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1.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 145-151, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) remains a major oncological challenge with limited therapeutic options. HSV1716 is a replication restricted oncolytic herpes simplex virus with anti-tumor effects in multiple cell lines including MPM. Intrapleural treatment appeals because MPM is typically multifocal but confined to the pleura, and distant metastases are uncommon. We assessed the safety and possible efficacy of intrapleural HSV1716 for inoperable MPM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with MPM received 1 × 107iu HSV1716 injected via an indwelling intrapleural catheter (IPC) on one, two or four occasions a week apart. The primary endpoint was the safety and tolerability of HSV1716. Secondary endpoints were assessment of HSV1716 replication, detection of immune response and evaluation of tumor response. RESULTS: Of thirteen patients enrolled, five had received previous pemetrexed-cisplatin chemotherapy, and eight were chemotherapy naïve. Three patients were enrolled to receive one dose, three patients to two doses and seven patients to four doses. The treatment was well-tolerated with few virus-related adverse events and no dose limiting toxicities. Twelve patients were evaluable for response, as one patient withdrew early after a catheter fracture. There was evidence of viral replication/persistence in pleural fluid in seven of the twelve patients. Induction of Th1 cytokine responses to HSV1716 treatment occurred in eight patients and four patients developed novel anti-tumor IgG. No objective responses were observed but disease stabilization was reported in 50 % of patients at 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural HSV1716 was well-tolerated and demonstrated an anti-tumor immune response in MPM patients. These results provide a rationale for further studies with this agent in MPM and in combination with other therapies.

2.
Front Med ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889700

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty genetic variants associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, biological mechanisms of these variants remain largely unknown. By integrating a large-scale genotype data of 15 581 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases, 8350 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) cases, and 27 355 controls, as well as multiple transcriptome and epigenomic databases, we conducted histology-specific meta-analyses and functional annotations of both reported and novel susceptibility variants. We identified 3064 credible risk variants for NSCLC, which were overrepresented in enhancer-like and promoter-like histone modification peaks as well as DNase I hypersensitive sites. Transcription factor enrichment analysis revealed that USF1 was AD-specific while CREB1 was SqCC-specific. Functional annotation and gene-based analysis implicated 894 target genes, including 274 specifics for AD and 123 for SqCC, which were overrepresented in somatic driver genes (ER = 1.95, P = 0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis and Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that AD genes were primarily involved in immune-related pathways, while SqCC genes were homologous recombination deficiency related. Our results illustrate the molecular basis of both well-studied and new susceptibility loci of NSCLC, providing not only novel insights into the genetic heterogeneity between AD and SqCC but also a set of plausible gene targets for post-GWAS functional experiments.

3.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(18): 4748-4755, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669375

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ganetespib, a highly potent, small-molecule Heatshock protein 90 inhibitor, has potential efficacy in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) via activity on critical survival pathways and known synergies with antifolates and platinum chemotherapy. We conducted a dose-escalation study to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of ganetespib in patients with chemotherapy-naïve MPM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MESO-02 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01590160) was a nonrandomized, multicenter, phase Ib trial of 3-weekly ganetespib (100 mg/m2, 150 mg/m2, 200 mg/m2; days 1 and 15) with pemetrexed (500 mg/m2; day 1) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2; day 1) or carboplatin (area under concentration-time curve 5; day 1) in patients with MPM. Dose escalation was performed using the 3 + 3 design (cisplatin) and accelerated titration design (carboplatin). Secondary endpoints included best response, progression-free survival (PFS), and pharmacogenomic analyses. RESULTS: Of 27 patients enrolled (cisplatin, n = 16; carboplatin, n = 11), 3 experienced dose-limiting toxicities: grade 3 nausea (cisplatin, n = 1; carboplatin, n = 1) and grade 2 infusion-related reaction (carboplatin, n = 1). Ganetespib's MTD was 200 mg/m2. Partial response was observed in 14 of 27 patients (52%; 61% in 23 response-evaluable patients) and 13 of 21 (62%) with epithelioid histology. At the MTD, 10 of 18 patients (56%) had partial response, 15 of 18 (83%) had disease control, and median PFS was 6.3 months (95% CI, 5.0-10.0). One responder exhibited disease control beyond 50 months. Global loss of heterozygosity was associated with shorter time to progression (HR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02-1.24; P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Ganetespib can be combined safely with pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy to treat patients with MPM. This class of agent should be investigated in larger randomized studies.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1423-1429, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of cancer driver genes (CDG) are also cancer predisposition genes. However, the associations between genetic variants in lung CDGs and the susceptibility to lung cancer have rarely been investigated. METHODS: We selected expression-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eSNP) and nonsynonymous variants of lung CDGs, and tested their associations with lung cancer risk in two large-scale genome-wide association studies (20,871 cases and 15,971 controls of European descent). Conditional and joint association analysis was performed to identify independent risk variants. The associations of independent risk variants with somatic alterations in lung CDGs or recurrently altered pathways were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. RESULTS: We identified seven independent SNPs in five lung CDGs that were consistently associated with lung cancer risk in discovery (P < 0.001) and validation (P < 0.05) stages. Among these loci, rs78062588 in TPM3 (1q21.3) was a new lung cancer susceptibility locus (OR = 0.86, P = 1.65 × 10-6). Subgroup analysis by histologic types further identified nine lung CDGs. Analysis of somatic alterations found that in lung adenocarcinomas, rs78062588[C] allele (TPM3 in 1q21.3) was associated with elevated somatic copy number of TPM3 (OR = 1.16, P = 0.02). In lung adenocarcinomas, rs1611182 (HLA-A in 6p22.1) was associated with truncation mutations of the transcriptional misregulation in cancer pathway (OR = 0.66, P = 1.76 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants can regulate functions of lung CDGs and influence lung cancer susceptibility. IMPACT: Our findings might help unravel biological mechanisms underlying lung cancer susceptibility.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(10): 2855-2864, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577861

