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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 836-843, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564437

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a genetically heterogeneous group of skeletal fragility diseases. Here, we report on five independent families with a progressively deforming type of OI, in whom we identified four homozygous truncation or frameshift mutations in MESD. Affected individuals had recurrent fractures and at least one had oligodontia. MESD encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein for the canonical Wingless-related integration site (WNT) signaling receptors LRP5 and LRP6. Because complete absence of MESD causes embryonic lethality in mice, we hypothesized that the OI-associated mutations are hypomorphic alleles since these mutations occur downstream of the chaperone activity domain but upstream of ER-retention domain. This would be consistent with the clinical phenotypes of skeletal fragility and oligodontia in persons deficient for LRP5 and LRP6, respectively. When we expressed wild-type (WT) and mutant MESD in HEK293T cells, we detected WT MESD in cell lysate but not in conditioned medium, whereas the converse was true for mutant MESD. We observed that both WT and mutant MESD retained the ability to chaperone LRP5. Thus, OI-associated MESD mutations produce hypomorphic alleles whose failure to remain within the ER significantly reduces but does not completely eliminate LRP5 and LRP6 trafficking. Since these individuals have no eye abnormalities (which occur in individuals completely lacking LRP5) and have neither limb nor brain patterning defects (both of which occur in mice completely lacking LRP6), we infer that bone mass accrual and dental patterning are more sensitive to reduced canonical WNT signaling than are other developmental processes. Biologic agents that can increase LRP5 and LRP6-mediated WNT signaling could benefit individuals with MESD-associated OI.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1180, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862798

RESUMO

A failure in optic fissure fusion during development can lead to blinding malformations of the eye. Here, we report a syndrome characterized by facial dysmorphism, colobomatous microphthalmia, ptosis and syndactyly with or without nephropathy, associated with homozygous frameshift mutations in FAT1. We show that Fat1 knockout mice and zebrafish embryos homozygous for truncating fat1a mutations exhibit completely penetrant coloboma, recapitulating the most consistent developmental defect observed in affected individuals. In human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the primary site for the fusion of optic fissure margins, FAT1 is localized at earliest cell-cell junctions, consistent with a role in facilitating optic fissure fusion during vertebrate eye development. Our findings establish FAT1 as a gene with pleiotropic effects in human, in that frameshift mutations cause a severe multi-system disorder whereas recessive missense mutations had been previously associated with isolated glomerulotubular nephropathy.


Assuntos
Blefaroptose/genética , Caderinas/genética , Coloboma/genética , Nefropatias/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Organogênese/genética , Sindactilia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Embrião de Mamíferos , Olho/embriologia , Ossos Faciais/anormalidades , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Junções Intercelulares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Cultura Primária de Células , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Síndrome , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(6): 2822-2839, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698748

RESUMO

The DNA methylation epigenetic signature is a key determinant during development. Rules governing its establishment and maintenance remain elusive especially at repetitive sequences, which account for the majority of methylated CGs. DNA methylation is altered in a number of diseases including those linked to mutations in factors that modify chromatin. Among them, SMCHD1 (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes Hinge Domain Containing 1) has been of major interest following identification of germline mutations in Facio-Scapulo-Humeral Dystrophy (FSHD) and in an unrelated developmental disorder, Bosma Arhinia Microphthalmia Syndrome (BAMS). By investigating why germline SMCHD1 mutations lead to these two different diseases, we uncovered a role for this factor in de novo methylation at the pluripotent stage. SMCHD1 is required for the dynamic methylation of the D4Z4 macrosatellite upon reprogramming but seems dispensable for methylation maintenance. We find that FSHD and BAMS patient's cells carrying SMCHD1 mutations are both permissive for DUX4 expression, a transcription factor whose regulation has been proposed as the main trigger for FSHD. These findings open new questions as to what is the true aetiology for FSHD, the epigenetic events associated with the disease thus calling the current model into question and opening new perspectives for understanding repetitive DNA sequences regulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/fisiologia , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Atresia das Cóanas/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Microftalmia/genética , Microftalmia/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/genética , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/patologia , Nariz/anormalidades
4.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(4): 398-406, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580479

