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1.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063086

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) inflicts massive injury to the coronary microcirculation leading to vascular disintegration and capillary rarefication in the infarct region. Tissue repair after MI involves a robust angiogenic response that commences in the infarct border zone and extends into the necrotic infarct core. Technological advances in several areas have provided novel mechanistic understanding of postinfarction angiogenesis and how it may be targeted to improve heart function after MI. Cell lineage tracing studies indicate that new capillary structures arise by sprouting angiogenesis from preexisting endothelial cells (ECs) in the infarct border zone with no meaningful contribution from non-endothelial cell sources. Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) shows that ECs in infarcted hearts may be grouped into clusters with distinct gene expression signatures, likely reflecting functionally distinct cell populations. EC-specific multicolor lineage tracing reveals that EC subsets clonally expand after MI. Expanding EC clones may arise from tissue-resident ECs with stem cell characteristics that have been identified in multiple organs including the heart. Tissue repair after MI involves interactions among multiple cell types which occur, to a large extent, through secreted proteins and their cognate receptors. While we are only beginning to understand the full complexity of this intercellular communication, macrophage and fibroblast populations have emerged as major drivers of the angiogenic response after MI. Animal data support the view that the endogenous angiogenic response after MI can be boosted to reduce scarring and adverse left ventricular remodeling. The improved mechanistic understanding of infarct angiogenesis therefore creates multiple therapeutic opportunities. During preclinical development, all proangiogenic strategies should be tested in animal models that replicate both cardiovascular risk factor(s) and the pharmacotherapy typically prescribed to patients with acute MI. Considering that the majority of patients nowadays do well after MI, clinical translation will require careful selection of patients in need of proangiogenic therapies.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 41(37): 3564-3575, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901270

RESUMO

AIMS : Balance between inflammatory and reparative leucocytes allows optimal healing after myocardial infarction (MI). Interindividual heterogeneity evokes variable functional outcome complicating targeted therapy. We aimed to characterize infarct chemokine CXC-motif receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression using positron emission tomography (PET) and establish its relationship to cardiac outcome. We tested whether image-guided early CXCR4 directed therapy attenuates chronic dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS : Mice (n = 180) underwent coronary ligation or sham surgery and serial PET imaging over 7 days. Infarct CXCR4 content was elevated over 3 days after MI compared with sham (%ID/g, Day 1:1.1 ± 0.2; Day 3:0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1, P < 0.001), confirmed by flow cytometry and histopathology. Mice that died of left ventricle (LV) rupture exhibited persistent inflammation at 3 days compared with survivors (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2% ID/g, P < 0.001). Cardiac magnetic resonance measured cardiac function. Higher CXCR4 signal at 1 and 3 days independently predicted worse functional outcome at 6 weeks (rpartial = -0.4, P = 0.04). Mice were treated with CXCR4 blocker AMD3100 following the imaging timecourse. On-peak CXCR4 blockade at 3 days lowered LV rupture incidence vs. untreated MI (8% vs. 25%), and improved contractile function at 6 weeks (+24%, P = 0.01). Off-peak CXCR4 blockade at 7 days did not improve outcome. Flow cytometry analysis revealed lower LV neutrophil and Ly6Chigh monocyte content after on-peak treatment. Patients (n = 50) early after MI underwent CXCR4 PET imaging and functional assessment. Infarct CXCR4 expression in acute MI patients correlated with contractile function at time of PET and on follow-up. CONCLUSION : Positron emission tomography imaging identifies early CXCR4 up-regulation which predicts acute rupture and chronic contractile dysfunction. Imaging-guided CXCR4 inhibition accelerates inflammatory resolution and improves outcome. This supports a molecular imaging-based theranostic approach to guide therapy after MI.