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 45 susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer. Only less than SNPs, small insertions and deletions (INDELs) are the second most abundant genetic polymorphisms in the human genome. INDELs are highly associated with multiple human diseases, including lung cancer. However, limited studies with large-scale samples have been available to systematically evaluate the effects of INDELs on lung cancer risk. Here, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis to evaluate INDELs and their risk for lung cancer in 23,202 cases and 19,048 controls. Functional annotations were performed to further explore the potential function of lung cancer risk INDELs. Conditional analysis was used to clarify the relationship between INDELs and SNPs. Four new risk loci were identified in genome-wide INDEL analysis (1p13.2: rs5777156, Insertion, OR = 0.92, p = 9.10 × 10-8 ; 4q28.2: rs58404727, Deletion, OR = 1.19, p = 5.25 × 10-7 ; 12p13.31: rs71450133, Deletion, OR = 1.09, p = 8.83 × 10-7 ; and 14q22.3: rs34057993, Deletion, OR = 0.90, p = 7.64 × 10-8 ). The eQTL analysis and functional annotation suggested that INDELs might affect lung cancer susceptibility by regulating the expression of target genes. After conducting conditional analysis on potential causal SNPs, the INDELs in the new loci were still nominally significant. Our findings indicate that INDELs could be potentially functional genetic variants for lung cancer risk. Further functional experiments are needed to better understand INDEL mechanisms in carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação INDEL/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
7.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1862-1878, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696517

RESUMO

We have recently completed the largest GWAS on lung cancer including 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls of European descent. The goal of our study has been to integrate the complete GWAS results with a large-scale expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study in human lung tissues (n = 1,038) to identify candidate causal genes for lung cancer. We performed transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for lung cancer overall, by histology (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer) and smoking subgroups (never- and ever-smokers). We performed replication analysis using lung data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. DNA damage assays were performed in human lung fibroblasts for selected TWAS genes. As expected, the main TWAS signal for all histological subtypes and ever-smokers was on chromosome 15q25. The gene most strongly associated with lung cancer at this locus using the TWAS approach was IREB2 (pTWAS = 1.09E-99), where lower predicted expression increased lung cancer risk. A new lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility locus was revealed on 9p13.3 and associated with higher predicted expression of AQP3 (pTWAS = 3.72E-6). Among the 45 previously described lung cancer GWAS loci, we mapped candidate target gene for 17 of them. The association AQP3-adenocarcinoma on 9p13.3 was replicated using GTEx (pTWAS = 6.55E-5). Consistent with the effect of risk alleles on gene expression levels, IREB2 knockdown and AQP3 overproduction promote endogenous DNA damage. These findings indicate genes whose expression in lung tissue directly influences lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Transcriptoma , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
8.
Eur J Cancer ; 120: 86-96, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499384