RESUMO

The use of modern next-generation sequencing-based approaches for gene identification has tremendously improved our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the great majority of well-known syndromes, whereas only a few remain to be elucidated. Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is such a disorder for which the molecular basis is still unknown although it represents a highly recognizable phenotype. Clinically, patients with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome show typical craniofacial dysmorphism, eye malformations, a distinctive facial appearance, abnormalities of hair and skin, short stature, and, interestingly, they might also present with aspects of premature aging. The clinical diagnosis is mainly given by the very typical facial gestalt of patients. In this review, we (a) summarize the current knowledge on the phenotypic traits, focusing on described classic cases, (b) discuss the missing molecular link, and (c) present innovative future strategies for gene identification.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Síndrome de Hallermann/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Hallermann/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Síndrome de Hallermann/classificação , Humanos
5.
J Med Genet ; 55(12): 837-846, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS) is a form of segmental progeria presenting neonatally, characterised by growth retardation, sparse scalp hair, generalised lipodystrophy with characteristic local fatty tissue accumulations and unusual face. We aimed to understand its molecular cause. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in two families, targeted sequencing in 10 other families and performed in silico modelling studies and transcript processing analyses to explore the structural and functional consequences of the identified variants. RESULTS: Biallelic POLR3A variants were identified in eight affected individuals and monoallelic variants of the same gene in four other individuals. In the latter, lack of genetic material precluded further analyses. Multiple variants were found to affect POLR3A transcript processing and were mostly located in deep intronic regions, making clinical suspicion fundamental to detection. While biallelic POLR3A variants have been previously reported in 4H syndrome and adolescent-onset progressive spastic ataxia, recurrent haplotypes specifically occurring in individuals with WRS were detected. All WRS-associated POLR3A amino acid changes were predicted to perturb substantially POLR3A structure/function. CONCLUSION: Biallelic mutations in POLR3A, which encodes for the largest subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III, underlie WRS. No isolated functional sites in POLR3A explain the phenotype variability in POLR3A-related disorders. We suggest that specific combinations of compound heterozygous variants must be present to cause the WRS phenotype. Our findings expand the molecular mechanisms contributing to progeroid disorders.

7.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 252, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123105

RESUMO

Mutations in genes that encode proteins of the SWI/SNF complex, called BAF complex in mammals, cause a spectrum of disorders that ranges from syndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) to Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS). While NCBRS is known to be a recognizable and restricted phenotype, caused by missense mutations in SMARCA2, the term CSS has been used lately for a more heterogeneous group of phenotypes that are caused by mutations in either of the genes ARID1B, ARID1A, ARID2, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, SMARCE1, SOX11, or DPF2. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the phenotypic traits and molecular causes of the above named conditions, consider the question whether a clinical distinction of the phenotypes is still adequate, and suggest the term "SWI/SNF-related intellectual disability disorders" (SSRIDDs). We will also outline important features to identify the ARID1B-related phenotype in the absence of classic CSS features, and discuss distinctive and overlapping features of the SSRIDD subtypes. Moreover, we will briefly review the function of the SWI/SNF complex in development and describe the mutational landscapes of the genes involved in SSRIDD.

8.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome (JBTS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with marked phenotypic variability and genetic heterogeneity. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the KIAA0586 gene on chromosome 14q23 are known to be associated with JBTS-23. The frameshift variant c.428delG is the most frequent KIAA0586 variant reported in JBTS-23; yet, homozygosity of this variant was observed in two patients with JBTS-23. However, homozygosity of the c.428delG variant was recently reported as well in one healthy individual. OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether the frameshift variant c.428delG in KIAA0586 is pathogenic in the homozygous state. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing as well as RNA analysis were performed. RESULTS: We identified biallelic mutations, including the variant c.428delG and a splice site variant c.1413-1G>C, in KIAA0586 in two siblings with clinical and MRI features of JBTS. The c.1413-1G>C variant was inherited from the healthy father. The c.428delG variant was found in the healthy mother in a homozygous state in blood lymphocytes, hair root cells and buccal epithelial cells. RNA analysis revealed that the transcript harbouring the c.428delG variant was expressed in blood cells from the healthy mother, indicating that transcripts harbouring this variant elude the mechanism of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. CONCLUSION: Considering this and the high allele frequency of 0.003117 in the gnomAD database, we conclude that c.428delG represents a JBTS disease-causing variant only if present in compound heterozygous state with a more severe KIAA0586 variant, but not in a homozygous situation.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 221-231, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057030