3.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 146: 43-59, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649928

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia induces a multifaceted remodeling process in the heart. Novel therapeutic entry points to counteract maladaptive signalling include the modulation of non-coding RNA molecules such as long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). We here questioned if the lncRNA candidate H19 exhibits regulatory potential in the setting of myocardial infarction. Initial profiling of H19 expression revealed a dynamic expression profile of H19 with upregulation in the acute phase after murine cardiac ischemia. In vitro, we found that oxygen deficiency leads to H19 upregulation in several cardiac cell types. Repression of endogenous H19 caused multiple phenotypes in cultivated murine cardiomyocytes including enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, at least partly through attenuated vitamin D signalling. Unbiased proteome analysis revealed further involvement of H19 in mRNA splicing and translation as well as inflammatory signalling pathways. To study H19 function more precisely, we investigated the phenotype of systemic H19 loss in a genetic mouse model of H19 deletion (H19 KO). Infarcted heart tissue of H19 KO mice showed a massive increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines after ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) without significant effects on scar formation or cardiac function but exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy indicating pathological cardiac remodeling. H19-dependent changes in cardiomyocyte-derived extracellular vesicle release and alterations in NF-κB signalling were evident. Cardiac cell fractionation experiments revealed that enhanced H19 expression in the proliferative phase after MI derived mainly from cardiac fibroblasts. Here further research is needed to elucidate its role in fibroblast activation and function. In conclusion, the lncRNA H19 is dynamically regulated after MI and involved in multiple pathways of different cardiac cell types including cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac inflammation.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155309

RESUMO

AIMS: Low cardiac iron levels promote heart failure in experimental models. While cardiac iron concentration (CI) is decreased in patients with advanced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), CI has never been measured in non-advanced HFrEF. We measured CI in left ventricular (LV) endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) from patients with non-advanced HFrEF and explored CI association with systemic iron status and disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 80 consecutive patients with non-ischaemic HFrEF with New York Heart Association class II or III symptoms and a median (interquartile range) LV ejection fraction of 25 (18-33)%. CI was 304 (262-373) µg/g dry tissue. CI was not related to immunohistological findings or the presence of cardiotropic viral genomes in EMBs and was not related to biomarkers of systemic iron status or anaemia. Patients with CI in the lowest quartile (CIQ1 ) had lower body mass indices and more often presented with heart failure histories longer than 6 months than patients in the upper three quartiles (CIQ2-4 ). CIQ1 patients had higher serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels than CIQ2-4 patients [3566 (1513-6412) vs. 1542 (526-2811) ng/L; P = 0.005]. CIQ1 patients also had greater LV end-diastolic (P = 0.001) and end-systolic diameter indices (P = 0.003) and higher LV end-diastolic pressures (P = 0.046) than CIQ2-4 patients. CONCLUSION: Low CI is associated with greater disease severity in patients with non-advanced non-ischaemic HFrEF. CI is unrelated to systemic iron homeostasis. The prognostic and therapeutic implications of CI measurements in EMBs should be further explored.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(5): 539-548, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401672

RESUMO

AIMS: In the placebo-controlled, double-blind BOne marrOw transfer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration (BOOST) 2 trial, intracoronary autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) transfer did not improve recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 6 months in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and moderately reduced LVEF. Regional myocardial perfusion as determined by adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (S-CMR) may be more sensitive than global LVEF in detecting BMC treatment effects. Here, we sought to evaluate (i) the changes of myocardial perfusion in the infarct area over time (ii) the effects of BMC therapy on infarct perfusion, and (iii) the relation of infarct perfusion to LVEF recovery at 6 months. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 patients from BOOST-2 (placebo, n = 10; BMC, n = 41), S-CMR was performed 5.1 ± 2.9 days after PCI (before placebo/BMC treatment) and after 6 months. Infarct perfusion improved from baseline to 6 months in the overall patient cohort as reflected by the semi-quantitative parameters, perfusion defect-infarct size ratio (change from 0.54 ± 0.20 to 0.43 ± 0.22; P = 0.006) and perfusion defect-upslope ratio (0.54 ± 0.23 to 0.68 ± 0.22; P < 0.001), irrespective of randomised treatment. Perfusion defect-upslope ratio at baseline correlated with LVEF recovery (r = 0.62; P < 0.001) after 6 months, with a threshold of 0.54 providing the best sensitivity (79%) and specificity (74%) (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.92). CONCLUSION: Infarct perfusion improves from baseline to 6 months and predicts LVEF recovery in STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. Intracoronary BMC therapy did not enhance infarct perfusion in the BOOST-2 trial.