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously demonstrated that the median survival of patients with poor prognosis non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) considered unfit for first-line platinum chemotherapy was <4 months. We evaluated whether VeriStrat could be used as a prognostic or predictive biomarker in this population. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a randomised double-blind trial among patients with untreated advanced NSCLC considered unfit for platinum chemotherapy because of poor performance status (PS) or multiple comorbidities. All patients received active supportive care (ASC) and were treated with either oral erlotinib or placebo daily. Five hundred twenty-seven patients had plasma samples for VeriStrat classification: good (VeriStrat Good [VSG]) or poor (VeriStrat Poor [VSP]). Main end-point was overall survival. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent patients had VSG, and 83% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 2-3 at baseline. VeriStrat was strongly associated with survival. Among patients managed with ASC only, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.54 (p < 0.001) for VSG versus VSP. The association was consistent across patient factors: HR = 0.25 (p = 0.004) and HR = 0.56 (p < 0.001) for ECOG 0-1 and 2-3, respectively, HR = 0.49 (0070 < 0.001) for age≥75 years and HR = 0.59 (p = 0.007) for stage IV. Several ECOG 2-3 patients had long survival: 2-year survival was 8% for VSG patients who had ASC, compared with 0% for VSP. VeriStrat status did not predict benefit from erlotinib treatment because the HRs for erlotinib versus placebo were similar between VSG and VSP patients. CONCLUSIONS: VeriStrat was not a predictive marker for survival when considering first-line erlotinib for patients with NSCLC who had poor PS and were not recommended for platinum doublet therapies. However, VeriStrat was an independent prognostic marker of survival. It represents an objective measurement that could be considered alongside other patient factors to provide a more refined assessment of prognosis for this particular patient group. VSG patients could be selected for treatment trials because of better survival, while VSP patients can continue to be treated conservatively or offered trials of less toxic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION ISRCTN NUMBER: ISRCTN02370070.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Platina/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteômica , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Oncotarget ; 10(19): 1760-1774, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956756

RESUMO

The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in RGL1:RAD51B (OR=0.44, p value=3.27x10-11 in overall lung cancer and OR=0.41, p value=9.71x10-11 in non-small cell lung cancer), SYNE1:RNF43 (OR=0.73, p value=1.01x10-12 in adenocarcinoma) and FHIT:TSPAN8 (OR=1.82, p value=7.62x10-11 in squamous cell carcinoma) in our analysis. None of these genes have been identified from previous main effect association studies in lung cancer. Further eQTL gene expression analysis in lung tissues provided information supporting the functional role of the identified epistasis in lung tumorigenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed potential pathways and gene networks underlying molecular mechanisms in overall lung cancer as well as histology subtypes development. Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions between oncogenesis-related genes play an important role in lung tumorigenesis and epistasis analysis, combined with functional annotation, provides a valuable tool for uncovering functional novel susceptibility genes that contribute to lung cancer development by interacting with other modifier genes.

10.
Eur J Cancer ; 109: 51-60, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at determining whether patients with high-risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS), as identified using the nomogram Sarculator, benefitted from adjuvant chemotherapy in the EORTC-STBSG 62931 randomised controlled trial (RCT), which failed to detect an impact for adjuvant doxorubicin plus ifosfamide (Adj) over observation (Obs). METHODS: Patients with extremity and trunk wall STS in the EORTC-STBSG 62931 RCT were analysed (N = 290/351). Ten-year predicted probability of overall survival (pr-OS) was calculated using the prognostic nomogram Sarculator. Patients were grouped into three categories of predicted pr-OS: high (pr-OS>66%), intermediate (51

Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Extremidades/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Tronco/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3927, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254314

RESUMO

Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 336-346, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059373

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Memo ; 10(4): 190-193, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250195

RESUMO

Angiosarcomas are rare aggressive endothelial tumours, and are associated with a poor prognosis. Due to their vascular nature, there is great interest in their response to anti-angiogenic agents. A number of small prospective studies have reported angiosarcoma response to vascular-targeted agents, including agents that target vascular endothelial growth factor. To date, the response to these agents has been disappointing, and similar to the response observed in other soft tissue sarcoma subtypes. This short review will summarise the recent data in this field.