RESUMO

Bloom syndrome, caused by biallelic mutations in BLM, is characterized by prenatal-onset growth deficiency, short stature, an erythematous photosensitive malar rash, and increased cancer predisposition. Diagnostically, a hallmark feature is the presence of increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) on cytogenetic testing. Here, we describe biallelic mutations in TOP3A in ten individuals with prenatal-onset growth restriction and microcephaly. TOP3A encodes topoisomerase III alpha (TopIIIα), which binds to BLM as part of the BTRR complex, and promotes dissolution of double Holliday junctions arising during homologous recombination. We also identify a homozygous truncating variant in RMI1, which encodes another component of the BTRR complex, in two individuals with microcephalic dwarfism. The TOP3A mutations substantially reduce cellular levels of TopIIIα, and consequently subjects' cells demonstrate elevated rates of SCE. Unresolved DNA recombination and/or replication intermediates persist into mitosis, leading to chromosome segregation defects and genome instability that most likely explain the growth restriction seen in these subjects and in Bloom syndrome. Clinical features of mitochondrial dysfunction are evident in several individuals with biallelic TOP3A mutations, consistent with the recently reported additional function of TopIIIα in mitochondrial DNA decatenation. In summary, our findings establish TOP3A mutations as an additional cause of prenatal-onset short stature with increased cytogenetic SCEs and implicate the decatenation activity of the BTRR complex in their pathogenesis.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 468-479, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429572

RESUMO

Variants affecting the function of different subunits of the BAF chromatin-remodelling complex lead to various neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Coffin-Siris syndrome. Furthermore, variants in proteins containing PHD fingers, motifs recognizing specific histone tail modifications, have been associated with several neurological and developmental-delay disorders. Here, we report eight heterozygous de novo variants (one frameshift, two splice site, and five missense) in the gene encoding the BAF complex subunit double plant homeodomain finger 2 (DPF2). Affected individuals share common clinical features described in individuals with Coffin-Siris syndrome, including coarse facial features, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and hypoplasia of fingernails and toenails. All variants occur within the highly conserved PHD1 and PHD2 motifs. Moreover, missense variants are situated close to zinc binding sites and are predicted to disrupt these sites. Pull-down assays of recombinant proteins and histone peptides revealed that a subset of the identified missense variants abolish or impaire DPF2 binding to unmodified and modified H3 histone tails. These results suggest an impairment of PHD finger structural integrity and cohesion and most likely an aberrant recognition of histone modifications. Furthermore, the overexpression of these variants in HEK293 and COS7 cell lines was associated with the formation of nuclear aggregates and the recruitment of both wild-type DPF2 and BRG1 to these aggregates. Expression analysis of truncating variants found in the affected individuals indicated that the aberrant transcripts escape nonsense-mediated decay. Altogether, we provide compelling evidence that de novo variants in DPF2 cause Coffin-Siris syndrome and propose a dominant-negative mechanism of pathogenicity.