6.
J Nucl Med ; 61(4): 590-596, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653713

RESUMO

Inflammation contributes to ventricular remodeling after myocardial ischemia, but its role in nonischemic heart failure is poorly understood. Local tissue inflammation is difficult to assess serially during pathogenesis. Although 18F-FDG accumulates in inflammatory leukocytes and thus may identify inflammation in the myocardial microenvironment, it remains unclear whether this imaging technique can isolate diffuse leukocytes in pressure-overload heart failure. We aimed to evaluate whether inflammation with 18F-FDG can be serially imaged in the early stages of pressure-overload-induced heart failure and to compare the time course with functional impairment assessed by cardiac MRI. Methods: C57Bl6/N mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) (n = 22), sham surgery (n = 12), or coronary ligation as an inflammation-positive control (n = 5). MRI assessed ventricular geometry and contractile function at 2 and 8 d after TAC. Immunostaining identified the extent of inflammatory leukocyte infiltration early in pressure overload. 18F-FDG PET scans were acquired at 3 and 7 d after TAC, under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia to suppress cardiomyocyte glucose uptake. Results: Pressure overload evoked rapid left ventricular dilation compared with sham (end-systolic volume, day 2: 40.6 ± 10.2 µL vs. 23.8 ± 1.7 µL, P < 0.001). Contractile function was similarly impaired (ejection fraction, day 2: 40.9% ± 9.7% vs. 59.2% ± 4.4%, P < 0.001). The severity of contractile impairment was proportional to histology-defined myocardial macrophage density on day 8 (r = -0.669, P = 0.010). PET imaging identified significantly higher left ventricular 18F-FDG accumulation in TAC mice than in sham mice on day 3 (10.5 ± 4.1 percentage injected dose [%ID]/g vs. 3.8 ± 0.9 %ID/g, P < 0.001) and on day 7 (7.8 ± 3.7 %ID/g vs. 3.0 ± 0.8 %ID/g, P = 0.006), though the efficiency of cardiomyocyte suppression was variable among TAC mice. The 18F-FDG signal correlated with ejection fraction (r = -0.75, P = 0.01) and ventricular volume (r = 0.75, P < 0.01). Western immunoblotting demonstrated a 60% elevation of myocardial glucose transporter 4 expression in the left ventricle at 8 d after TAC, indicating altered glucose metabolism. Conclusion: TAC induces rapid changes in left ventricular geometry and contractile function, with a parallel modest infiltration of inflammatory macrophages. Metabolic remodeling overshadows inflammatory leukocyte signal using 18F-FDG PET imaging. More selective inflammatory tracers are requisite to identify the diffuse local inflammation in pressure overload.

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(11): 2415-2429, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864993

RESUMO

As therapeutic approaches have evolved from exogenous bone marrow cell delivery to pharmacological stimulation of endogenous repair, so too has imaging of cardiac repair made significant strides forward. Evaluation of functional outcome remains a staple of noninvasive clinical imaging, which can robustly quantify contractile function, perfusion, and tissue viability. Direct labeling of cells or other novel therapeutics visualizes the whole-body distribution and pharmacokinetics of the therapeutic agent, providing insights into retention, targeting, and drug-tissue interactions. And finally, targeted molecular imaging agents are emerging that may be specifically coupled to drugs targeting the same pathway. This approach enables interrogation of temporal and spatial changes at the molecular level underlying tissue degeneration and regeneration, which facilitates accurate patient selection and timing for therapeutic intervention, as exemplified by recent efforts focusing on the role of inflammation in cardiac repair. The concept of image-guided repair carves out an important and evolving niche for molecular imaging in cardiovascular medicine, with the potential not only to predict outcomes but also to improve patient stratification and progress toward personalized reparative therapy.

8.
J Nucl Med ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806766

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) triggers a local and systemic inflammatory response. We recently showed microglia involvement using TSPO imaging. Here, we evaluate whether 11C-methionine provides further insights into heart-brain inflammation networking. Methods: Male Bl6N mice underwent permanent coronary artery ligation followed by 11C-methionine PET at 3 and 7 days (n = 3). In subgroups, leukocyte homing was blocked by integrin antibodies (n = 5). The cellular substrate for PET signal was identified using brain section immunostaining. Results: 11C-methionine uptake peaked in the MI region at d3 (5.9±0.9vs 2.4±0.5 %ID/cc), decreasing to control level by d7 (4.3±0.6 %ID/cc). Brain uptake was proportional to cardiac uptake (r=0.47,p<0.05), peaking also at d3 (2.9±0.4vs 2.4±0.3 %ID/cc) and returning to baseline at d7 (2.3±0.4 %ID/cc). Integrin blockade reduced uptake at every time point. Immunostaining at d3 revealed co-localization of the L-type amino acid transporter with GFAP-positive astrocytes but not CD68-positive microglia. Conclusion: PET imaging with 11C-methionine specifically identifies an astrocyte component, enabling further dissection of the heart-brain axis in post MI inflammation.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5379, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772377