14.
Lancet Oncol ; 18(10): 1397-1410, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28882536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For many years, first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma has been doxorubicin. This study compared gemcitabine and docetaxel versus doxorubicin as first-line treatment for advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma. METHODS: The GeDDiS trial was a randomised controlled phase 3 trial done in 24 UK hospitals and one Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) hospital. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma of Trojani grade 2 or 3, disease progression before enrolment, and no previous chemotherapy for sarcoma or previous doxorubicin for any cancer. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive six cycles of intravenous doxorubicin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks, or intravenous gemcitabine 675 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 and intravenous docetaxel 75 mg/m2 on day 8 every 3 weeks. Treatment was assigned using a minimisation algorithm incorporating a random element. Randomisation was stratified by age (≤18 years vs >18 years) and histological subtype. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients alive and progression free at 24 weeks in the intention-to-treat population. Adherence to treatment and toxicity were analysed in the safety population, consisting of all patients who received at least one dose of their randomised treatment. The trial was registered with the European Clinical Trials (EudraCT) database (no 2009-014907-29) and with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial registry (ISRCTN07742377), and is now closed to patient entry. FINDINGS: Between Dec 3, 2010, and Jan 20, 2014, 257 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the two treatment groups (129 to doxorubicin and 128 to gemcitabine and docetaxel). Median follow-up was 22 months (IQR 15·7-29·3). The proportion of patients alive and progression free at 24 weeks did not differ between those who received doxorubicin versus those who received gemcitabine and docetaxel (46·3% [95% CI 37·5-54·6] vs 46·4% [37·5-54·8]); median progression-free survival (23·3 weeks [95% CI 19·6-30·4] vs 23·7 weeks [18·1-20·0]; hazard ratio [HR] for progression-free survival 1·28, 95% CI 0·99-1·65, p=0·06). The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were neutropenia (32 [25%] of 128 patients who received doxorubicin and 25 [20%] of 126 patients who received gemcitabine and docetaxel), febrile neutropenia (26 [20%] and 15 [12%]), fatigue (eight [6%] and 17 [14%]), oral mucositis (18 [14%] and two [2%]), and pain (ten [8%] and 13 [10%]). The three most common serious adverse events, representing 111 (39%) of all 285 serious adverse events recorded, were febrile neutropenia (27 [17%] of 155 serious adverse events in patients who received doxorubicin and 15 [12%] of 130 serious adverse events in patients who received gemcitabine and docetaxel, fever (18 [12%] and 19 [15%]), and neutropenia (22 [14%] and ten [8%]). 154 (60%) of 257 patients died in the intention-to-treat population: 74 (57%) of 129 patients in the doxorubicin group and 80 (63%) of 128 in the gemcitabine and docetaxel group. No deaths were related to the treatment, but two deaths were due to a combination of disease progression and treatment. INTERPRETATION: Doxorubicin should remain the standard first-line treatment for most patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma. These results provide evidence for clinicians to consider with their patients when selecting first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, Sarcoma UK, and Clinical Trial Unit Kantonsspital St Gallen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Intervalos de Confiança , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 83: 302-312, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is standard treatment for the majority of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The trial investigates the importance of the choice of platinum agent and dose of cisplatin in relation to patient outcomes. METHODS: The three-arm randomised phase III trial assigned patients with chemo-naïve stage IIIB/IV NSCLC in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of a 3-week cycle with cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (GC80) or cisplatin 50 mg/m2 (GC50) or carboplatin AUC6 (GCb6) for a maximum of four cycles. Primary outcome measure was survival time, aiming to test for a difference between treatment arms and also assess non-inferiority with pre-defined margin selected as hazard ratio (HR) of 1.2. Secondary outcome measures included response rate, adverse events and quality of life (QoL). FINDINGS: The trial recruited 1363 patients. Survival time differed significantly across the three treatment arms (p = 0.046) with GC50 worst with median 8.2 months compared to 9.5 for GC80 and 10.0 for GCb6. HRs (adjusted) for GC50 compared to GC80 was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-1.29) and for GC50 compared to GCb6 was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08-1.41). GCb6 was significantly non-inferior to GC80 (HR = 0.93, upper limit of one-sided 95% CI 1.04). Adjusting for QoL did not change the findings. Best objective response rates were 29% (GC80), 20% (GC50) and 27% (GCb6), p < 0.007. There were more dose reductions and treatment delays in the GCb6 arm and more adverse events (60% with at least one grade 3-4 compared to 43% GC80 and 30% GC50). INTERPRETATION: In combination with gemcitabine, carboplatin at AUC6 is not inferior to cisplatin at 80 mg/m2 in terms of survival. Carboplatin was associated with more adverse events and not with better quality of life. Cisplatin at the lower dose of 50 mg/m2 has worse survival which is not compensated by better quality of life. