia , Hemangioma/patologia , Hemangiossarcoma/patologia , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
19.
Support Care Cancer ; 22(3): 679-87, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24162260

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bone complications of metastatic disease, including skeletal-related events (SREs), impair patients' functioning and quality of life. In a randomized, phase 3 trial of 1,776 patients with metastases from solid tumors (except breast or prostate) or multiple myeloma, denosumab was non-inferior to zoledronic acid (ZA) in delaying or preventing SREs. This ad hoc analysis reports outcomes in the subgroup of 1,597 patients with solid tumors, excluding patients with multiple myeloma. METHODS: Patients received monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or intravenous ZA 4 mg, adjusted for creatinine clearance, with calcium and vitamin D supplementation recommended. Endpoints included times to first on-study SRE, first-and-subsequent SREs, and pain worsening. RESULTS: Denosumab significantly delayed time to first on-study SRE compared with ZA (HR, 0.81; 95 % CI, 0.68-0.96) and time to first-and-subsequent SREs (RR, 0.85; 95 % CI, 0.72-1.00). Denosumab also significantly delayed time to development of moderate or severe pain (HR, 0.81; 95 % CI, 0.66-1.00), pain worsening (HR, 0.83; 95 % CI, 0.71-0.97), and worsening pain interference in patients with no/mild baseline pain (HR, 0.77; 95 % CI, 0.61-0.96). Adverse event rates were 96 % in both groups. Grade 3 or 4 hypocalcemia, mostly without clinical sequelae, was more frequent in denosumab-treated patients (denosumab 4 %, ZA 2 %). Osteonecrosis of the jaw occurred infrequently (denosumab 0.8 %, ZA 1.1 %). CONCLUSIONS: Denosumab was more effective in delaying or preventing SREs in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors and also prevented pain progression compared to ZA in this ad hoc analysis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Denosumab , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Zoledrônico
20.
Invest New Drugs ; 31(1): 175-82, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22752690

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was carried out to compare the efficacy and safety of cilengitide (EMD 121974), a selective inhibitor of the cell-surface integrins αVß3 and αVß5, with that of docetaxel in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients (n = 140) with advanced NSCLC who had failed first-line chemotherapy were randomized to cilengitide 240, 400, or 600 mg/m(2) twice weekly, or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks for eight cycles. Non-progressing patients could continue cilengitide for up to 1 year. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). No statistical tests were performed since the study was exploratory in nature and the number of patients enrolled was relatively small. RESULTS: Median PFS was 54, 63, 63, and 67 days for cilengitide 240, 400, and 600 mg/m(2), and docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), respectively. One-year survival rates were 13 %, 13 %, 29 %, and 27 %, respectively. The response rate (partial response only) with docetaxel was 15 %. No responses were reported in any cilengitide arm. The most frequent grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events in the docetaxel group were leukopenia and neutropenia (experienced by 13 % of patients). Hematologic toxicity of this severity did not occur in cilengitide-treated patients. CONCLUSION: With the highest dose of cilengitide (600 mg/m(2)), median PFS and 1-year survival were similar to those in patients treated with docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and there were fewer grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Integrinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Venenos de Serpentes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Venenos de Serpentes/efeitos adversos , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/efeitos adversos
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