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived growth factor (MYDGF) is a paracrine-acting protein that is produced by bone marrow-derived monocytes and macrophages to protect and repair the heart after myocardial infarction (MI). This effect can be used for the development of protein-based therapies for ischemic tissue repair, also beyond the sole application in heart tissue. Here, we report the X-ray structure of MYDGF and identify its functionally relevant receptor binding epitope. MYDGF consists of a 10-stranded ß-sandwich with a folding topology showing no similarities to other cytokines or growth factors. By characterizing the epitope of a neutralizing antibody and utilizing functional assays to study the activity of surface patch-mutations, we were able to localize the receptor interaction interface to a region around two surface tyrosine residues 71 and 73 and an adjacent prominent loop structure of residues 97-101. These findings enable structure-guided protein engineering to develop modified MYDGF variants with potentially improved properties for clinical use.


Assuntos
Interleucinas/química , Interleucinas/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Vasos Coronários/citologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Epitopos , Humanos , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Tirosina/genética
10.
Circ Res ; 125(9): 787-801, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434553

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Mechanistic insight into the inflammatory response after acute myocardial infarction may inform new molecularly targeted treatment strategies to prevent chronic heart failure. OBJECTIVE: We identified the sulfatase SULF2 in an in silico secretome analysis in bone marrow cells from patients with acute myocardial infarction and detected increased sulfatase activity in myocardial autopsy samples. SULF2 (Sulf2 in mice) and its isoform SULF1 (Sulf1) act as endosulfatases removing 6-O-sulfate groups from heparan sulfate (HS) in the extracellular space, thus eliminating docking sites for HS-binding proteins. We hypothesized that the Sulfs have a role in tissue repair after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Both Sulfs were dynamically upregulated after coronary artery ligation in mice, attaining peak expression and activity levels during the first week after injury. Sulf2 was expressed by monocytes and macrophages, Sulf1 by endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Infarct border zone capillarization was impaired, scar size increased, and cardiac dysfunction more pronounced in mice with a genetic deletion of either Sulf1 or Sulf2. Studies in bone marrow-chimeric Sulf-deficient mice and Sulf-deficient cardiac endothelial cells established that inflammatory cell-derived Sulf2 and endothelial cell-autonomous Sulf1 promote angiogenesis. Mechanistically, both Sulfs reduced HS sulfation in the infarcted myocardium, thereby diminishing Vegfa (vascular endothelial growth factor A) interaction with HS. Along this line, both Sulfs rendered infarcted mouse heart explants responsive to the angiogenic effects of HS-binding Vegfa164 but did not modulate the angiogenic effects of non-HS-binding Vegfa120. Treating wild-type mice systemically with the small molecule HS-antagonist surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide, 1 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after myocardial infarction released Vegfa from HS, enhanced infarct border-zone capillarization, and exerted sustained beneficial effects on cardiac function and survival. CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish HS-editing Sulfs as critical inducers of postinfarction angiogenesis and identify HS sulfation as a therapeutic target for ischemic tissue repair.

11.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(10): e10018, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468715

RESUMO

Pathological cardiac overload induces myocardial protein synthesis and hypertrophy, which predisposes to heart failure. To inhibit hypertrophy therapeutically, the identification of negative regulators of cardiomyocyte protein synthesis is needed. Here, we identified the tumor suppressor protein TIP30 as novel inhibitor of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Reduced TIP30 levels in mice entailed exaggerated cardiac growth during experimental pressure overload, which was associated with cardiomyocyte cellular hypertrophy, increased myocardial protein synthesis, reduced capillary density, and left ventricular dysfunction. Pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis improved these defects. Our results are relevant for human disease, since we found diminished cardiac TIP30 levels in samples from patients suffering from end-stage heart failure or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, therapeutic overexpression of TIP30 in mouse hearts inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and improved left ventricular function during pressure overload and in cardiomyopathic mdx mice. Mechanistically, we identified a previously unknown anti-hypertrophic mechanism, whereby TIP30 binds the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) to prevent the interaction with its essential co-factor eEF1B2 and translational elongation. Therefore, TIP30 could be a therapeutic target to counteract cardiac hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/fisiopatologia , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
12.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310588