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00112710. EUDRACT NUMBER: 2004-003868-30. CANCER RESEARCH UK TRIAL IDENTIFIER: CRUK/04/009.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 18(8): 1116-1125, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer, but the optimal radiotherapy schedule and dose remains controversial. The aim of this study was to establish a standard chemoradiotherapy treatment regimen in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: The CONVERT trial was an open-label, phase 3, randomised superiority trial. We enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who had cytologically or histologically confirmed limited-stage small-cell lung cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and adequate pulmonary function. Patients were recruited from 73 centres in eight countries. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 45 Gy radiotherapy in 30 twice-daily fractions of 1·5 Gy over 19 days, or 66 Gy in 33 once-daily fractions of 2 Gy over 45 days, starting on day 22 after commencing cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy (given as four to six cycles every 3 weeks in both groups). The allocation method used was minimisation with a random element, stratified by institution, planned number of chemotherapy cycles, and performance status. Treatment group assignments were not masked. The primary endpoint was overall survival, defined as time from randomisation until death from any cause, analysed by modified intention-to-treat. A 12% higher overall survival at 2 years in the once-daily group versus the twice-daily group was considered to be clinically significant to show superiority of the once-daily regimen. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00433563) and is currently in follow-up. FINDINGS: Between April 7, 2008, and Nov 29, 2013, 547 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive twice-daily concurrent chemoradiotherapy (274 patients) or once-daily concurrent chemoradiotherapy (273 patients). Four patients (one in the twice-daily group and three in the once-daily group) did not return their case report forms and were lost to follow-up; these patients were not included in our analyses. At a median follow-up of 45 months (IQR 35-58), median overall survival was 30 months (95% CI 24-34) in the twice-daily group versus 25 months (21-31) in the once-daily group (hazard ratio for death in the once daily group 1·18 [95% CI 0·95-1·45]; p=0·14). 2-year overall survival was 56% (95% CI 50-62) in the twice-daily group and 51% (45-57) in the once-daily group (absolute difference between the treatment groups 5·3% [95% CI -3·2% to 13·7%]). The most common grade 3-4 adverse event in patients evaluated for chemotherapy toxicity was neutropenia (197 [74%] of 266 patients in the twice-daily group vs 170 [65%] of 263 in the once-daily group). Most toxicities were similar between the groups, except there was significantly more grade 4 neutropenia with twice-daily radiotherapy (129 [49%] vs 101 [38%]; p=0·05). In patients assessed for radiotherapy toxicity, was no difference in grade 3-4 oesophagitis between the groups (47 [19%] of 254 patients in the twice-daily group vs 47 [19%] of 246 in the once-daily group; p=0·85) and grade 3-4 radiation pneumonitis (4 [3%] of 254 vs 4 [2%] of 246; p=0·70). 11 patients died from treatment-related causes (three in the twice-daily group and eight in the once-daily group). INTERPRETATION: Survival outcomes did not differ between twice-daily and once-daily concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer, and toxicity was similar and lower than expected with both regimens. Since the trial was designed to show superiority of once-daily radiotherapy and was not powered to show equivalence, the implication is that twice-daily radiotherapy should continue to be considered the standard of care in this setting. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK (Clinical Trials Awards and Advisory Committee), French Ministry of Health, Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (Cancer Research Fund, Lung Cancer, and Radiation Oncology Groups).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Esofagite/etiologia , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neutropenia/etiologia , Pneumonite por Radiação/etiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 924: 29-32, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27753014