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 5(3): 211-217, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457878

RESUMO

The relevance of gene mutations leading to heart diseases and hence heart failure has become evident. The risk for and the course of heart failure depends on genomic variants and mutations underlying the so-called genetic predisposition. Genetic contribution to heart failure is highly heterogenous and complex. For any patient with a likely inherited heart failure syndrome, genetic counselling is recommended and important. In the last few years, novel sequencing technologies (named next-generation sequencing - NGS) have dramatically improved the availability of molecular testing, the efficiency of genetic analyses, and moreover reduced the cost for genetic testing. Due to this development, genetic testing has become increasingly accessible and NGS-based sequencing is now applied in clinical routine diagnostics. One of the most common reasons of heart failure are cardiomyopathies such as the dilated or the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nearly 100 disease-associated genes have been identified for cardiomyopathies. The knowledge of a pathogenic mutation can be used for genetic counselling, risk and prognosis determination, therapy guidance and hence for a more effective treatment. Besides, family cascade screening for a known familial, pathogenic mutation can lead to an early diagnosis in affected individuals. At that timepoint, a preventative intervention could be used to avoid or delay disease onset or delay disease progression. Understanding the cellular basis of genetic heart failure syndromes in more detail may provide new insights into the molecular biology of physiological and impaired cardiac (cell) function. As our understanding of the molecular and genetic pathophysiology of heart failure will increase, this might help to identify novel therapeutic targets and may lead to the development of new and specific treatment options in patients with heart failure.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 833-843, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100093

RESUMO

Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS) is a dysmorphic syndrome characterized by coronal craniosynostosis and severe midface hypoplasia, body and facial hypertrichosis, microphthalmia, short stature, and short distal phalanges. Variable lipoatrophy and cutis laxa are the basis for a progeroid appearance. Using exome and genome sequencing, we identified the recurrent de novo mutations c.650G>A (p.Arg217His) and c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) in SLC25A24 in five unrelated girls diagnosed with GCMS. Two of the girls had pronounced neonatal progeroid features and were initially diagnosed with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. SLC25A24 encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane ATP-Mg/Pi carrier. In fibroblasts from affected individuals, the mutated SLC25A24 showed normal stability. In contrast to control cells, the probands' cells showed mitochondrial swelling, which was exacerbated upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The same effect was observed after overexpression of the mutant cDNA. Under normal culture conditions, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the probands' fibroblasts was intact, whereas ATP content in the mitochondrial matrix was lower than that in control cells. However, upon H2O2 exposure, the membrane potential was significantly elevated in cells harboring the mutated SLC25A24. No reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number was observed. These findings demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress is due to the SLC25A24 mutations. Our results suggest that the SLC25A24 mutations induce a gain of pathological function and link mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi transport to the development of skeletal and connective tissue.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antiporters/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/genética , Hipertricose/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cútis Laxa/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lactente , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Progéria/genética
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(3): 391-403, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886341

RESUMO

In five separate families, we identified nine individuals affected by a previously unidentified syndrome characterized by growth retardation, spine malformation, facial dysmorphisms, and developmental delays. Using homozygosity mapping, array CGH, and exome sequencing, we uncovered bi-allelic loss-of-function CDK10 mutations segregating with this disease. CDK10 is a protein kinase that partners with cyclin M to phosphorylate substrates such as ETS2 and PKN2 in order to modulate cellular growth. To validate and model the pathogenicity of these CDK10 germline mutations, we generated conditional-knockout mice. Homozygous Cdk10-knockout mice died postnatally with severe growth retardation, skeletal defects, and kidney and lung abnormalities, symptoms that partly resemble the disease's effect in humans. Fibroblasts derived from affected individuals and Cdk10-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) proliferated normally; however, Cdk10-knockout MEFs developed longer cilia. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of mutant and wild-type mouse organs revealed lipid metabolic changes consistent with growth impairment and altered ciliogenesis in the absence of CDK10. Our results document the CDK10 loss-of-function phenotype and point to a function for CDK10 in transducing signals received at the primary cilia to sustain embryonic and postnatal development.