RESUMO

Fibrotic scarring drives the progression of heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, the development of specific treatment regimens to counteract fibrosis is of high clinical relevance. The transcription factor SOX9 functions as an important regulator during embryogenesis, but recent data point towards an additional causal role in organ fibrosis. We show here that SOX9 is upregulated in the scar after MI in mice. Fibroblast specific deletion of Sox9 ameliorated MI-induced left ventricular dysfunction, dilatation and myocardial scarring in vivo. Unexpectedly, deletion of Sox9 also potently eliminated persisting leukocyte infiltration of the scar in the chronic phase after MI. RNA-sequencing from the infarct scar revealed that Sox9 deletion in fibroblasts resulted in strongly downregulated expression of genes related to extracellular matrix, proteolysis and inflammation. Importantly, Sox9 deletion in isolated cardiac fibroblasts in vitro similarly affected gene expression as in the cardiac scar and reduced fibroblast proliferation, migration and contraction capacity. Together, our data demonstrate that fibroblast SOX9 functions as a master regulator of cardiac fibrosis and inflammation and might constitute a novel therapeutic target during MI.

13.
J Card Fail ; 25(11): 894-901, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the levels, kinetics, and prognostic value of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in cardiogenic shock (CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of GDF-15 were determined in serial plasma samples (0-120 h) from 177 CS patients in the CardShock study. Kinetics of GDF-15, its association with 90-day mortality, and incremental value for risk stratification were assessed. The median GDF-150h level was 9647 ng/L (IQR 4500-19,270 ng/L) and levels above median were significantly associated with acidosis, hyperlactatemia, renal dysfunction, and higher 90-day mortality (56% vs 28%, P < .001). Serial sampling showed that non-survivors had significantly higher GDF-15 levels at all time points (P < .001 for all). Furthermore, non-survivors displayed increasing and survivors declining GDF-15 levels during the first days in CS. Higher levels of GDF-15 were independently associated with mortality. A GDF-1512h cutoff >7000 ng/L was identified as a strong predictor of death (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.9-3.8, P = .002). Adding GDF-1512h >7000 ng/L to the CardShock risk score improved discrimination and risk stratification for 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 levels are highly elevated in CS and associated with markers of systemic hypoperfusion and end-organ dysfunction. GDF-15 helps to discriminate survivors from non-survivors very early in CS.

14.
16.
Circulation ; 139(15): 1798-1812, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) elicits an inflammatory response that drives tissue repair and adverse cardiac remodeling. Inflammatory cell trafficking after MI is controlled by C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). CXCR4 antagonists mobilize inflammatory cells and promote infarct repair, but the cellular mechanisms are unclear. METHODS: We investigated the therapeutic potential and mode of action of the peptidic macrocycle CXCR4 antagonist POL5551 in mice with reperfused MI. We applied cell depletion and adoptive transfer strategies using lymphocyte-deficient Rag1 knockout mice; DEREG mice, which express a diphtheria toxin receptor-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein under the control of the promoter/enhancer region of the regulatory T (Treg) cell-restricted Foxp3 transcription factor; and dendritic cell-depleted CD11c-Cre iDTR mice. Translational potential was explored in a porcine model of reperfused MI using serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal POL5551 injections in wild-type mice (8 mg/kg at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days) enhanced angiogenesis in the infarct border zone, reduced scar size, and attenuated left ventricular remodeling and contractile dysfunction at 28 days. Treatment effects were absent in splenectomized wild-type mice, Rag1 knockout mice, and Treg cell-depleted DEREG mice. Conversely, treatment effects could be transferred into infarcted splenectomized wild-type mice by transplanting splenic Treg cells from POL5551-treated infarcted DEREG mice. Instructive cues provided by infarct-primed dendritic cells were required for POL5551 treatment effects. POL5551 injections mobilized Treg cells into the peripheral blood, followed by enhanced Treg cell accumulation in the infarcted region. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes displayed similar mobilization kinetics, but their cardiac recruitment was not affected. POL5551, however, attenuated inflammatory gene expression in monocytes and macrophages in the infarcted region via Treg cells. Intravenous infusion of the clinical-stage POL5551 analogue POL6326 (3 mg/kg at 4, 6, 8, and 10 days) decreased infarct volume and improved left ventricular ejection fraction in pigs. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm CXCR4 blockade as a promising treatment strategy after MI. We identify dendritic cell-primed splenic Treg cells as the central arbiters of these therapeutic effects and thereby delineate a pharmacological strategy to promote infarct repair by augmenting Treg cell function in vivo.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteínas/farmacologia , Receptores CXCR4/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/imunologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transdução de Sinais , Sus scrofa , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Anal Chem ; 91(2): 1302-1308, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543396