RESUMO

Molecular profiling using low coverage whole genome sequencing of cell free DNA (cfDNA) represents a non-targeted approach to identify multiple somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) across different lung cancer subtypes. We aim to establish that SCNA can be detected in cfDNA of lung cancer cases.Standard protocols were followed to process matched cfDNA, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumour and lymphocyte DNA. Copy number profiles for cfDNA or FFPE DNA were normalised to profiles from matched lymphocyte DNA with the software CNAnorm. Technical sensitivity was determined by spiking different proportions of FFPE tumour DNA into cfDNA from controls.The median genome coverage was 0.26X (range 0.05X-0.97X). For two advanced stage cases there was a positive correlation between copy number ratio profiles of matched cfDNA and FFPE DNA (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). There was no correlation for four advanced and two early stage cases. There were low magnitude copy number aberrations detected in high-risk controls (N = 5). We detected spiked FFPE DNA derived SCNAs with a tumour fraction as low as 10 % of cfDNA.Our preliminary results demonstrate non-invasive detection of tumour-derived copy number alterations in advanced lung cancer cases with low coverage whole genome sequencing. Clinical characteristics and treatment may influence whether SCNA are detected in cfDNA.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Formaldeído , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Inclusão em Parafina , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fixação de Tecidos
18.
Br J Cancer ; 115(9): 1058-1068, 2016 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27560552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a diverse group of malignancies that remain a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Relatively few reliable cell lines currently exist. Rapidly developing technology for genomic profiling with emerging insights into candidate functional (driver) aberrations raises the need for more models for in vitro functional validation of molecular targets. METHODS: Primary cell culture was performed on STS tumours utilising a differential attachment approach. Cell lines were characterised by morphology, immunocytochemistry, proliferation assays, short tandem repeat (STR) and microarray-based genomic copy number profiling. RESULTS: Of 47 STS cases of various subtypes, half formed adherent monolayers. Seven formed self-immortalised cell lines, including three undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, two dedifferentiated liposarcomas (one of which had received radiotherapy), a leiomyosarcoma and a myxofibrosarcoma. Two morphologically distinct yet genetically identical variants were established in separate cultures for the latter two tumours. All cell lines demonstrated genomic and phenotypic features that not only confirm their malignant characteristics but also confirm retention of DNA copy number aberrations present in their parent tumours that likely include drivers. CONCLUSIONS: These primary cell lines are much-needed additions to the number of reliable cell lines of STS with complex genomics available for initial functional validation of candidate molecular targets.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Cultura Primária de Células , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Cariotipagem , Leiomiossarcoma/genética , Leiomiossarcoma/patologia , Lipossarcoma/genética , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Primária de Células/métodos
19.
EBioMedicine ; 11: 219-226, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses show that individuals with high risk variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25 are likely to develop lung cancer earlier than those with low-risk genotypes. The same high-risk genetic variants also predict nicotine dependence and delayed smoking cessation. It is unclear whether smoking cessation confers the same benefits in terms of lung cancer risk reduction for those who possess CHRNA5 risk variants versus those who do not. METHODS: Meta-analyses examined the association between smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in 15 studies of individuals with European ancestry who possessed varying rs16969968 genotypes (N=12,690 ever smokers, including 6988 cases of lung cancer and 5702 controls) in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. RESULTS: Smoking cessation (former vs. current smokers) was associated with a lower likelihood of lung cancer (OR=0.48, 95%CI=0.30-0.75, p=0.0015). Among lung cancer patients, smoking cessation was associated with a 7-year delay in median age of lung cancer diagnosis (HR=0.68, 95%CI=0.61-0.77, p=4.9∗10-10). The CHRNA5 rs16969968 risk genotype (AA) was associated with increased risk and earlier diagnosis for lung cancer, but the beneficial effects of smoking cessation were very similar in those with and without the risk genotype. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7years for those who develop it. These results: 1) underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2) suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3) have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
20.
Invest New Drugs ; 34(3): 290-9, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26961907

RESUMO

Background IMGN901 is a CD56-targeting antibody-drug conjugate designed for tumor-selective delivery of the cytotoxic maytansinoid DM1. This phase 1 study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of IMGN901 in patients with CD56-expressing solid tumors. Methods Patients were enrolled in cohorts of escalating IMGN901 doses, administered intravenously, on 3 consecutive days every 21 days. A dose-expansion phase accrued patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), or ovarian cancer. Results Fifty-two patients were treated at doses escalating from 4 to 94 mg/m(2)/day. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be 75 mg/m(2). Dose-limiting toxicities included fatigue, neuropathy, headache or meningitis-like symptoms, chest pain, dyspnea, and myalgias. In the dose-expansion phase (n = 45), seven patients received 75 mg/m(2) and 38 received 60 mg/m(2) for up to 21 cycles. The recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) was established at 60 mg/m(2) during dose expansion. Overall, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were experienced by 96.9 % of all patients, the majority of which were Grade 1 or 2. The most commonly reported Grade 3 or 4 TEAEs were hyponatremia and dyspnea (each 8.2 %). Responses included 1 complete response (CR), 1 clinical CR, and 1 unconfirmed partial response (PR) in MCC; and 1 unconfirmed PR in SCLC. Stable disease was seen for 25 % of all evaluable patients who received doses ≥60 mg/m(2). Conclusions The RP2D for IMGN901 of 60 mg/m(2) administered for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks was associated with an acceptable tolerability profile. Objective responses were observed in patients with advanced CD56+ cancers.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno CD56/imunologia , Maitansina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Maitansina/administração & dosagem , Maitansina/efeitos adversos , Maitansina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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