Assuntos
Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Mutação , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cílios/metabolismo , Cílios/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Linhagem , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo
14.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(5): 580-584, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very recently, compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in TELO2 were shown to underlie the newly-described You-Hoover-Fong syndrome. TELO2 forms part of the co-chaperone triple T complex (TTT complex), which plays an important role in the maturation and stabilization of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs). Patients with mutations in TELO2 present with microcephaly and associated intellectual disability, postnatal growth retardation and dysmorphic features. Here, we describe Danish sisters with two novel mutations in TELO2. In particular, we highlight the clinical features of the 22-year index patient, which are more severe than the original patients described, thereby expanding the clinical spectrum of YHFS. METHODS: The index patient was clinically examined and subsequently exome sequencing on her DNA was performed using the NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Human Exome Library v2.0 enrichment kit on an Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencer. RESULTS: Two novel, compound heterozygous mutations in TELO2 were identified in the index patient and her deceased older sister. Both have clinical features in keeping with the original YHFS patients, although the index patient seems to represent the severe end of the clinical spectrum with very marked prenatal onset growth retardation and microcephaly, severe global developmental delay and facial dysmorphic features. Additional clinical findings include eye anomalies (bilateral congenital cataracts, retinitis pigmentosa, convergent squint), bilateral conductive hearing loss, an abnormal kidney and seizures. CONCLUSION: This report of Danish siblings with YHFS serves to expand the presentation of this new syndrome to include features in keeping with a form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism on the severe end of the clinical spectrum, and adds two novel mutations to the TELO2 mutational spectrum.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(8): 975-991, 2017 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by an acute left ventricular dysfunction and is associated with life-threating complications in the acute phase. The underlying disease mechanism in TTS is still unknown. A genetic basis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of TTS, to test the hypothesis of altered ß-adrenergic signaling in TTS iPSC-cardiomyocytes (CMs), and to explore whether genetic susceptibility underlies the pathophysiology of TTS. METHODS: Somatic cells of patients with TTS and control subjects were reprogrammed to iPSCs and differentiated into CMs. Three-month-old CMs were subjected to catecholamine stimulation to simulate neurohumoral overstimulation. We investigated ß-adrenergic signaling and TTS cardiomyocyte function. RESULTS: Enhanced ß-adrenergic signaling in TTS-iPSC-CMs under catecholamine-induced stress increased expression of the cardiac stress marker NR4A1; cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels; and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A-mediated hyperphosphorylation of RYR2-S2808, PLN-S16, TNI-S23/24, and Cav1.2-S1928, and leads to a reduced calcium time to transient 50% decay. These cellular catecholamine-dependent responses were mainly mediated by ß1-adrenoceptor signaling in TTS. Engineered heart muscles from TTS-iPSC-CMs showed an impaired force of contraction and a higher sensitivity to isoprenaline-stimulated inotropy compared with control subjects. In addition, altered electrical activity and increased lipid accumulation were detected in catecholamine-treated TTS-iPSC-CMs, and were confirmed by differentially expressed lipid transporters CD36 and CPT1C. Furthermore, we uncovered genetic variants in different key regulators of cardiac function. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced ß-adrenergic signaling and higher sensitivity to catecholamine-induced toxicity were identified as mechanisms associated with the TTS phenotype. (International Takotsubo Registry [InterTAK Registry] [InterTAK]; NCT01947621).


Assuntos
Catecolaminas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/metabolismo , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/patologia
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(15): 2923-2932, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28472301

RESUMO

CACNA1D encodes the pore-forming α1-subunit of Cav1.3, an L-type voltage-gated Ca2+-channel. Despite the recent discovery of two de novo missense gain-of-function mutations in Cav1.3 in two individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability CACNA1D has not been considered a prominent ASD-risk gene in large scale genetic analyses, since such studies primarily focus on likely-disruptive genetic variants. Here we report the discovery and characterization of a third de novo missense mutation in CACNA1D (V401L) in a patient with ASD and epilepsy. For the functional characterization we introduced mutation V401L into two major C-terminal long and short Cav1.3 splice variants, expressed wild-type or mutant channel complexes in tsA-201 cells and performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Mutation V401L, localized within the channel's activation gate, significantly enhanced current densities, shifted voltage dependence of activation and inactivation to more negative voltages and reduced channel inactivation in both Cav1.3 splice variants. Altogether, these gating changes are expected to result in enhanced Ca2+-influx through the channel, thus representing a strong gain-of-function phenotype. Additionally, we also found that mutant channels retained full sensitivity towards the clinically available Ca2+ -channel blocker isradipine. Our findings strengthen the evidence for CACNA1D as a novel candidate autism risk gene and encourage experimental therapy with available channel-blockers for this mutation. The additional presence of seizures and neurological abnormalities in our patient define a novel phenotype partially overlapping with symptoms in two individuals with PASNA (congenital primary aldosteronism, seizures and neurological abnormalities) caused by similar Cav1.3 gain-of-function mutations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Criança , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico/fisiologia , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Convulsões/genética
17.
Hum Genet ; 136(7): 821-834, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393272