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived growth factor (MYDGF in humans, Mydgf in mice) is a secreted protein with previously unknown biological functions. In a recent study, Mydgf was shown to mediate cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Lack of a sensitive assay to measure MYDGF in the circulation has hampered its further investigation. Here, we developed a liquid chromatography/multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry MYDGF assay, employing SDS-PAGE-based protein fractionation to deplete high-abundant proteins and a stable isotope-labeled synthetic standard peptide for quantification. The assay had a lower limit of quantification of 0.8 ng/mL and a linear range up to 190 ng/mL. Within-run and total imprecision ranged from 8 to 17% and 11 to 20%, respectively. MYDGF plasma concentrations were not affected by either storage at room temperature for 4 h or up to three freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy adults presented with a median (range) MYDGF concentration of 3.3 (1.3-6.7) ng/mL ( n = 120). MYDGF concentrations were elevated 2.7-fold ( P < 0.001) in patients with acute MI ( n = 101) and were associated with inflammatory biomarkers, renal dysfunction, and long-term cardiovascular mortality. The new assay and the favorable preanalytic characteristics of the analyte will facilitate studies into the pathophysiology of MYDGF and its potential use as a biomarker or protein therapeutic in patients with acute MI or other disease states.

18.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(1): 71-82, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931050

RESUMO

Aims: Chronic heart failure is becoming increasingly prevalent and is still associated with a high mortality rate. Myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis drive cardiac remodelling and heart failure, but they are not sufficiently inhibited by current treatment strategies. Furthermore, despite increasing knowledge on cardiomyocyte intracellular signalling proteins inducing pathological hypertrophy, therapeutic approaches to target these molecules are currently unavailable. In this study, we aimed to establish and test a therapeutic tool to counteract the 22 kDa calcium and integrin binding protein (CIB) 1, which we have previously identified as nodal regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and as activator of the maladaptive calcineurin/NFAT axis. Methods and results: Among three different sequences, we selected a shRNA construct (shCIB1) to specifically down-regulate CIB1 by 50% upon adenoviral overexpression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM), and upon overexpression by an adeno-associated-virus (AAV) 9 vector in mouse hearts. Overexpression of shCIB1 in NRCM markedly reduced cellular growth, improved contractility of bioartificial cardiac tissue and reduced calcineurin/NFAT activation in response to hypertrophic stimulation. In mice, administration of AAV-shCIB1 strongly ameliorated eccentric cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction during 2 weeks of pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Ultrastructural and molecular analyses revealed markedly reduced myocardial fibrosis, inhibition of hypertrophy associated gene expression and calcineurin/NFAT as well as ERK MAP kinase activation after TAC in AAV-shCIB1 vs. AAV-shControl treated mice. During long-term exposure to pressure overload for 10 weeks, AAV-shCIB1 treatment maintained its anti-hypertrophic and anti-fibrotic effects, but cardiac function was no longer improved vs. AAV-shControl treatment, most likely resulting from a reduction in myocardial angiogenesis upon downregulation of CIB1. Conclusions: Inhibition of CIB1 by a shRNA-mediated gene therapy potently inhibits pathological cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis during pressure overload. While cardiac function is initially improved by shCIB1, this cannot be kept up during persisting overload.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Terapêutica com RNAi , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
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