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in genes encoding subunits of the spliceosome are the cause of several human diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. The RNA splicing process is facilitated by the spliceosome, a large RNA-protein complex consisting of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), and many other proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). The HNRNPU gene (OMIM *602869) encodes the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, which plays a crucial role in mammalian development. HNRNPU is expressed in the fetal brain and adult heart, kidney, liver, brain, and cerebellum. Microdeletions in the 1q44 region encompassing HNRNPU have been described in patients with intellectual disability (ID) and other clinical features, such as seizures, corpus callosum abnormalities (CCA), and microcephaly. Recently, pathogenic HNRNPU variants were identified in large ID and epileptic encephalopathy cohorts. In this study, we provide detailed clinical information of five novels and review two of the previously published individuals with (likely) pathogenic de novo variants in the HNRNPU gene including three non-sense and two missense variants, one small intragenic deletion, and one duplication. The phenotype in individuals with variants in HNRNPU is characterized by early onset seizures (6/7), severe ID (6/6), severe speech impairment (6/6), hypotonia (6/7), and central nervous system (CNS) (5/6), cardiac (4/6), and renal abnormalities (3/4). In this study, we broaden the clinical and mutational HNRNPU-associated spectrum, and demonstrate that heterozygous HNRNPU variants cause epilepsy, severe ID with striking speech impairment and variable CNS, cardiac, and renal anomalies.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo U/genética , Heterozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Idade de Início , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Rim/anormalidades , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Fenótipo , Processamento de RNA , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/genética
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2017 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28447407

RESUMO

Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS) is a neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by growth retardation, lipodystrophy, a distinctive face, and dental anomalies. Patients reported to date demonstrate a remarkable variability in phenotype, which hampers diagnostics. We performed a literature search, and analyzed 51 reported patients, using the originally reported patients as "gold standard." In 15 patients sufficient information and photographic evidence was available to confirm the clinical diagnosis. In 12 patients the diagnosis was suggestive but lack of data prevented a definite diagnosis, and in 24 patients an alternative diagnosis was likely. Core manifestations of the syndrome are marked pre-natal and severe post-natal growth retardation, an unusual face (triangular shape, sparse hair, small mouth, pointed chin), dental anomalies (natal teeth; hypodontia), generalized lipodystrophy with localized fat masses, and-in some cases-progressive ataxia and tremor. It has been suggested that the syndrome might be caused by biallelic variants in POLR3A, identified by exome sequencing in a single patient only. Therefore, we compared the WRS phenotype with characteristics of conditions known to be caused by autosomal recessively inherited POLR3A mutations. There are major differences but there are also similarities in phenotype, which sustain the suggestion that the syndrome can be caused by disturbed POLR3A functioning.

20.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 142(9): 657-664, 2017 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28454199

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies often have a genetic etiology. New genetic diagnostic strategies based on next generation sequencing (NGS)-approaches will continuously increase our knowledge about the genetic basis of cardiomyopathies within the following years. Diagnostics and therapy of rare, genetically-induced cardiac diseases increasingly require special cardiac and genetic knowledge. Interestingly, mutations in the same gene or even identical gene mutations can be associated with different cardiomyopathy phenotypes and can exhibit incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In the future, the correct interpretation and classification of novel gene variants identified in patients with inherited cardiomyopathy forms will represent a great challenge. Genetic counselling and - if appropriate - subsequent genetic testing for cardiomyopathy patients and their asymptomatic relatives is essential for an early diagnosis of the disease, a prognostic evaluation and possibly for the start of preventive or therapeutic measures.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Testes Genéticos , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo
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